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MMtMMtaMMM^ankBBM^i^aill 



OMNIA AVTEM HONESTE ET SECVN- ' 
DVM ORDINEM FIANT.— i COR. XIV, 40 



^^^■e 



lAE CEREMONIES 
of the ROMAN RITE 

DESCRIBED 

BT ADRIAN FORTESCUE 



IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE 
RUBRICS OF LITURGICAL BOOKS, 
THE DECREES OF THE CONGRE- 
GATION OF SACRED RITES, THE 
CODE OF CANON LAJV, AND 
APPROVED AUTHORS ■ CON- 
TAINING ALL SUCH CERE- 
MONIES AS MAT OCCUR IN A 
PARISH CHURCH, THE RULES FOR 
PONTIFICAL FUNCTIONS AND 
DIRECTIONS FOR THE ADMIN- 
ISTRATION OF SACRAMENTS, 
WITH PLANS AND DIAGRAMS 
Br THE AUTHOR AND WITH A 
PREFACE Br HIS EMINENCE 

CARDINAL BOURNE 

ARCHBISHOP OF WESTMINSTER 



BURNS ^ GATES LTD 
28 ORCHARD STREET 
LONDON • W • MCMXVIIl 



il 



"-. 



'/ 






NIHIL OBSTAT 

F. Thomas Bergh, O.S.B., Censor Depvtatvs. 

IMPRIMATVR 

^ Edm. Canon. Svrmont, Vicarivs Generalis. 

Westmonasterii, die 6 Septembris, 191 7. 



PRINTED IN ENGLAND 
AT THE CHISWICK PRESS 



^ ^ J^J^J^ B. LEE LT^t» A -^ ^r 

iiiiiuHAM VOUNG UK 
PRO.VO, UTAH 



CONTENTS 

Preface by His Eminence the Cardinal Archbishop oj West- 
minster, p. xi. 
Author's Preface, p. xiii. 
Note on the Books quoted, p. xxiii. 
List of Plans, p. xxix. 
Figures used in the Plans. P. xxxi. 

PART I 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONCERNING CEREMONIES 

CHAP. I. THE CHURCH AND ITS FURNITURE. P. I. 

CHAP. II. THE VESTMENTS OF THE ROMAN RITE. P. lO. 

CHAP. III. LITURGICAL VESSELS, INSTRUMENTS AND BOOKS. P. l6. 

1. Vessels, p. i6. 

2. Instruments, p. 17. 

3. Books, p. 18. 

CHAP. IV. COMMON CEREMONIAL ACTIONS. P. 2 1. 

CHAP. V. THE CHOIR AND ASSISTANTS AT CEREMONIES. P. 28. 

1. The Liturgical Choir, p. 28. 

2. Ministers and Servers. P. 30. 

3. Ecclesiastical Rank. p. 32. 

PART II 

THE HOLY SACRIFICE 

CHAP. VI. LOW MASS SAID BY A PRIEST. P. 4I. 

1. Preparation, p. 41. 

2. To the Gospel, p. 45. 

3. From the Gospel to the Preface, p. 48. 

4. The Canon to the Communion p. 52. 

5. Distribution of Holy Communion, p. 60. 

6. From the Ablutions to the end of Mass. p. 61. 

7. Rules when the same Priest celebrates more than once on 

the same Day. p. 65. 

8. Mass before the Blessed Sacrament exposed, p. 66. 

CHAP. VII. LOW MASS FOR THE DEAD, P. 68. 

CHAP. VIII. MASS BY A PRIEST IN PRESENCE OF A PRELATE. P. 69. 

CHAP. IX. LOW MASS SAID BY A BISHOP. P. 72. 

CHAP. X. THE MANNER OF SERVING LOW MASS. P. 76. 

1. General Directions, p. 76. 

2. Preparation, p. 76. 

3. From the Beginning of Mass to the Preface, p. 77. 

4. From the Canon to the end of Mass. p. 79. 

5. At Requiem Mass. p. ^2. 

6. Two Servers at Low Mass. p. ^2. 

CHAP. XI. HIGH MASS. P. 84. 

I. The Choir at High Mass. p. 84. 

V 



vi Contents 

2. Procession to the Altar, Processional Cross, p. 86. 

3. The Asperges Ceremony, p. 87. 

4. The Thurifer at High Mass. p. 90. 

5. The Acolytes, p. 94. 

6. Torchbearers. p. 98. 

7. The Master of Ceremonies, p. 99. 

8. The Subdeacon. p. 105. 

9. The Deacon, p. 113. 

10. The Celebrant of High Mass. p. 120. 

11. Holy Communion during High Mass. p. 130. 

CHAP. XII. HIGH MASS FOR THE DEAD. P. 1 33. 

CHAP. XIII. SUNG MASS (mISSA CANTATA) WITHOUT DEACON AND 
SUBDEACON. P. 1 36. 

1. The Simpler Form. p. 136. 

2. The more Solemn Form. p. 137. 

CHAP. XIV. THE ASSISTANT PRIEST. P. 1 44. 

1. At High Mass. p. 144. 

2. The Assistant Priest in Surplice only. p. 147. 

3. The Assistant Priest at Low Mass. p. 148. 

CHAP. XV. HIGH MASS IN PRESENCE OF A GREATER PRELATE. 
P. 149. 

1. In Presence of a Bishop in Cope and Mitre, p. 149. 

2. When the Bishop assists in Cappa Magna, p. 160. 

3. High Mass for the Dead before a Bishop, p. 161. 

4. High Mass before a Bishop not in his own Diocese, p. 162. 

CHAP. XVI. pontifical HIGH MASS AT THE THRONE. P. 163. 

1. Preparation, p. 163. 

2. The Ministers and Servers, p. 165. 

3. The Vesting of the Bishop, p. i68. 

4. From the beginning of Mass to the Gospel, p. 171. 

5. From the Gospel to the Communion, p. 175. 

6. From after the Communion to the end of Mass. P. 180. 

7. If the Bishop does not vest in the Secretarium. p. 181. 

8. If the Chapter is not present, p. 182. 

CHAP. XVII. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE FALDSTOOL. P. 1 83. 

1. Preparation, p. 183. 

2. Ministers and Servers, p. 184. 

3. The Beginning and Vesting of the Bishop, p. 184. 

4. The Mass. p. i86. 

CHAP. XVIII. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS FOR THE DEAD. P. 1 93. 

1. Preparation, p. 193. 

2. Mass at the Throne, p. 194. 

3. Mass at a Faldstool, p. 195. 

PART III 
EVENING SERVICES 

CHAP. XIX. VESPERS. P. I99. 

I. General Directions, p. 199. 



Contents vu 

2. Rules for the Choir, p. 200. 

3. Vespers with Assistants, p. 201. 

4. On incensing Side Altars at Vespers, p. 206. 

5. Vespers with more than two Assistants in Copes, p. 207. 

6. Vespers without Ceremonies, p. 209. 

7. Before the Blessed Sacrament exposed, p. 209. 

8. Vespers for the Dead. p. 210. 

9. Vespers in small Churches, p. 211. 

CHAP. XX. PONTIFICAL VESPERS. P. 214. 

1. Vespers in presence of a Bishop at the Throne, p. 214. 

2. Vespers in presence of a Bishop who is not the Ordinary. 

p. 216. 

3. Vespers by the Ordinary who will sing Mass the next day. 

p. 216. 

4. When the Bishop will not sing Mass the next day. p. 225. 

5. Pontifical Vespers at the Faldstool, p. 225. 

CHAP. XXI. OTHER EVENING SERVICES. P. 234. 

1. Compline, p. 234. 

2. Matins and Lauds, p. 236. 

3. Non-Liturgical Services, p. 238. 

4. Sermons, p. 238. 

CHAP. XXII. BENEDICTION AND EXPOSITION OF THE BLESSED 
SACRAMENT. P. 24O. 

1. General Rules, p. 240. 

2. The Rite of Benediction, p. 242. 

3. Benediction by a Bishop, p. 246. 

4. Benediction with the Ciborium. p. 246. 

5. Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, p. 247. 

6. To remove the Blessed Sacrament, p. 249. 

PART IV 

THE LITURGICAL YEAR 

CHAP. XXIII. ADVENT TO HOLY WEEK. P. 253. 

1. Advent, p. 253. 

2. The folded Chasubles, p. 253. 

3. Christmas and Epiphany, p. 255. 

4. Candlemas, p. 257. 

5. Functions in small Churches, p. 261. 

6. Candlemas in small Churches, p. 264. 

7. Septuagesima and Lent. p. 267. 

8. Ash Wednesday, p. 268. 

9. Ash Wednesday in small Churches, p. 271. 

CHAP. XXIV. THE FIRST PART OF HOLY WEEK. P. 272. 

1. Palm Sunday, p. 272. 

2. Palm Sunday in small Churches, p. 280. 

3. The Function with Choir, p. 283. 

4. Low Mass on Palm Sunday, p. 283. 

5. Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday in Holy Week. p. 284. 



viii Contents 

CHAP. XXV. TRIDVVM SACRVM. P. 285. 

I. General Rules, p. 285. 
2 Tenebrae. p. 285. 

3. Tenebrae in small Churches, p. 288. 

4. Maundy Thursday morning*, p. 288. 

5. Maundy Thursday in small Churches, p. 298. 

6. Sung Mass. p. 300. 

7. Good Friday morning, p. 301. 

8. Good Friday in small Churches, p. 312. 

9. The Function with Choir, p. 318. 

10. Holy Saturday morning*, p. 318. 

II. Holy Saturday in small Churches, p. 335. 
12. The Function sung*, p. 343. 

CHAP. XXVI. EASTER TO ADVENT. P. 344. 

1. Easter-tide. p. 344. 

2. The Easter Octave, p. 345. 

3. St. Mark and the Rogation Days. p. 346. 

4. Ascension Day. p. 350. 

5. Whitsun Eve. p. 350. 

6. Whitsun Eve in small Churches, p. 352. 

7. Low Mass on Whitsun Eve. p. 352. 

8. Whitsunday, p. 352. 

9. The Season after Pentecost, p. 353. 

10. Corpus Christi. p. 353. 

11. Preparation, p. 356. 

12. The Ceremony, p. 356. 

13. All Souls, p. 358. 

PART V 

OCCASIONAL FUNCTIONS 

CHAP. XXVII. THE FORTY HOURS. P. 361. 

1. General Directions, p. 361. 

2. The first Day. p. 365. 

3. The second Day. p. 368. 

4. The third Day. p. 369. 

5. Modifications of rules of the Clementine Instruction. 

p. 370. 

CHAP. XXVIII. CANONICAL VISITATION AND CONFIRMATION. P. 372. 

1. General Principles, p. 372. 

2. Before the Visitation, p. 374. 

3. Visitation by the Ordinary, p. 374. 

4. Visitation by an Archbishop, p. 384. 

5. Visitation by an Auxiliary Bishop, p. 385. 

6. Visitation of other Buildings and Institutions, p. 385. 

7. Visitation of Convents, p. 385. 

8. Visitation of the Churches of exempt Reg"ulars. p. 386. 

9. The first Visitation of the Ordinary, p. 387. 

10. The Sacrament of Confirmation, p. 388. 



Contents ix 

CHAP. XXIX. THE CEREMONIES OF THE RITUAL. P. 392. 

1. The English Ritual, p. 392. 

2. Baptism, p. 393. 

3. Baptism of several children togfether. p. 396. 

4. Baptism of adults, p. 396. 

5. Private Baptism, p. 396. 

6. Supplying- the ceremonies of Baptism, p. 397. 

7. Conditional Baptism, p. 397. 

8. Blessing the Font. p. 398. 

9. The Sacrament of Penance, p. 399. 

10. Reception of Converts, p. 400. 

11. Holy Communion, p. 404. 

12. Matrimony, p. 405. 

13. Churching, p. 409. 

14. Blessings, p. 409. 

15. Sick Calls, p. 410. 

16. Extreme Unction, p. 413. 

CHAP. XXX. FUNERALS. P. 416. 

1. The complete Rite. p. 416. 

2. Modifications of the Funeral Rite. p. 423. 

3. Private Funerals, p. 424. 

4. Office for the Dead when the body is not present, p. 424. 

5. Pontifical Absolution at the Throne, p. 425. 

6. Pontifical Absolution at the Faldstool, p. 429. 

7. The Five Absolutions, p. 429. 

8. The Funeral of infants, p. 433. 

INDEX, p. 437. 



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PREFACE BY HIS EMINENCE THE 

CARDINAL ARCHBISHOP OF 

WESTMINSTER 

THE Catholic Church has surrounded all the 
acts of Divine Worship with a definite cere- 
monial to ensure on the one hand their due 
accomplishment, and on the other to safeguard 
the external reverence that should accompany them. 
She never employs ceremonial for the sake of the cere- 
mony itself. Each separate rite has grown out of the 
twofold object that we have enunciated, even though in 
the process of time the origin, and the history of the 
development, of such rite may long have been forgotten. 
The Church is the guardian of all these sacred rites. 
To her it belongs to sanction a further development of 
them, to curtail such as may have become purposeless, 
or to impose new^ conditions heretofore uncalled for. 
Thus there has grown up a great body of legislation, 
controlled and regulated by two of the Roman Congrega- 
tions, those of the Rites and of Ceremonial. Numberless 
commentators have written on the history of the cere- 
monies, while many others have treated them from the 
purely practical point of view. 

A " Ceremonial " in the latter sense calls for frequent 
revision if it is to be thoroughly in accord with the most 
recent legislation of the Holy See. Thus even the pages 
of the present work, as they issue from the press, call for 
modification in accordance with the new '' Codex luris 
Canonici." 

For a long time past the Clergy in England have been 
without a Manual of Ceremonies, in their own tongue, 
possessing any claim to accuracy or completeness. They 
have been obliged to fall back upon excellent Latin or 
French treatises which often do not take account of local 
circumstances, and are in many cases almost useless to 
the devoted laymen upon whose zealous help the proper 
carrying out of our liturgical functions so greatly de- 
pends. 

This pressing want has now been fully supplied by 
the learned compiler of this manual of " The Ceremonies 
of the Roman Rite," and by the publishers who present 
his work in such satisfactory form. We are assured 
by those who have carefully read this Ceremonial that it 
has been very accurately compiled, and that it will most 

xi 



xii Ipretace 

efficiently fulfil its purpose. With great confidence, 
therefore, we commend it to the study and use of all, 
both Clergy and Laity, who need such a guide in our 
English speech. 



FRANCIS CARDINAL BOURNE 

Archbishop of Westminster 



Feast of Our Blessed Lady 

de Mercede 

September 2 ^thy 1917. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

THE origin of this book was an attempt to prepare 
a new edition of Dale's well-known translation of 
Baldeschi. ^ The publishers having suggested that an 
edition of that book, revised and brought up to date, 
be desirable, I began the work. When I had already done a con- 
siderable part of it, I realized that there was so 7nuch to change 
in it that, on the whole, it would be simpler to write an en- 
tirely new book. Unwillingly one speaks ill of a work which 
has for so many yeai's been the chief guide to Catholic ceremonies 
in England. The old Dale- Baldeschi has certainly filled a 
very large part, and not altogether a bad part, in the educa- 
tion of our clergy. Yet, when it is examined in the light of 
what are now the standard authors, it is seen to contain so 
^nany faults that one is surprised that it so long held its place. 
To justify the abandonment of all connection with Dale, which 
became iny final determination, I m,ust mention the chief of 
these faults. 

In the first place, the original Italian Baldeschi is by no 
means the ideal book for us in Englajid. The edition translated 
by Dale was published in 1839.^ In spite of some not very 
thorough attempts to bring it up to date, the book still bears 
the stamp of that time. Now a great deal of water has fiowed 
under the bridge of San f Angelo, and there have been many 
decisions of the Congregation of Rites, since 1839. Moreover 
Baldeschi, then Master of cerefnonies of St. Peter s, considers 
nothing but the needs of his own city. His book is redolent, 
not only of Rome, but of Rome in the palmy days of the Papal 
State. For instance, he never supposes that the bishop at a 
pontifical function is the Ordinary. His bishop is always 07ie 
having no jurisdiction, celebrating at a faldstool — naturally ; 
at Rome there are many bishops, pontifical functions are com- 
mon; but the only Ordinary is the Pope, nor does anyone else 
use a throne, except Cardinals in their titular churches.^ But 
in England, in the vast majority of cases, the bishop who 
celebrates or assists at a function will be the Ordinary. 
Again, Baldeschi considers all the local Roman customs 
always. His High Mass begins normally without /^^ Asperges 

^ Ceremonial according to the Roman Rite, translated from the 
Italian of Joseph Baldeschi, by the Rev. J. D. Hilarius Dale, eleventh 
edition {the last), Burns and Gates, 1913. 

'•* G. Baldeschi, Ceremoniario delta s. Basilica Vaticana: Esposizione 
delle sacre Ceremonie, Rofne, 3 vols., small Zvo, 1839. 

^ Dale did eventually supply the ceremonies of some pontifical func- 
tions at the throne. 

xiii 



xiv Hutbor's preface 

ceremony, which he puts apart at the end of his book as a 
special rite. The Asperges fnodifies the manner of entering 
the sanctuary at the beginning of High Mass. In an English 
churchy not a cathedral, it will very rarely happen that High 
Mass begins without the Asperges. His rite of Benediction 
is the local Roman one, different in several points from ours. 
This too he puts at the end, as a function for special occa- 
sions. In England it is the invariable evening service, after 
Mass the best known of all to our people. Baldeschi describes 
only the Roman way of celebrating a sung Mass without 
deacon and subdeacon, a bare little service which rarely occurs 
there. In Rome the deacon and stibdeacon, procured with no 
trouble at all, are the first requisite for any solemn office. In 
the great majority of English churches these ministers can 
hardly ever be procured, even in a large church with a com- 
petent choir and many servers. So the form d7/"Missa Can- 
tata, rare in Rome, is the usual one here for Sunday Mass. 
Naturally, Baldeschi kotows nothing of our special English 
rites and customs, of the rules of our English Ritual, of the 
Ritus Servandus for Benediction and so on, which in this 
country have the force of law. For our circufnstances espe- 
cially the order of Ids book is most inconvenient. 

All these defects remain, and there ai^e further ones, in 
Dale^s translation. For one thing, Dale has not translated the 
whole book. The original Baldeschi consists of three parts. 
The first of these, the basis of the whole, is about Low Mass. 
Dale has left all that out, and has translated only the second 
and third parts. Yet no ceremonies are of such importance 
to a priest as those for saying Low Mass. A book of cere- 
monies ought certainly to begin with an accurate description 
of these. There are definite errors in Baldeschi, which Dale 
has left. For instance, for some reaso7t he makes the assistant 
priest hold the little hand-candle {scotula) all through ponti- 
fical High Mass at the faldstool. This is a fnistake. No other 
author, no liturgical authority says this ; nor is it done at 
Rome or anywhere. To these Dale has added errors of his 
own. On page 214 of the last edition Dale makes the sub- 
deacon at the Palm, Sunday procession strike the door of tlie 
church " with his foot." / wondered where he got this extra- 
ordinary idea, till I looked at Baldeschi. There the text is: 
" col suo piede," meaning, of course, with the foot of the cross. 
I wonder how many English subdeacons have kicked the door 
of the church on Palm Sunday because of this blunder. 
During eleven editions of the book no 07ie has corrected it. 
A nother argument against Dale's translation is the amazing 



Hutbors preface xv 

language he uses. It is said that the test of a good translation 
is that it should read like an original work. According to 
this ideal Dale comes off very badly indeed. He Jias such a 
mania for using Italian words and Italian forms that a 
great part of his book is not really English at all, can hardly 
be understood till one has translated it back into Italian. 
Not only does he use an Italian name on every possible 
occasion ; ^ when the words are English he translates with 
rutJdess exactness all the gorgeous phrases of Italia?i grand 
styled 

So, with these reasons for rearranging the order of the 
book, for adding large portions which it did not contain, for 
writing again in English Dale's magnificent Italian phrases, 
for leaving out much that could never be wanted i7i this 
country , finally the reasonable plan seemed to be to give up 
any further attcfnpt to correct Dale-Baldeschi, and frankly to 
m,ake a new book. 

When that decision had been reached, it is astonishing how 
little of Dale re^nained, eve7i as a source to consult. All 
through there are now later and better authorities, notably 
Martinucci, in the new edition by Menghini, and Le Vavas- 
seur. So, very little of the book from which I set out will be 
found here. 

Once it was settled to write a new book, the whole question 
of 07'der^ especially the question how much to include, arose. 

^ Predella, zucchetto, bugia, cotta, etc.j then gemifiexorium, demi- 
dation {he means stripping) of the altar. His rage for Italian goes to 
such a length that he spells " berretta " each time. 

- For instance in Dale you do not bow to the celebrant, you " proceed 
to make the customary salutation "y you do not stand, you ''retain a 
standing posture." Everyone " observes " to do every thirig: you obsen'e 
not to kneel, you observe to retain a kneeling posture. The M. C. does 
not tell a ?nan to do a thing, he apprizes him that it should be perfo7'med. 
The celebrant " terminates " the creed; he genuflects in conjunction with 
the sacred Ministers — then he observes to asstime a standing posture in 
conjunction with them. The M. C. goes about apprizing people and com- 
porting himself till he observes to perform the customary salutation. 
The subdeacon imparts the Pax in the same manner as it was com- 
municated to hi7n. Everyone exhibits a grave deport7nent. Imagine 
anyone talking like this. Imagine anyone saying that you ought to 
exhibit a deportme7it. Of course we have " ascend " every time, the 
blessing is always "benediction," har7nful beco7nes''^ dtXtttnous," and 
so on. Frankly, I do not think I have ever read a book written in so 
atrocious a style. The only thing i7i its favour is that it is extremely 
funny. However, si7ice the book is meant to be serious, it is a pity that 
someone did not apprize Dale to proceed to observe the customary use 
of language, i?i conjunction with people who write English. 



xvi Butbot's preface 

It is impossible for any book of ceremonies to be complete^ in 
the sense of containing all those of the Roman rite. Even the 
new edition of Martinucci^ in its four huge volumes^ is not 
complete. A complete work would include all pontifical 
functions^ the ordination of bishops, priests and deacons^ the 
consecration of churches. Indeed^ Papal functions are part of 
the Roman rite. They too would have to be included, the 
coronation of a Pope, papal High Mass, the Pope's cere- 
monies for Holy Week. A complete work would be not a book 
but a library. 

Renouncing, then, any attempt to include everything, this 
book aims at providing what a priest in England may want. 
That is its ideal — a church in England served by secular 
priests. In cathedral churches the Master of ceremonies will 
certainly have a copy of Martinucci, or of other larger Latin 
works. Religious Orders which have their own rites have 
their own rituals. 

This idea, of providing what is needed in a church served 
by priests, neither contains nor excludes all pontifical func- 
tions. On the one hand, many of these will practically never 
occur, except at cathedrals. Those, for instance the pontifical 
functions for Holy Week, I have left out. Yet there are 
pontifical functions which may easily occur in other churches 
of the diocese. Canonical visitation and confirmation occur 
regularly. It may easily happen that a bishop will sing or 
assist at Mass or vespers at such a church. The rides for 
these therefore are given here. But I have not gone into the 
ahnost endless complications which occur when one bishop 
celebrates before another, when the Ordinary ofjiciates in the 
prese7ice of a papal legate or a cardinal, nor the rules for a 
diocesan synod. The ceremonies for abbots too belong rather 
to the special rituals of Regulars. 

On the other hand, a great num^ber of things are added 
here which were not in Baldeschi, some of which have hardly 
yet been treated in any book of this kind. A detailed account 
of the ma7iner of saying Low Mass and of serving Low Mass 
naturally forms the first basis of all. Considering always 
our English circumstances, I have put the Asperges before 
High Mass. Benediction according to the rules of the English 
Ritus Servandus is an important element in a?i English 
book of ceremonies. The m,anner of celebrating vespers and 
the services of Holy Week in churches where there are neither 
deacon nor subdeacon, and the Missa Cantata are described 
carefully. A new feature is the rules for administering sacra- 



Hutbor'5 B^refacc xvii 

ments and sacramental s according to the English Ordo Ad- 
ministrandi. These are of the greatest iynportance. It is a 
fnistake to judge the importance of a rite by its elaboration. 
The manner of hearing confessions is less complicated, but 
considerably more important, than pontifical vespers at the 
throne. In these shorter rites too the priest must do every- 
thing accurately, according to the rubrics, just as much as in 
the longer ones. It is true that in most cases the rubrics of 
the Ritual themselves supply an almost sufficient guide. Yet 
I have found a considerable num^ber of points as to which 
further notes will be useful. 

The figures throughout the book, showing the position of 
the various persons who assist, will, I hope, save trouble in 
realizing moments of ceremonies. 

With regard to the language and style something may be 
said here. Certainly no one will look to a book of ceremonies 
for fine style. Most of the directions given in this book, with 
elaborate detail, can be hardly more agreeable to read than a 
railway guide. Yet it ought to be possible to write even a 
book of ceremonies in tolerable language. Above all, a book 
should be written, as far as possible, in one language at a 
time. In this case the language is English. It is not always 
possible to use an English word; then another principle occurs. 
Namely, the language of our rite is not Italian but Latin. 
When one must use a foreign 7iame for afiy thing, obviously 
Latin is the language to choose. There is no m,ore reason to 
interlard the text with Italian than with French. Whenever 
it seemed possible, I have preferred an English word. Some 
of these may perhaps at first seem strange to many Catholics ; 
yet they are the good words used by our Catholic forebears. 
There seems no reason why we should not use them, too. Of 
course, I have always used the words frontal, surplice, 
hearse, and so on. These have, in no sense at all, died out 
among us. I put hand-candle_/<?r the little candle held near the 
bishop {the scotula) instead of its Latin nam,e. Bugia is no 
more justified than Bougeoir. Seaty^r the celebrant and his 
ministers occurs, unless there is any doubt as to which seat is 
meant; then one must fall back on sedile. Foot-pace is the 
old Ejiglish name for the platform before the altar, called in 
Latin suppedaneum. The Latin word 7nay pass for this ; 
not predella in Italian. 

Some Latin words seem inevitable. Capsula, sacrarium, 
secretarium, ciborium can hardly be avoided. It is not 
strange that in the Roman rite some objects should have a 

b 



xviii Hutbor's pretace 

technical name in the Roman language. In two cases it may 
seem that the text of the book does not conform to the principle 
of using one language throughout. These ai^e the words Sanct- 
issimum and solita oscula. For the first I would point out 
that Sanctissimum has a great tradition behind it as a name 
for the Blessed Sacrament in fnany European languages. I 
have used Blessed Sacrament, of course^ also ; but, when one 
has constantly to speak of it and to repeat the word in little 
details of ceremony, it is a great convenience to use one word 
instead of two. Solita oscula is a case of what Gibbon calls 
the decent obscurity of a dead language. The tiling itself is not 
so straftge, as every deacon knows; but the constant repetition 
of the words kissing and kisses is not pretty. 

I speak of the celebrant, not only at Mass, but at all 
services. There is not really any necessary idea of sacrifice in 
this word. We celebrate a feast or an event. Also in this 
general sense it has the authority of the Caerimoniale episco- 
porum,^ than which none can be greater. The deacon and 
subdeacon together are the ministers. They are sacred min- 
isters ^ of course ; but again in constant repetition one word is 
more convenient than two. 

Probably the first impression which these descriptions of 
cerem-onies would produce on a stranger is that of enormous 
complication. Really this is much less than it seefjts. In 
general, actions are far less conspicuous when done than when 
described in words. Most Catholics hardly notice these things 
when they go to church. The ministers and servers who do 
them constantly become so used to them by long habit, that 
they too do them almost without thought. If one had to write 
out in detail all the ceremonies of getting up in the fnorning 
or of eating one's dinner, these would seem exceedingly 
elaborate rites. Moreover, whereas the actions of each person 
must be described separately, each really does his part at the 
same time; so, again, it is all 7nuch simpler to do than to 
describe. It is worth noticing that, the more exact details of 
direction are, the less complicated their performance becojnes. 
When each person knows exactly what to do, when they all 
agree and do their parts confidently and silently, the effect of 
the ceremony is immeasurably "tnore tranquil than when there 
is doubt, confusion or discussion. In 7nany cases we may say 
that it does not so m,uch matter, in itself, in which way a 



^ For instance^ Caer. Ep., Lib. /, cap. iii^ § 2, etc. 



Hutbot's preface xix 

certain action is performed; but it does matter that all con- 
cerned should agree to do it in the same zuay. If 07ily for the 
sake of this agreement, it beco7nes necessary to describe in de- 
tail some way of doing it. That being so, ive may as well 
describe the right way, according to the rubrics and recognized 
authors. 

The elaboi^ateness, then, of our ceremonies is much less 
really than it may seem to be from their written description. 
Yet it may perhaps be admitted that so7ne measure of sim- 
plification is desirable. Now that liturgical reform is so fnuch 
in the air, we may hope for reform in this directio7i too. The 
chief note of the Roman rite has always been its austere sim- 
plicity. That is still its essential note, co^npared with tlie 
florid Eastern rites. It is surely worth while to preserve this 
note externally also, to repress any Byzaiitine tendejicies in 
our ceremonies. 

Two points occur which one might hope the authorities 
would simplify. One is the constant kissing. Certainly this 
is a very ancient sign of reverence ; in some few cases, as, for 
instance, to kiss the hand of a bishop, no one would wish to 
see it abolished. But would not the actions gain in digyiity if 
the endless kissing of objects and of the celebrant's hand by 
the deacon ceased? At such a simple action, so constantly re- 
peated, as the deacon p erf or 7ns ince7ising, are eight " solita 
oscula." He has to kiss the spoon, the hand, the hand, the spoon; 
the thurible, the ha7id, the ha7id, the thurible. If only fro77i the 
point of view of artistic effect these repeated inclinations of 
the head are 7iot graceful. If all kissing were reduced to the 
chief cases of the pate7i and chalice and, at certain Diore i77i- 
portant i7i077ients, of the hand of a bishop, the general effect of 
a cere77iony would be cabner, and the osculu7n would beco7}ie a 
more real sign of respect. 

In the sa7)ie way, have we not rather too 7nuch genuflection? 
It is true that genuflection to the altar and to the Ordi7iary 
has an older tradition behi7id it than the genuflection to the 
Blessed Sacra77ient} This is the explanation of what 7nust 
see7n so strange at first, that we give exactly the same sign of 
reverence to a 7nan or a sy7nbol as to Our Lord in the Holy 
Eucharist. As a matter of fact ge7iuflectio7is to persons and 
symbols are survivals, 7iow accidentally identified with later 
reverence paid to tJie Sanctissi7nu77i. However, since the genu- 



^ People genuflected to an altar for centuries before there was a 
tabernacle on it. 



XX Hutbor's iptetace 

flection to us now has become the recognized sign of adoration 
of Our Lord really present, it does seem strange to see every- 
one, except the celebrant, make exactly the same sign when the 
Blessed Sacra^nent is not on the altar. And to a bishop — 
would not a low bow be more ifi accordance with the natural 
sentiment of modern people? Of course, we know that to 
kneel before kings and emperors was long the common custom. 

That being so, we maintain that we ought to pay at least the 
same reverence to the bishop who reigns in the place of Christ. 

Yet now, in the world, such signs are dying 02it. To modern 
people they begin to seem a little Byzantine. 

The same principle seems to apply to lamps before altars. 
Here too we have what is really quite an ancient symbol, by 
no means originally a sign of the Holy Euchai'ist. Du7H7ig 
the early centuries there were crowds of lamps before altars 
and no tabernacle. Yet, now to us, the sanctuary lamp has 
become the chief sign of the Real Presence. Unless we find 
some other sign for that, is it not a pity to use the same 
symbol whether the Blessed Sacrament be there or not? 

But the object of this book is not to criticize 7ior to discuss 
the reason of our ceremonies ; it is to tell how they should be 
performed according to the present rules} 0?ily Jiere and there 
have I tried to give some point to a long list of details by ex- 
plaining the meaning of them in a note. 

The authorities for such a book as this ai'e, first, the rubrics 
of the liturgical books, the decisions of the sacred Congi'egation 
of Rites and approved authors , ofwho7n below, pp. xxiii-xxviii. 

Even so, some matters of detail remain open. They are 
neither many nor important. No rite in Christendom is so 
tmiform as that of Rome. Yet, in spite of the enor7nous list of 
decisions of the Co7tgregation, there a7^e points still U7idecided ; 
nor do the approved autho7^s, by any mea7is, always agree 
a7nong the77iselves. 

In cases of doubt the next standard is custom, 7'ecognized 
and approved by the bishop of the diocese. This 77ieans, for 
tis here, custom in our E7iglish dioceses. It is a mistake, f-om- 
the point of view of Canon Law, to take the local custo7ns of 
the city of Ro7ne as our standa7'd. The autho7'ity to us is the 

^ Needless to say, I have given the rules for all these things exactly 
as they stand jiow. One may express one's hope for cha?tges; till the 
authority of the Church sees fit to make such cha?iges we ?nust obey the 
rules exactly. 



Hutbor'5 preface xxi 

decisions of the tribunals^ and of the S.R.C., which have dele- 
gate authority from the Pope. We may indeed e7ivy those 
citizens whose Ordinary is the Pope himself; but they do not 
from that fact acquire any m,ore authority over their fellow- 
Catholics in England than have Catholics of any other city. 
Custom^ which in Canon Law plays so important a part^ 
means always the custom of the place in question. The im- 
mediate authority for an English priest is his own bishop. 
We need not fear ^ in following our own bishop, that we shall 
ever be in opposition to the wishes of the central authority 
Soy in many details , notably in matters affecting non-liturgical 
services in the rules of the Ritual, our standard is not Roman 
custom but that of our own dioceses. God forbid that any of 
us should encourage nonsense about a national Church. There 
are, in the Catholic unity, no 7tational Churches. There never 
have been. But the diocese, the ecclesiastical province, are real 
tmities inside the great unity. This book then will, it is 
hoped, give no encouragei7ient to that excessive and uncanonical 
Romanizing, which, instead of going to legitimate sources of 
Canon Law, follows the easier path of ignorant copying of 
everything done in that city. When, as happens not unfrequently , 
the local Roman custom, differs from the rubrics of liturgical 
books or the rules of lawful liturgical authority, far from 
abandoning the rules ourselves, we should rather regret that 
they are not always obeyed exactly in Rome. 

Among the friends who have helped, very materially, in the 
preparation of this book there are two to whom I owe very 
special thanks indeed. One, who wishes not to be named, 
read through the whole book with untiring patience and 
made a great number of suggestions, corrections and improve- 
ments. Then the Reverend HERBERT F. Hall, Master of 
Ceremonies at the West^ninster Cathedral, was so kind as to 
make yet another revision of the whole book. He too was able 
to supply a great number of corrections of detail from his prac- 
tical knowledge. I cannot make Father Hall responsible for 
any mistakes that may yet remain; however, the great care 
and accuracy with which cere^nonies are carried out at the 
Cathedral under his direction encourages me to hope that no 
very serious error will be found after his revision. A nd / am 
most grateful for his kindness and pains. I have also to thank 
the Very Reverend Mgr. HENRY BARTON Brown, Rector 
of the Catholic church at Roys ton, who has given me valuable 
information about the rights of Prelates of the Roman Curia 
and lent me his collection of Decrees of the S.R.C for an un- 
limited time. My LORD d?/" Cambysopolis, Auxiliary of 



xxii Hutbor'0 preface 

Westminster, has been most kind in supplying infoj-mation 
and lending me books. 

Most of all do I owe thanks to my LORD CARDINAL OF 
Westminster /^r the great honour he does to 7ne, and to the 
book, by writing a preface to it. For the 7'est, the book will be 
fortunate if it is of use to the Catholic clergy in England, 
very fortunate if it succeeds in taking something like the 
same place as the Dale-Baldeschi it succeeds. 

Adrian Fortescue. 

Letchworth, All Hallow, 19 17. 



Since this book was written, indeed after it had been set 
up in type, and part of it had even been printed, the new code 
of Canon law has appeared {Codex iuris canonici Pii X p07iti- 
ficis maximi iussu digestus, Benedicti Papae XV auctoritate 
prmmdgatus ; Rome, Vatican Press, 28 June, 1917). The pub- 
lishers resolved to have all the changes incorporated in the 
very text of this book instead of beings noted in an appendix. 
This involved great editorial and typographical labour, and 
the cancelling and replacing of certain printed portions. But it 
clearly adds much to the authority and the efficiency of this 
edition. The whole book is now revised in accordance with 
all the laws of this code that affect our ceremonies ; references 
to the code have been added throughout. There are many 
points of this kind, especially in the administration of sacra- 
ments. The code is undoubtedly the simplest and most con- 
venient summary of Canon law yet issued. Among other 
advantages, it is divided into Canons, numbered straight 
through, from i to 2414. This allows great simplicity in 
quoting it. It is quoted here as Cod., with the number oi the 
Canon. At the beginning of the code are six canons forming 
the *'normae generales." The second of these is: ''For the 
most part the code makes no rule concerning the rites and 
ceremonies which books approved by the Latin Church order 
for the celebration of the holy sacrifice of the Mass, for the 
administration of sacraments and sacramentals, and for other 
sacred functions. Wherefore all liturgical laws keep their 
force, unless they are expressly corrected in the code." Canon 
253 confirms the authority of the Congregation of Sacred 
Rites. 



NOTE ON THE BOOKS QUOTED 

OBVIOUSLY the first source of all for a book 
on Ceremonies is the liturgical books themselves, 
the rubrics of the Missal^ Breviary^ Pontifical^ 
Rittial and Caerimoniale Episcoporurny^ then the 
Memoriale Rituum of Benedict XIII," the Instrtwtio 
Clementina^ for the Forty Hours, our own Ritns Servandus 
for Benediction and Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. 

Of no less authority are the decisions of the Sacred Con- 
gregation of Rites. These are now collected in six volumes : 

Decreta aiithentica Congregationis Sacroru7n Ritiitini sub 
auspiciis S. D. N. Leonis Papae XIII ^ Rome, Propaganda 
Press, large quarto, 1898-1901. The first three volumes 
contain answers of the Congregation, numbered now from 
I to 4051, dated from May 1588 to 15 December 1899. The 
older numbers are added in brackets to each. Vol. IV con- 
tains the Instructio Clementina, with Gardellini's commentary 
and further Suffragia and Adnotationes to decrees. Vol. V 
contains an excellent index. Vol. VI (191 2) continues the 
decrees to 191 1 (nos. 4052-4284) with an index. 

Later decrees of the S.R.C. must be sought in the Acta 
Apostolicae Sedis^ now published at the Vatican Press. This 
collection, containing all the contemporary documents, deci- 
sions and pronouncements of the Holy See, began in 1909. 
Each year forms one volume. It succeeds a long series of 
Bullaria, collections of Acta of the same kind and official 
periodic publications, being far better arranged than any that 
went before it. 

The four provincial synods of Westminster (1852, 1855, 
1859, 1873) ^ include decrees on liturgical matters which have 
force of law in the English provinces.^ 

Yet all the official documents still leave many questions of 
detail open. The rubrics of the liturgical books are always 
very summary, even those of the Caerimoniale Episcoponim, 
leave much detail undecided; the decisions of the S.R.C. are 
answers to such questions only as happen to have been sent. 
So the next source consists of the *' probati auctores." 

For the purposes of a practical book of ceremonies it is not 
necessary to ^o far back for authorities. The early Roman 
Ordinesy accounts of rites in the middle ages, and so on, 

^ For these see pp. 18-19; for the English Ritual, pp. 392-393. 

^ See p. 261. ^ Pp. 361-362. 

* I quote from the second edition : Decreta quatuor conciliorum pro- 
'vincialixirn Westvtonasteriensiuniy 1852-1873, 2nd ed., Burns and Oates, 
no year of publication. 

^ All rules, rubrics and decisions about rites or ceremonies are merely 
special cases of Canon Law. It is Canon Law which commands us to 
add Alleluia to versicles in Eastertide and to wear a black chasuble at 
Mass for the dead, just as much as it is Canon Law which forbids a 
bishop to take money for presentation to a benefice. 

xxiii 



xxiv iFlote on tbe :fiSoofts quoted 

though of the greatest importance to the student of historic 
liturgy, are of Httle use if you want to know how things should 
be done now. All that remains from that time is given again 
in modern books. Indeed, supposing that the book is a good 
one, the latest is always the best for practical purposes. It 
will contain all that is in the earlier ones, and will be up to 
date with the latest decrees. The practical liturgist need not 
go further back than the XVIIIth century. There w^e come to 
works that still have authority for practical matters. In 1628 
Bartholomew Gavanti published a large treatise on the rubrics 
of the Missal and Breviary. This was re-edited, with copious 
additions, by Cajetan Merati. The edition I have used is : 

Thesaurus sacrorum rittmm azictore rev. Patre D. Bar- 
tholomaeo Gavanto cum novis observationibus et additionihus 
R, P. D. Caietani Marine Merati^ 2 vols., folio, Venice, 1762. 
It is a storehouse of notes on the rubrics. Merati adds at the 
end the rites of diocesan synods and canonical visitation. 
Like many books of that date it suffers from too much sub- 
division-. It has parts, titles, paragraphs and further divisions 
by letters of the alphabet. Also it is extremely difficult to see 
where Gavanti speaks and where Merati. Merati has some 
system of renumbering his additions, right athwart the num- 
bering of Gavanti's paragraphs, which is most confusing.^ So 
I quote generally the page, in this edition (1762). The im- 
portance of this work is due to the fact that it is still a recog- 
nized authority to the Congregation of Rites itself. Constantly 
they model their answers on Gavanti-Merati. The same may 
be said of Bauldry, Manuale sacrarum caerimoniarum, one 
vol., quarto, Venice, 1778. 

What Gavanti-Merati and Bauldry did for the Missal and 
Breviary Joseph Catalani has done for the Pontifical, Ritual 
and Ceremonial: 

Rituale Romanutn Benedicti Papae XIV perpetuis comment' 
ariis exornatum^ auctore losepho Catalano, 2 vols., folio, Rome, 

1757- 
Pontificate Romanum prolegomenis et C07nnientariis ittus- 

tratum^ auctore losepho Catalano, 3 vols., folio, Rome, 1738- 

1740- 

Caerimoniale Episcoporitni . . . coni7nentariis ittustratum, 
cura et studio losephi Catalani, 2 vols., folio, Rome, 1744, 
with illustrations showing how fine were the Roman vest- 
ments as late as the middle of the XVIIIth century. The 
bishops and clergy all wear beards. 

There are, of course, other works of that date which may 
be consulted with profit; but of the older authors Gavanti- 
Merati, Bauldry and Catalani should be sufficient. 

' After using the book almost every day for a year I have to confess 
that I still do not understand the arrangement of its paragraphs. 



IRote on tbe 'Boo^s quoteb xxv 

Among' the quite modern writers perhaps Martinucci holds 
the chief place. His book has just been re-edited by Mgr. Giam- 
battista Menghini (who has himself written valuable books 
on ceremonies): Martinucci Pius, Apostolicis Caerimoniis 
Praefectus,^ Manuale Sacrarum Caerimoniariun in lihros octo 
digestum\ edito tertia quam I. B. M. Menghini, Apostolic- 
arum Caerimoniarum Magister, emendavit et auxit, four vols., 
large ^mo^ Regensburg and Rome, Fr. Pustet, 1911-1916. 
Almost everything is here. The first two volumes contain the 
ceremonies for priests, the second two those of Pontifical func- 
tions. Martinucci and his editor are almost excessively com- 
plete, even at the cost of enormous repetition. For each service 
they ^o over the whole ground again; even for so small a 
difference as the assistance of a bishop at High Mass in cope 
and mitre or in cappa, we have the whole ceremony over 
again, from the list of things to prepare to the departure of 
the bishop. Undoubtedly this is a most valuable book for 
consultation. At the same time, it is one of the most difficult 
books to use that I have seen. Never was a book published 
with less concession to the convenience of the reader. In the 
first place, it has four volumes. Why are they not numbered 
1, H, HI, IV? Instead, they are numbered: Pars prima. 
Vol. I; Pars prima, Vol. II; Pars secunda, Vol. I, and Pars 
secunda. Vol. II. That is why throughout I have to refer to 
** Martinucci-Menghini, I, i" or I, 2, II, i, etc., then the 
page. This book also is divided up into a bewildering number 
of subdivisions : Liber, Titulus, Caput, Articulus, and then 
paragraphs. It takes five different numbers to give a reference 
to it. I ignore this, as far as possible, and quote by page. 

But the chief defect of the book is that, in spite of all that 
division there is no attempt at an intelligent arrangement of 
the matter. The author goes straight through every little 
detail, never giving a general heading, except that of the 
whole function, never telling the reader what is going on, or 
what it is all about. Clearly he scorns any idea of making the 
directions attractive or even reasonably intelligible. One does 
not, of course, expect dissertations on the history, symbolism 
or mystic meaning of the rites. But he should at least tell us 
what is going on at the time. For instance, in the course of 
High Mass, continuing in the same pitiless detail, he says 
what the thurifer does, where the acolytes ^o, what the sub- 
deacon does, how the deacon behaves. But there is never a 
hint that the meaning of all this is that they are going to sing 
the gospel. The book goes straight on, page after page, in 
little paragraphs, like a forest you cannot see for the trees. 
This makes it a most difficult book of reference. If you want 
to see what the assistant priest does when the bishop comes 

^ Sic. This odd nominative absolute stands thus on the title. 



xxvi iFiote on tbe JSoolfis quoteb 

to the throne at the end of High Mass, the only sure way is 
to read Lib. v, Cap. vi, Art. iii rig-ht through. It consists of 
31 large pages and 161 paragraphs. In the course of this 
reading you will eventually find what you want — if you are 
careful to skip nothing. 

An author ought, of course, to arrange his matter in some 
kind of organic scheme, to make it like a growth, instead of 
an interminable ribbon. To read his endless pages is like 
travelling by a very slow train, stopping at every small station, 
and never quite knowing whither you are travelling all the 
time. But for one thing, I think the book would be almost 
impossible to use. I discovered this and recommend it to 
others. He prints the texts spoken or sung in italics. By 
noticing these you will see about how far he has got in the 
ceremony. 

For these reasons Haegy's edition of Le Vavasseur, less 
pretentious, will be found more practical : Manuel de Litiirgie 
et Cdremonial selon le rit romaiuy par le P. Le Vavasseur, 
dixi^me edition, revue et augment^e par le R. P. Haegy,' 
Paris, Lecoffre (Gabalda), 1910, 2 vols., small octavo. 

This is a most excellent book. It suffers a little from the 
same defect of having too many subdivisions : part, section, 
chapter, article and paragraph ; so again I quote it simply by 
volume and page. It is most complete, contains all a priest 
can want in full detail, and is far more intelligently arranged 
than Martinucci. There are occasionally notes about the 
meaning of the rites ; throughout the author lets the reader 
understand what is going on. He also gives complete refer- 
ences to decrees of the S.C.R. and other authorities — there 
are no references at all in Martinucci. 

Les FoncHons Pontificales selon le rit rmnain^ par le R. P. 
Le Vavasseur, troisieme Edition, revue et augment^e, par le 
R. P. Haegy, Paris, Lecoffre (Gabalda), 1904, two volumes, 
uniform with the former. This book, arranged exactly like 
the other, gives all the Pontifical rites in the same way. On 
the whole, if a priest needs one work of the kind I recommend 
Le Vavasseur-Haegy much more than Martinucci-Menghini. 
In quoting, " Le Vavasseur" alone means his Manuel de 
Liturgie, " Fonctions Pontificales," this second work. 

J. B. De Herdt, Sacrae liturgiae Praxis iuxta rituni roma- 
nurriy 3 vols., Louvain, Joseph Vanlinthout, ninth edition, 
1894. A good sound book, not altogether exhaustive, even 
for priestly functions, and rather old-fashioned now, but re- 
liable as far as it goes. This has played a great and most 
useful part in the education of clergy abroad, in France, the 

^ It is a bad French habit not to add the Christian name nor even 
the initial of an author. Le Vavasseur is a not uncommon name. Which 
Le Vavasseur is this? The British Museum catalogue in despair treats 
R. P. as the man's initials. 



IRote on tbe :Boo??s quotcc) xxvii 

Low Countries and Germany. In many ways sounder and 
more reasonable than the Italian authors. 

J. F. van der Stappen, Sacra Litiirgiay Mechlin, H. Des- 
sian, five volumes, second edition, 1904-1911. (Vol. ii is in its 
third edition.) A large work. The volumes are arranged thus : 
I is about the Divine Office, II about the rubrics of the 
Missal, III about celebration of Mass, IV the administration 
of Sacraments and Sacramentals, V Ceremonial, describing 
the function of the celebrant and of each minister and server- 
at each service, including those by a bishop (but not the 
bishop's part). Van der Stappen was auxiliary of Mechlin 
and a censor of the Roman Liturgical Academy. His book is 
intended for the instruction of Seminarists. It contains much 
more than an account of how to perform the ceremonies. He 
gives full instructions for saying Mass, including all about the 
prayers said, commemorations, and so on, also for saying the 
Divine Office. He tells the story of the ceremonies, vest- 
ments, altar and furniture of the church and gives a good 
deal of archaeological information generally, of which parts 
are a little out of date. It is a thoroughly sound book of great 
value, again better done than most of those by Italians. But 
all the plainsong in it is still the bad old Mechlin chant. 
Van der Stappen makes the whole business of ceremonies 
intelligible. Part of his work is a defence of the rites from 
the point of view of antiquity and reasonableness. An excel- 
lent book for a priest to consult. Many of his dissertations on 
moot points are most interesting; his own point of view is 
always reasonable. The only defect in the work is that it is 
all arranged like a catechism in the form of question and 
answer. Nor is the Index satisfactory'. 

Innocent Wapelhorst, O. F. M. , Cornpendmvi Sacrae Litiirgiae 
iuxta rititni roniamivi, ninth edition. New York, Cincinnati, 
Chicago, Benziger, 191 5. A useful little book, practical and 
clear, quite up to date with the latest decrees and well 
arranged. 

J. B. Miiller, S.J., Handbook of Ceremonies for priests and 
seminarians. Translated by Andrew P. Ganss, S.J., edited by 
W. H. W. Fanning, S.J., second edition, B. Herder, 191 1. 
Not altogether without merit. 

Caesar Uberti, Praelectiones sacrae Litiirgiae^ 3rd ed., 
Ravenna, Tip. Artigianelli. Lectures to Seminarists on cere- 
monies, with historic and symbolic explanations as well as 
practical directions. A useful little book. 

M. Gatterer, S.J., Praxis celebrandi rnissam aliasqtie func- 
tiones eiicharisticas, Innsbruck, F. Ranch, 1910, and Annus 
liturgiciis ciun i7itroductio7ie in disciplinam liiurgicam, 3rd ed., 
Innsbruck, F. Ranch, 1912. Both good. 

G. Baldeschi, Esposione delle sacre Ceremonie^ Rome, 1839, 
3 vols., small 8vo. 



xxviii iRote on tbe Boofts quoteb 

I am afraid this must come last among general works. It 
never had much merit. It was never complete or adequate. 
Now it is altogether out of date. I have explained above, in 
the preface, why it seemed necessary to abandon all connec- 
tion with this book (pp. xiii-xv). 

Mgr. Menghini, the editor of Martinucci, has written other 
works which may be consulted with advantage. 

I. B. M. Menghini, Ele^nenta Iitris littirgici^ sen Prolegomena 
in sacram Liturgiam^ second edition, Rome, Desclee, Le- 
febvre. Allowing for want of method and incapacity to give 
an exact reference, there are merits in this book. 

I. B. M. Menghini, Littirgia Eucharistica^ sen de Cultu et 
Adoratione SS. Sacranienti Doctrina et Praxis^ Rome, Des- 
clee, Lefebvre, 1908. This is all about the Forty Hours. He 
gives the text of the Instructio Clementina with his own com- 
mentary. It is a useful book. He calls it " Liturgia," al- 
though the Forty Hours is not a liturgical service at all. 

I. B. M. Menghini, Manuale 7iovissimo di ss, Ceremonie^ 
I, // piccolo ininistro del Santtcario] II, II sacro ministro del 
Santuario, Rome, Pustet, 3rd ed., 191 2- 191 3. Excellent little 
books, short, practical and clear. 

I. B. Pighi, Liturgia Sac^'mnentorum et Sacramentaliuniy 
Verona, F. Cinquetti, 3rd ed., 1903. A commentary on the 
Ritual, with many useful notes and explications. 

James O'Kane, Notes on the Rubrics of the Roman Ritual, 
Dublin, Duffy, 8th ed., s. a. (which is unpardonable in any 
book). Very good indeed. Contains long explanations of all 
the Rubrics, not only practical but archaeological and his- 
torical. Not always quite up to date, but full of useful 
matter. 

Benedict Ojetti, S.J., Synopsis Rerum vioralium et Juris 
pontificii alphahetico ordine digesta, Romae, ex Officina poly- 
graphica editrice. Piazza della Pigna, 53; three large volumes, 
1909-19 1 2. Contains a mass of material for ceremonial and 
ritual as well as other questions of Canon Law, arranged 
under alphabetical headings. Very useful for consultation. 

The Rite of the ordinary Sacred Canmiical Visitation of a 
Diocese. This is the book published by Cardinal Vaughan 
when he was Bishop of Salford. It bears on the title-page the 
statement that it is "To be had from the Bishop's Secretary. 
Price one shilling." There is no date. The directions are 
complete and practical. All the music, very badly printed in 
that detestable old convention of semi-brieves, minims and 
crotchets for plain-song notes, is Ratisbon, and so useless 
now. 

A few other books of less importance are quoted in the 
notes. 



LIST OF PLANS 

1. Plan of a Parish Church: Choir and Sanctuary, p. 4. 

2. Plan of a Cathedral Church : Choir and Sanctuary, p. 5. 

3. Low Mass before a Greater Prelate : the Confiteor. p. 70. 

4. Incensing the Altar, p. 123. 

5. Incensing" the Oblata. p. 123. 
Figures of High Mass. pp. 126-9. 

6. Incensing- the Celebrant before the Introit. p. 126. 

7. The Introit. p. 126. 

8. At the Sedilia. p. 127. 

9. The Collects, p. 127. 

10. The Celebrant reads the Gospel, p. 127. 

11. Before the Gospel, p. 128. 

12. The Gospel, p. 128. 

13. The Elevation, p. 129. 

14. High Mass with Assistant Priest: '* ludica me." p. 145. 

15. High Mass with Assistant Priest: the beginning of the 

Canon, p. 146. 

16. High Mass before a Greater Prelate: "ludica me." 

.P- 153- 

17. High Mass before a Greater Prelate: the Canon, p. 159. 

18. Pontifical High Mass at the Throne: ''ludica me." 

p. 171. 

19. Pontifical High Mass at the Throne : during the " Gloria " 

and Creed, p. 173. 

20. Pontifical High Mass at the Throne: the Gospel, p. 174. 

21. Pontifical High Mass at the Throne: the Offertory. 

p. 178. 

22. Pontifical High Mass at the Faldstool: *' ludica me." 

p. 187. 

23. Pontifical High Mass at the Faldstool: Introit. p. 187. 

24. Pontifical High Mass at the Faldstool: during the 

" Gloria" and Creed, p. 187. 

25. Pontifical High Mass at the Faldstool: the Collects. 

p. 188. 

26. Pontifical High Mass at the Faldstool : before the Gospel. 

p. 189. 

27. Vespers with six Assistants: during the Psalms, p. 203. 

28. Vespers with six Assistants : the Chapter, p. 208. 

29. Vespers with six Assistants : Incensing the Altar, p. 209. 

30. Pontifical Vespers at the Throne: Preintoning the first 

Antiphon. p. 221. 

31. Pontifical Vespers at the Throne: to incense the Altar. 

p. 222. 

32. Pontifical Vespers at the Throne: the Collect, p. 223. 

33. Pontifical Vespers at the Faldstool: ''Deus in adiut- 

orium." p. 228. 

34. Pontifical Vespers at the Faldstool: during the Psalms. 

p. 229. 

xxix 



XXX xist of iplans 

35. Pontifical Vespers at the Faldstool: the Collect, p. 232. 

36. Palm Sunday: the Procession before the church doors. 

p. 276. 

37. Palm Sunday (and Good Friday) : the Passion, p. 279. 

38. Maundy Thursday : the Procession, p. 293. 

39. Creeping- to the Cross, p. 307. 

40. Holy Saturday: Blessing- the Fire. p. 321. 

41. Holy Saturday: before blessing the Paschal Candle. 

P. 323- 

42. Holy Saturday: Praeconium paschale. p. 324. 

43. Holy Saturday: Blessing- the Font. p. 328. 

44. Holy Saturday in a small church : Praeconium paschale 

P- 339- 

45. Funeral : before going to the hearse. P. 420. 

46. Funeral: the group around the hearse, p. 421. 

47. Funeral : Pontifical Absolution, p. 427. 

48. The five Absolutions, p. 431. 



FIGURES USED IN THE PLANS 



If 
Iff 

M 
HI 

t 
a:I 

« 

III 

O 

Si 
Si 

o 



The Bishop, even when 
he wears no mitre 

The Celebrant wearing 
a chasuble 

The Celebrant in cope 

The Deacon 
The Subdeacon 

Master of Ceremonies 

Thurifer with incense 

Thurifer not bearing 
incense 

Cross-bearer 



First and Second 
Acolytes with 
their candles 



Acolytes without 
candles 



A 




i«3aL 



Assistants in copes 
(pluvialistae) at 
the divine office 



Assistant Deacons 



^Torch-bearers 



M 

^J^ Cantor 

A^ Assistant Priest 

Xflub Mitre-bearer 

H Crozier-bearer 

II i Book-bearer 

Jj, a Candle-bearer 

"TV^ Train-bearer 

^ Server at Low Mass 



XXXI 



PART I 
GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONCERN 
ING CEREMONIES 



CHAPTER I 
THE CHURCH AND ITS FURNI- 
TURE 

IT is not necessary, in a book ot ceremonies, to give a 
full account of rules for building and furnishing churches. 
Yet, to understand the ceremonies, one must have some 
idea of the dispositions of the building, and one must 
know the names of the vestments, vessels and orna- 
ments used. We begin, then, with a summary account of these, 
as far as they concern the ceremonies. 

Normally a Catholic church should be consecrated by a 
bishop, according to the form in the Pontifical. When a church 
is consecrated, at least one altar must be consecrated with it. 
The essential condition for consecration is that the building 
be a permanent church, both in construction and purpose ; 
that is, it must be solidly built and must be intended to be 
used always as a church. To turn a consecrated church to 
another use is sacrilege. It follows that consecration is not 
allowed till the building is free of debt and mortgage. 

In England many churches are not consecrated, but simply 
blessed. Canon law makes no provision for temporary 
churches. A building to be used as a church for a time only 
should receive the simple "Benedictio loci," as in the case of 
private oratories.^ A church may be blessed at first, then 
consecrated later, when it is free of debt. 

It makes no diff'erence to any later ceremony whether the 
church be consecrated or simply blessed. 

According to the old principle churches were orientated, 
that is, the High Altar was at the East end "and the main en- 
trance at the West. In describing ceremonies we speak of the 
Gospel and Epistle sides of the church and altar. The gospel 
SIDE is where the Gospel is read at Mass; it is the left side 
as you face the altar; the epistle side is the right. If the 
church is orientated properly, the Gospel side will be the North, 
the Epistle side the South.' 

The plan of a church varies very considerably according to 
its size, the architect's design, and so on. There is much lati- 
tude in planning a church. A large church will probably have 
a number of side chapels or side altars, which may be placed 
anywhere, though in this case, too, the normal principle would 
be that each altar faces the East, so that the priest look that 
way when saying Mass. There may also be two or more aisles 
and a transept. 

^ S. R.C. 4025, ad VI. Cod., c. 227. 

" It is a very old Christian principle that people turn to the east at 
prayer; so the priest saying Mass should face the east. 

^ In heraldic langxiage the Gospel side is the dexter of the altar, the right 
of the crucifix as it faces down the church. The Epistle side is sinister. 

B 



2 General iprinctples concerning Ceremonies 

For the purpose of ceremonies we distinguish five parts ot 
the church. Every church, however small, will have these, at 
least as theoretic divisions. They are the nave, baptistery, 
porch, choir and sanctuary. The nave is that part of the 
church where the people attend the services. Generally it is 
arranged in two groups of seats, one on either side, with a 
passage down the middle. It is not now usual in Catholic 
churches to separate men from women. 

The BAPTISTERY should be, if possible, a separate chapel, 
or at least railed off from the rest of the church.^ It may con- 
tain an altar, ^ as well as a font. The font^ should stand in 
the middle of the baptistery. It is covered when not in use 
(see p. 394, n. i). 

Beyond the main entrance to the nave is the narthex, or 
PORCH (sometimes called vestibulum). This has important 
liturgical uses, and should never be wanting. At the church 
doors are holy water stoups. 

In front of the nave, generally raised by one or more steps, 
is the CHOIR. This is where the clergy or singers attend in 
cassock and surplice. It should have seats or stalls on either 
side, facing each other across the church. In cathedral and 
collegiate churches the Canons have their stalls arranged in 
this way. 

If the Blessed Sacrament is reserved at the High Altar there 
is generally a communion rail between the nave and the 
choir. This should be of a convenient height, so that people can 
kneel at it to receive Holy Communion. Hanging from it, on 
the altar side, is the communion cloth of white linen, which 
people hold under the chin when they make their Communion. 

Beyond the choir is the sanctuary. Often there is no 
mark in the building to show the line of separation between 
the choir and sanctuary. It is indeed better that there should 
not be a step here, since the ministers have to walk frequently 
from the choir to the sanctuary. Constantly to step up and 
down takes from the dignity of the ceremonies, and the step 
maybe inconvenient to ministers in vestments. The sanctuary 
is merely the end (normally the East end) of the choir near the 
High Altar. It is counted as beginning about where the seats 
or stalls of the choir end on that side. 

The chief object in the sanctuary is the altar* in the 

^ In the rite of baptism the first part takes place in the Narthex ("ad 
limen ecclesiae " in the English Ordo adniinistrandi, rubric 52, p. 13). 
Then, after the child has entered the church, an exorcism is said "ante- 
quam accedat ad baptisterium " {ib., p. 22, No. 12). 

^ The old liturg-ical books constantly suppose Mass said in the bap- 
tistery (for instance, the Gelasian SacruTnentary ^ ed. H. A. Wilson, pp. 
142-143). The great baptisteries in Italy all have altars. 

' The Roman Ritual (and our Ordo administr.) sometimes calls the 
font " baptisterium " (rubric 30). 

* Full information about the altar and its arrang-ement will be found in 
Van der Stappen, iii, pp. 17-114. Cod.y c. 1 197-1202. 



Ube Cburcb anb its jfurniture 3 

middle. Unless the church has separate chapels, each with its 
own choir and sanctuary, this will be the High Altar of the 
church. All others are counted as side altars. 

There are two kinds of altar, the fixed (altare fixum) and 
portable altar (altare portatile). 

A FIXED ALTAR must be of stone and built into the church, 
so that it cannot be moved. The relics are buried in it. The 
whole top (the **mensa") of the altar is of stone and joined 
by stone to the ground ; it is all consecrated as one thing. 

In the case of the portable altar the only real altar is 
the altar stone. This is a stone in which relics are placed 
and sealed up. It is comparatively small, perhaps about 
one foot square or so, and an inch or two thick. Mass is said 
on this.^ The altar stone may be placed on a table of any 
material. It is not fixed to the table. So in many churches 
there is what looks like a large wooden altar. Really this is 
only the framework or stand. In the middle (generally sunk 
into the wood) is the altar stone, which alone is consecrated. 
The framework may also be of stone. In this way an altar 
may be built of stone, used as a portable one, having on 
it the consecrated altar stone, till the whole can be conse- 
crated as a fixed altar. There is no difference in the ceremonies 
between a fixed and a portable altar. ^ 

There should be some kind of canopy over the altar. This 
may hang from the roof of the church or may stand on 
columns. It should cover not only the altar, but also the 
foot-pace, or at least the priest celebrating. The canopy stand- 
ing on columns is the ciborium.^ It is better that the altar 
do not stand immediately against the wall of the church ; 
indeed, at the consecration of an altar the rubrics require that 
the bishop go round it. 

The altar is raised above the floor of the sanctuary by 
steps. Every altar should be raised at least one step; the 

^ During Mass the chalice and bread stand on the altar stone. 

* The older principle was that, as no church may be consecrated unless 
a fixed altar be consecrated with it, so, on the other hand, an altar may 
not be consecrated except in a consecrated church. Thus consecrated 
church and consecrated altar always w^ent tog-ether. But the S. C.R. 3059, 
ad XV (12 September 1857) allows an altar to be consecrated in a merely 
blessed church. This must mean a church which, although only blessed 
now, will be consecrated later for certain. Otherwise the altar would 
have to be desecrated inevitably when the church were adapted to 
another purpose. A consecrated (= fixed) altar cannot be moved. 

^ Not to be confused with " ciborium " in another sense, namely the 
little vessel that contains the consecrated Hosts in the tabernacle. The 
canopy over the altar, w^hether on columns or hanging, is " baldaquin " 
in French, " baldacchino " in Italian. There seems no reason for using 
these foreign words in English. The Caerimoniale Episcoporum, Lib. 1, 
cap, xiv, § I requires a canopy over the High Altar. The S. Congregation 
of Rites (= S.C.R. ) has frequently insisted on it for the altar where the 
Blessed Sacrament is reserved (27 April 1697, No. 1966; 23 May 1846, 
No. 2913; 23 November 1880, No. 3525). For the canopy at Benediction 
see p. 240. 



N-^f- 



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place jbr 
5avci5 



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jbotpace 


5tep 


5tep U 



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SANCTUAKf 



Sedmia 



GOSPEL SIDE 



1 



1 



•8 



I 



i 1 

Seats jbr 
ottiie 



Ixcterrt 
axvincoflxccr 



EPISTLE SIDE 

a 



a£Si5taitl5 
cgice: 



CHOIK 



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gtep 



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FIG. 1. PLAN OF A PARISH CHURCH: CHOIR AND SANCTUARY 



of the bisKop 



TluTsne 






fbdtpgce 
step ~ 



G^lumns of 
the cxbortuTTU 



N-^*- 



ftep 



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toKen'tKe "tfirorve. 
is not U5cd. 

SANCTUAKf 



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GOSPEL SIDE 



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r~n 



in B'tKc 



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c± tHe 



ccsststcmts' 



CHOIR 



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FIG. 2. PLAN OF A CATHEDRAL CHURCH : CHOIR AND SANCTUARY 

5 



6 (Beneral principles concetnino Ceremonies 

High Altar will have three or more steps. There should be an 
uneven number. 

The top step before the altar forms a platform on which 
the celebrant stands while he says Mass. This is the foot- 
pace or SVPPEDANEVM.^ It should be as long across as 
the width of the altar, and so wide in front that the cele- 
brant may genuflect on it without having to put his foot out- 
side it. The lower steps go round the foot-pace, not only in 
front, but at the sides, so that one can go up to it from either 
side as from the front. The steps of a fixed altar should be of 
stone; but the foot-pace ought to be of wood. "^ 

On one altar in the church (in smaller churches generally 
on the High Altar) is the tabernacle in which the Blessed 
Sacrament is reserved.^ This is a box, with doors opening 
outwards, in the middle of the altar, leaving enough room in 
front of it for the vessels and other things used at any cere- 
mony. It must be an iron safe fixed solidly to the altar and so 
to the ground, or to the wall of the church. Inside, the taber- 
nacle is gold or gilt ; it is lined with white linen or silk, and 
has a corporal on which the ciborium stands. Often at the 
back of the altar, on either side of the tabernacle, there is 
one or more raised steps, on which the candles or vases of 
flowers are placed. These are the gradines. Before the 
tabernacle in which the Sanctissimum is reserved, a lamp 
should always burn.* This generally hangs from the roof. 
There may be several lamps, uneven in number. 

The altar is covered with three cloths. Under these the 
Pontifical requires that there be a cere-cloth (chrismale) of 
waxed linen, at least immediately after consecration. The 
cere-cloth is not counted as one of the three altar-cloths. It is 
allowed to fold one cloth in two, and so to use it for the two 
lower altar-cloths. The upper cloth should be as wide as the 
altar, and long enough to reach to the ground on either side. 

In front of the altar hangs the frontal (antependium) of 
the colour of the office, the same as the celebrant's vestments. 
The tabernacle must also have a veil of the same colour, 
or of cloth of gold or silver. But, where the Sanctissimum is 
reserved, the tabernacle veil may not be black. In this case, at 
Requiems it should be purple. The frontal may then be either 
black or purple (p. 133). If the altar is of some precious sub- 
stance it may dispense with a frontal. There is no permission 
ever to dispense with the tabernacle veil where the Sanctissi- 
mum is reserved, though this abuse often occurs at Rome. 

On the altar, in the middle, stands a cross, sufficiently 

^ Italian, " predella." ^ s.C.R. 3576, ad I (15 iun 1883). 

' Cod.y c. 1 268- 1 269. 

* Cod., c. 1271. The glass of the lamp should be white. There is no 
justification for any other colour. The Caer. Ep. requires many lamps 
in the church, three before the High Altar and at least five before the 
Blessed Sacrament (Lib. I, cap. xii, § 17). In England we have long pre- 
scribed a lawful custom of burning one lamp only before the tabernacle. 



TLhc Gburcb anb its ffurniture 7 

large to be seen by the celebrant and people.^ If there Is a 
tabernacle the cross should not stand in front of it, lest it 
hinder the opening of the tabernacle doors. It will stand 
behind or on the tabernacle. The rubric of the missal speaks 
only of a cross ;^ but in another place it supposes that the 
cross bear a representation of our Lord crucified,^ and the 
Caerimo7iiale episcoporum orders this.* On every altar on 
either side are at least two candlesticks with candles. The 
High Altar of a church will normally have six larger candle- 
sticks with candles, and in front of these two or three smaller 
ones. Other candles for Benediction, Exposition, and so on, 
should be placed there for the occasion only and taken away 
afterwards. 

The rules about candles on the altar are these. At Low 
Mass two candles burn all the time; according to the rubric 
of the missal a third should be lit from the consecration to the 
Communion (see p. 79, n. 2). At High Mass, solemn Vespers, 
and all such more solemn public functions six candles are lit, 
three on either side of the altar cross. At Pontifical High 
Mass by the Ordinary a seventh candle is lit behind the cross 
(p. 164). At a sung Mass without ministers there may be four 
or six candles. During Exposition or Benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament at least twelve candles must burn on the 
altar. There may be more." When the Sanctissimum is exposed 
candles at other altars or before statues and pictures should 
be put out, at least those which can be seen from the altar. 

For other rites celebrated at the altar, such as marriage, 
blessings, distribution of Holy Communion not in Mass, and 
for non-liturgical prayers and devotions, two or more candles 
are lit on the altar. 

The proportion of beeswax in church candles is regulated 
by law. The Paschal candle, the two candles for Low Mass, 
six for High Mass, and the twelve necessary for Exposition 
and Benediction must have at least 65 per cent, of real bees- 
wax. All other candles used on an altar must have at least 
25 per cent, of beeswax.^ The firms which provide candles for 
Catholic churches stamp the percentage of beeswax on their 
candles. 

Flowers on the altar are not necessary. They are not 
used in the great churches of Rome. But there is no law 
against them,^ and in England custom requires their use. 

' If immediately behind the altar there is a large representation of the 
crucifixion, this may count as the altar-cross. 

- Ruhricae generates^ tit. xx. ' Ritus celebratidi 7nissam, tit. ii, § 2. 

■* Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xii, § 11. ' Ritus servandiis, p. 13, § 3. 

"^ So the bishops of Eng-land and Wales on 4 December 1906, following- 
the S.C.R. 14 December 1904. 

" The Caer. Ep. expressly suggests " vascula cum flosculis " as an 
ornament on the altar (Lib. I, cap. xii, § 12), and Benedict XIII's Memo- 
riale Rituum positively requires them throughout (see pp. 266, 281, n. i, 
298, 342. 



8 General principles concerning Ceremonies 

When the altar is not in use the altar-cloths are covered 
with another cloth of some coloured material,^ to keep off 
dust. This should be removed before every service at which 
the altar is used. 

Near the altar, on the Epistle side, stands the credence 
TABLE (credentia, abacus). During Mass this should have a 
white linen cloth over it. The vessels, and sometimes vest- 
ments used at Mass, are placed on the credence table when 
they are not in use. 

On the same side of the sanctuary are the seats (sedilia) 
for the celebrant and sacred ministers. There should be three 
seats, or a bench with room for three persons. In cathedrals 
the bishop's throne faces the sedilia on the Gospel side. The 
canopy over it, its covering- and cushion are of the colour of 
the Mass or office, namely, white, red, green, or violet." They 
should be of silk.^ 

Instead of the throne, a bishop who is not the Ordinary, 
and sometimes the Ordinary,* uses a faldstool (faldis- 
torium). This is a stool without a back. It consists of a 
frame of gilt metal or wood, shaped like the letter X, with a 
seat of leather or cloth stretched across its upper extremities. 
It can be folded flat. When used as a seat the faldstool has a 
covering and cushion of the liturgical colour, namely, white, 
red, green, or purple, as the throne. These are of silk for a 
cardinal, wool for a bishop.'' 

The bishop kneels, on various occasions, before the altar. 
According to the Caerimoniale episcoporuin he kneels at a 
GENVFLEXORi VM (kneeling-desk, prie-dieu)." This has a 
covering and two cushions, one on which he kneels, the other 
on which he rests the arms. This covering and the cushions 
(silk or wool, as before) are, for a cardinal red, or purple for 
mourning and times of penance, for a bishop green, or violet 
when the bishop wears black." 

For this genuflexorium the faldstool may be, and generally 
is, used.*^ A carpet should be spread beneath; there are two 
cushions, one placed before the faldstool, on which the bishop 
kneels; the other lies on the seat, so that he rests the arms 

^ Martinucci calls this '* tela strag^ula altaris " and says it should be 
green " or some other dark colour, never black " (Tom. I, i, p. 103). It 
is sometimes called " vesperal cloth," though it is not used at "V'espers. 

■^ Violet is used at the throne when the vestments are black. 

' Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xiii, § 3. As a matter of fact they are often of 
some less costly material. 

* In presence of a higher Prelate {Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, cap. xiii, § 4), at 
Confirmation, etc. 

* The cushion may be of silk, in any case (Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, 

p. 34> § 5)- 

^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, cap. ii, § 5, etc., passim. 

"" For the colour worn by cardinals and bishops at times of penance 

and mourning, see p. 13. 

" Martinucci, II, i, pp. 34-35, § 6. 



Zbc Cburcb anO its jFurntture 9 

on it. It has no other covering. The cushions may be of silk 
in any case. In this case, they and the carpet should be of 
the colour of the office. 

In cathedrals and churches which possess a faldstool, it is 
g"enerally convenient to use it for a g-enuflexorium. When 
the bishop visits a small church which does not possess a 
faldstool a chair with a low back, as decent as possible, with 
a cushion, is prepared on which he will sit, and a kneeling"- 
desk with two cushions. They should be covered with red, 
green, or purple, according to the rank of the bishop and the 
occasion (as above). 

There may be seats for the servers at Mass and other serv- 
ices, on either side of the sanctuary; or they may sit in front 
of the stalls in the choir. 

The LECTERX and seats for cantors in the middle of the 
choir used for parts of the Divine Office are put in their place 
before each such service and taken away afterwards. A 
lectern may be used for the lessons at High Mass. It should 
be covered with silk of the colour of the office.^ 

The SACRISTY is a large room on one side of the sanctuary, 
or behind it, separated by a door. There should be a stoup of 
holy water and a bell at this door. There may be two sac- 
risties, an outer one for the choir and servers, an inner one 
for the sacred ministers. In the sacristy are cupboards and 
presses in which are kept the vessels, instruments, and vest- 
ments. There must be at least one large table on which the 
vestments are laid out. The celebrant and ministers vest at 
this table. It may form the top of presses for vestments. 
Over this table, or in the middle of the sacristy, a crucifix or 
sacred image should hang. All who enter or leave the sacristy 
in procession bow to this on arriving and before leaving. A 
card should be hung up in a conspicuous place, showing the 
names of the reigning Pope, Ordinary, and the " oratio im- 
perata. " 

' Caer. £p., Lib. II, cap. viii, § 45. 



CHAPTER II 

THE VESTMENTS OF THE ROMAN 

RITE 

THE common dress for servers and all who assist at 
any function in choir is a black cassock (talare) 
with a white linen surplice (superpelliceum).^ 
The two chaplains or servers at pontifical functions 
who hold the mitre and crozier have scarves of thin 
white silk (vim pa) rather like broad stoles, worn round the 
neck and tied in front. Through these they hold the mitre and 
crozier.^ Certain prelates and dignitaries wear a purple cas- 
sock. Clerks in holy orders have, in choir, a biretta (bire- 
tum), a square cap of black cloth with three ridges. Some 
dignitaries also wear a skull-cap (pileolus).^ Canons in 
chapter'* have a cape over their surplice (mozzetta). Pre- 
lates sometimes wear a tunic called mantellettum," having 
slits at the side through which the sleeves of the rochet pass. 
The celebrant at Mass, if he is a priest, wears over his 
cassock," first the amice (amictus), an oblong piece of linen 
with strings to tie it. He lays this on the head, then passes 
it around the neck. Then he puts on the alb (alba), a long 
shirt of linen reaching to the feet. This is tied round the 
waist by the girdle (cingulum), which may be of the colour 
of the day, but is generally white. On the left arm he wears 
the MANIPLE (manipulus), a band of silk of the colour of the 
day. The stole (stola) is a longer band of coloured silk 
worn round the neck, crossed in front and secured by the 
ends of the girdle. The chasuble (casula, planeta) is the 
last garment covering all the others. It has a hole through 
which the head is passed and (generally) strings on the inner 
side to tie around the body. The maniple, stole and chasuble 
are of silk and of the colour of the Mass to be celebrated. 

A set of vestments for Low Mass also includes the burse 
and veil to be put on the chalice (p. i6). 

At Mass the deacon wears the amice, alb, girdle, maniple 

^ Italian, *'cotta. " The Rochet (rochettum) is a garment like the 
surplice, but shorter, fitting the body more closely, with narrow sleeves. 
It is worn by cardinals, bishops, prelates, sometimes (by indult) by 
canons. It is generally worn under other vestments. 

* They and the manner of wearing them are described in the Caer. Ei>.^ 
Lib. I, cap. xi, § 6. But here provision is made only for the mitre-bearer's 
veil. The crozier-bearer is to hold the crozier with the right hand covered 
by part of his surplice and to hand it, with bare hand, to the bishop. 
Instead of this, a veil similar to that of the mitre-bearer is now usual. 

' Italian, "zuchetto.'' 

* Namely in their own cathedral or collegiate church. 

^ This is the name in the Caer. Ep. ; Italian, " mantelletta." 
^ The rubrics of the Missal {Rit. cel.^ i, 2) say that the priest should 
wear all the other vestments over a surplice, "if it can be done con- 
veniently." This is now rare, at least in England. 

10 



TLbc Destments of tbe IRoman 1Rtte 1 1 

and stole. But he wears the stole differently from the priest. 
He lays it across the breast so that the middle is on the left 
shoulder, and the two ends under the right arm. It is fixed 
in this position by the ends of the g-irdle. Then he puts on 
the DALMATIC (dalmatica). This is a kind of tunic with short 
sleeves, slit up the sides, w^ith an opening through which the 
head is put. It is of silk of the colour of the Mass. 

The SUBDEACON at Mass wears the amice, alb, girdle, 
maniple, no stole, but a tunic le (tunicella) made in much 
the same shape as the deacon's dalmatic. 

During part of High Mass, namely from the offertory to 
the fraction, the subdeacon wears a humeral veil (velum 
humerale) under which he holds the paten (pp. iio-iii). This 
is an oblong of silk, of the colour of the vestments, with strings 
to tie it. It is worn like a cape over the shoulders. The object 
of the humeral veil is to cover the hands when som.ething is 
held in them. 

On certain days (for which see pp. 253-255) the deacon and 
subdeacon do not wear the dalmatic and tunicle. Instead of 
these, in greater churches, they wear folded chasubles. '^ 
The chasubles are now generally folded up in front about half 
way and so fixed. They are taken off during the principal 
parts of the Mass, as will be explained (p. 254). When the 
deacon takes off the folded chasuble in Mass, according to 
the rubrics of the Missal he should fold it again lengthwise 
and wear it, like the stole, over the left shoulder.^ Instead of 
this, he generally puts on a garment made specially to repre- 
sent this folded chasuble, namely a long piece of silk, purple, 
or black on Good Friday. This is popularly called the broad 
stole (Italian " stolone "). It is not really a stole at all.^ 
*' Greater churches" are cathedrals, collegiate churches, the 
chief churches of Regulars, parish churches. They include 
therefore nearly all churches in England. In others the minis- 
ters wear simply the usual vestments without the dalmatic or 
tunicle.^ The celebrant wears the chasuble only at Mass. Nor 
does anyone wear the maniple except at Mass. The only ex- 
ception to this is when, as on Palm Sunday, the ministers 
read lessons during the blessing of the Palms before Mass. 
Then, although the celebrant has the cope and no maniple, 
they wear the maniple while reading the lessons. 

During the solemn blessings in the Missal (as on Candlemas, 
Ash Wednesday and Palm Sunday), in processions, at the 
Asperges ceremony before Mass, at funerals, at Benediction of 
the Blessed Sacrament, at vespers and lauds sung solemnly, 

^ Ruhr, gen.., xix, 6. " Ruhr, gen.., ih. 

^ The only reason for the so-called " broad stole" is that the modern 
chasuble is rarely so made that it can be folded into a long" strip, as the 
rubrics say. The rubrics provide for the alternative use of the "broad 
stole " (" aliud g-enus stolae latioris, in modum planetae plicatae "). 

* Ruhr. geyi. , xix, 7. 



12 General iC^rinciples concerntna Ceremonies 

at Matins from the ninth lesson, the celebrant wears a cope 
(pluviale). This is a large semicircular garment reaching to 
the feet behind, with a clasp (called the morse ^) to join it in 
front. 

Usually the cope is of the colour of the day. At Benediction 
of the Blessed Sacrament it is always white, at funerals always 
black. For most blessings the colour is purple.^ Except in the 
Divine office the celebrant wears a stole of the same colour 
under the cope. 

At the Divine office he wears either a surplice only, or 
surplice and cope. At processions and Benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament he will generally wear a surplice, stole 
and cope. When he holds the monstrance or ciborium he 
has a white humeral veil. At blessings before Mass he has 
the amice, alb, girdle and stole. When he wears the girdle he 
crosses the stole before the breast. With a surplice it hangs 
straight down from the neck. 

Other persons besides the celebrant wear the cope. The 
assistant priest at Mass (when there is one, see p. 144) does 
so. At Mass by a simple priest no one else may wear a cope. 
At the Divine office (vespers and lauds) the cantors may wear 
copes of the colour of the office. In the procession of theBlessed 
Sacrament at Corpus Christi the clergy may wear copes. 

When preaching the preacher, if a secular priest, wears a 
surplice. He may wear a stole of the colour of the day, if this 
is the custom. Regulars who have a habit wear no surplice as 
a rule. In administering other Sacraments and when giving 
blessings the priest wears a surplice and stole. 

The DEACON and subdeacon wear the dalmatic and tun- 
icle at High Mass, at the Asperges,^ at Exposition and Bene- 
diction of the Blessed Sacrament; not in the Divine office. 

The usual dress of a bishop is a cloth cassock, violet in 
colour, with a train, fixed up at the back so that it does not 
trail on the ground. The train is let down at functions. The 
cassock is edged and has buttons of a lighter colour, now 
almost red. The bishop wears a violet silk belt. Over the 
cassock he wears a white linen rochet (p. 10, n. i). Over this 
a bishop in his own diocese wears the mozzetta. Auxiliaries 
and all bishops where they have no jurisdiction wear the 
mantellettum (p. 10) instead.* Bishops have a pectoral cross, 

^ A morse of ornamented metal, with enamel or jewels, is called 
"formale" or "pectorale." This may be worn only by bishops (S.C.R., 
15 September 1753) No. 2425, ad IX). Others wear a cope with a band of 
stuff to join it in front {Caer. £p., Lib. I, cap. vii, n. 1 : "sine tamen for- 
malio ad pectus "). 

^ When the blessing contains an exorcism, the colour is purple, other- 
wise it is generally that of the day. 

' With the exception noted, p. 11. 

* The mozzetta over the rochet is always understood to signify jurisdic- 
tion. In the presence of superiors bishops wear the mantellettum, and 
over this the mozzetta ; so at Rome always. 



TLbc lUcstmcnts ot tbe IRoman IRite 13 

which should hang" from the neck by a green silk cord. But 
often a gold chain is used. They have a purple skull cap ^ and 
a purple biretta.^ On certain days of penance the cassock, 
mozzetta and mantellettum should be of black cloth, the 
cassock edg-ed with violet. These days are all .fast days and 
vig'ils, even if the fast is not observed.^ The exceptions are 
the eve of Pentecost and the Whitsun ember days, which fall 
in Paschal time. Vigils which occur in the octaves of certain 
g^reat feasts are also excepted.^ 

At functions, instead of the mozzetta, the bishop may wear 
the " cappa magna." This is a great cloak with a long" train, 
of violet cloth. It has a cape and hood, which in winter is of 
ermine, in summer of almost red silk. When the bishop wears 
the cappa magna he needs a train bearer. Regular bishops 
have the cappa, and its fur, of the colour of their order (if it 
has a habit). 

Pius IX instituted a kind of undress for prelates, called 
after him ''habitus pianus." It consists of a black cloth 
cassock with no train, reddish facings, a violet belt and 
ferraiolo, violet stock and stockings. This is now used con- 
stantly at non-liturgical occasions. 

Cardinals have the same dress as bishops, but always 
bright red instead of violet, and violet instead of black for 
mourning. Round their hat bishops have a green ' cord, arch- 
bishops green and gold, cardinals red and gold. 

For Low Mass a bishop wears the same vestments as a 
priest, over the rochet.^ The only difference is that he wears 
the pectoral cross over the alb, under the stole. He wears the 
stole not crossed, but hanging straight down.' He does not 
put on the maniple till after the prayer " Indulgentiam," ex- 
cept at Requiem Masses (p. 73). 

At High Mass the bishop wears special stockings and 
shoes ^ of the colour of the Mass. Over the rochet he wears 
the amice, alb, girdle, pectoral cross, stole, tunicle, dalmatic, 
chasuble, gloves, mitre. On certain occasions a Metropolitan 
will wear the pallium over the chasuble. The manner of put- 
ting these on will be described (pp. 168-170). 

The tunicle and dalmatic worn by a bishop are made of 
very thin silk. They are of the colour of the Mass. 

1 Conceded by Pius IX, 17 June 1867. 
^ Conceded by Leo XIII, 3 February 1888. 

' Also at funerals. Requiem Masses, during- all Advent, from Septua- 
gesima to Easter. 

* They wear purple from Christmas to the Epiphany Octave, all Paschal 
time, and at Canonical visitations, whatever the day may be. Indeed, 
the use of black by bishops is almost obsolete. 

' Green, not violet, is the bishop's heraldic colour. ^ I^tf. serv., i, 2. 
' The reason of this is, apparently, the pectoral cross, lest the stole 
conceal it. 

• These look more like g-aiters and slippers. In Latin they are " caligae 
et sandalia," in English generally "buskins and sandals." 



14 General iprinctples concerning Ceremonies 

There are three kinds of mitre (mitra). The "precious 
mitre " (mitra pretiosa) is generally of cloth of silver with 
embroidery and ornaments of gold and precious stones. 
Since this is supposed to be heavy and burdensome if worn 
all the time, its place is taken during parts of the services 
(pp. 166-219) by the '*gold mitre" (mitra aurifrigiata) made 
of cloth of gold with no additional ornament. The ''simple 
mitre " (mitra simplex) is of plain white linen, without orna- 
ment. This is worn at funerals and such occasions. The 
bishop also has a ring (annulus) ; in his own diocese the 
Ordinary carries a crozier (baculus pastoralis). He has a 
train to the cappa magna, which is borne by a train-bearer 
(caudatarius). While he is vesting and during parts of the 
Mass a silk veil (gremiale) of the colour of the day is laid 
over his knees while he sits. 

On other occasions a bishop wears amice, alb, girdle, stole, 
cope and mitre. 

Certain other prelates, abbots, and protonotaries may on 
occasions share some of the marks of a bishop's rank 
(see pp. 33-36). 

Besides the vestments, the following cloths are used. The 
CORPORAL (corporale) is a square piece of linen spread on 
the altar during Mass. The chalice and paten stand on the 
corporal. When it is not used the corporal lies in the burse 
(bursa), a pocket of silk, of the same colour as the vestments, 
strengthened with cardboard. The purificator (purifica- 
torium) is a linen cloth folded in three lengthwise, used as a 
handkerchief by the celebrant during Mass. The pall (palla) 
is a small square of linen, sometimes strengthened by a card, 
used to cover the chalice at Mass. 

The towel (manutergium) is also a small linen cloth, not 
unlike a purificator, used to dry the hands after the washing 
at Mass. 

The colours of the silk vestments (that is, of the chasuble, 
stole, maniple, dalmatic, tunicle, humeral veil, cope, bishop's 
gremial, shoes and stockings) vary according to the feast or 
occasion on which they are used. 

The colours of the Roman rite are white, red, green, purple, 
black, rosy colour. 

White (albus) is used for all feasts of our Lord, except 
the feast of the Precious Blood, for Trinity Sunday, for all 
feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of all Saints who were 
not martyrs. 

Red (ruber) is used on Whitsunday and during its octave, 
for the feast of the Precious Blood (now i July), the two 
feasts of Holy Rood (3 May and 14 September), and for mar- 
tyrs. It is used on Holy Innocents' Day (28 December) if it 
fall on a Sunday, and on its octave day always. 

Green (viridis) is the neutral colour. It is used on Sundays 



TLbc IDestments ot tbe IRoman IRtte 1 5 

and ferlas from the end of the Epiphany octave to Septu- 
agesima, and on Sundays and ferias in the Season after 
Pentecost. 

Purple (violaceus) is the colour of penance. It is used on 
Sundays and ferias of Advent and Lent, except the third 
Sunday of Advent and the fourth of Lent, except also the last 
days of Holy Week, which have a special sequence of colour, 
to be noted below (pp. 289-342). Purple is also used on vigils, 
when the office is of the vigil, on ember days, except those in 
Whitsun week, on the feast of the holy Innocents, if it does 
not fall on a Sunday, for most blessings and many votive 
Masses. On Whitsun eve the lessons and collects before the 
Mass with the litany are said in purple vestments, the Mass 
itself in red. 

Black (niger) is used on Good Friday, for Masses for the 
dead and at funerals. 

Rosy colour (color rosaceus) is used on tw^o days of the 
year only, the third Sunday of Advent (called Gaudete Sunday) 
and the fourth of Lent (Laetare Sunday). If the church does 
not possess vestments of this colour purple may be used in 
its stead. ^ 

Cloth of gold may always take the place of white, red or 
green, not of purple or black. 

When vespers are so divided that the second half, from the 
chapter, is of the following feast, then the frontal and copes 
are of the colour of the second half throughout vespers. 

The colour for processions and Benediction of the Blessed 
Sacrament is white. But if Benediction follows immediately 
after Mass or vespers, the colour of the day may be kept. 
Only, in any case, the humeral veil must be white. The vest- 
ments worn by the celebrant and ministers at Mass must be 
blessed by a bishop or by a priest to whom this faculty has 
been given. It is not strictly necessary to bless the cope. 
The burse, chalice veil, humeral veil and surplices are not 
blessed. 

^ In the English Ordo recitandi officii divini sacrique peragendi the 
colour of the day is noted in the margin by a capital letter, the initial of 
its Latin name. Thus A =: white, R == red, V = green, U =: purple (this 
distinction is convenient), N = black. Rosy colour is noted by a rubric; 
but the two days are marked U. When there are two letters the first is 
for Mass, the second for Vespers. 



CHAPTER III 

LITURGICAL VESSELS, INSTRU- 

MENTS AND BOOKS 

§ I. VESSELS 

THE chief vessels used in the Liturgy are the cha- 
lice (calix) and PATEN (patena), the forms of which 
are well known. The chalice, if it is not of gold, 
must be at least gilt inside the cup ; the paten, too, 
must be gilt on the upper side. 
For Mass the chalice and paten are arranged thus. The 
chalice is empty; over it the purificator is hung, then the 
paten rests on the purificator holding the bread or breads to 
be consecrated. Over these is placed the pall. The chalice 
veil covers all to the foot of the chalice; on the veil the burse 
is placed, closed, with a folded corporal in it. 

The ciBORiUM^ is a vessel like a chalice with a cover, at 
least gilt inside. It is used to contain the consecrated particles 
in the tabernacle. When it contains the Blessed Sacrament it 
must be covered with a veil of white silk. At the consecra- 
tion, if used, it stands open on the corporal by the chalice. 

In the tabernacle there is also generally a pyx (pyxis), a 
small box of silver or other metal, gilt inside, which contains 
the Host used for Benediction. This Host is usually held by 
a little instrument, shaped like a new moon, called the luna 
or LUNETTE (lunula). This, too, must be at least gilt. The 
general principle is that the Sanctissimum may rest only on 
gold or white linen. The monstrance (ostensorium) is a 
vessel for exposing the Blessed Sacrament. It is so made 
that the Host may be placed in it and can then be seen by the 
people. Often the place where the Host rests is surrounded 
by rays. The Sanctissimum may not touch glass. 

There is also a small pyx or ciborium used when the Holy 
Communion is taken to the sick. This, too, must be at least 
gilt inside. 

The chalice and paten are consecrated by a bishop. The 
pyx, ciborium and luna are blessed by a bishop or priest 
having the faculty. There is no law that the monstrance be 
blessed. 

Other vessels, not counted as sacred and not blessed are: 
For Mass the cruets (ampullae, hamulae). These are two 
little jugs to hold the wine and water. They should be of 
glass ; but other material is tolerated. Sometimes their pur- 
pose is marked on them ; the one having the letter V (for 
*'vinum," wine), the other A ("aqua," water). Otherwise, 
since they should be always washed out and kept perfectly 

^ Not to be confused with the great ciborium (canopy) over the altar. 

i6 



1 



Xitur^ical IDessels, instruments an^ 1Boo\\5 17 

clean, it does not matter which is used each time for the wine 
or water. The cruets often have stoppers or lids. With them 
is the DISH (pelvicula) on which they stand when not in use. 
This is not merely used as a stand for the cruets ; when the 
celebrant washes his hands at Mass, the water is poured by 
the server over his fingers into this dish. The water is thrown 
away afterwards. With the cruets and dish a towel (manu- 
tergium) is laid on the credence table. The celebrant dries the 
hands with this after washing- them. 

At High Mass a bishop uses a larger jug of water and a 
dish of silver or other metal (gold or gilt for a cardinal). His 
towel is generally larger too. 

§ 2. INSTRUMENTS 

In several functions, while a bishop reads, a server holds a 
small HAND-CANDLE in a portable candlestick near the book. 
This is the " scotula " or " palmatorium." ^ 

For the sprinkling with holy water before Mass (the " As- 
perges " ceremony) and for blessing any object a portable 
HOLY-WATER STOUP (vas aquae beuedictac) and sprinkler 
(aspersorium) are used. The stoup is of metal, the aspersorium 
has a brush at the end, or a hollow globe with holes in it. 

The THL'RIBLE (thuribulum) is a vessel, round in shape, 
hanging by three long chains from a disk. Held by this disk 
it can be swung. It has a cover which hangs by a fourth 
chain from a ring passing through the disk. By pulling up 
this ring the thurible may be opened. Generally there is 
another ring round all the chains to keep them together. 
The INCENSE-BOAT (uavicella, navicula, acerra) is a little 
vessel, shaped like a boat, in which the incense is kept. It 
has a SPOON (cochlear) with which the incense is put on the 
burning charcoal in the thurible. In the sacristy are kept the 
acolytes' candles in candlesticks. These are so made, 
with a foot, that they can stand without being held, for in- 
stance on the credence table. There are also torches 
(funalia) held by the torch-bearers (caeroferarii) at Mass and 
Benediction. In theory these should be long torches. It is 
now usual to make them in the form of a separate case (prac- 
tically a candlestick) into which a candle is placed. But the 
idea of a torch is so far preserved that they have no foot, and 
cannot stand alone. When not in use they are kept in a rack 
in the sacristy. 

The PROCESSIONAL CROSS is fixed to a long staff, also so 
made that it cannot stand alone. In Catholic churches it now 
always has a figure of our Lord crucified. 

^ Italian "bugia," French "boug-eoir. " Pius X has allowed its use, 
under certain conditions, also to protonotaries apostolic, and other pre- 
lates {Moiu propria, 21 February 1905. Cf. Ephemerides liturgicae, xix 
(1905). PP- 131 ^eq.). 

C 



1 8 General principles concerning Ceremonies 

For processions of the Blessed Sacrament a portable 
CANOPY (baldachinum, umbraculum) is used (sometimes 
carried over a bishop). It has four or more poles. ^ For 
short processions in the church, as when the Sanctissimum 
is carried from one altar to another, a smaller canopy with 
one rod, like an umbrella (umbella), is used. For the Blessed 
Sacrament either must be white or cloth of gold.^ 

The SANCTUS BELL (campanula, squilla) is a small hand 
bell (not a gong-) rung during Mass at the moments ap- 
pointed in the rubrics of the missal. It may be placed on 
the credence table before Mass and taken away afterwards. 
Generally, in England, it remains always on the lowest altar 
step, on the Epistle side at the corner. A stand or cushion' 
is needed, on which to rest the missal at Mass. 

For the kiss of peace, instead of the more usual way of 
giving it (p. 27), sometimes a little disk is used. This is 
often called the pax-brede (pax, instrumentum pacis, tabella 
pacis). It is generally a disk of silver, or gilt, with a handle 
behind to hold it. On the face it has some such symbol as the 
cross, the Agnus Dei, a Pelican in her piety. If this pax-brede 
is used it should have a cloth of linen ^ to wipe it each time 
after it has been kissed. 

Near the tabernacle where the Sanctissimum is reserved a 
little vessel should be kept, generally of glass, with water." 
The priest uses this to purify the fingers when he gives Holy 
Communion not at Mass; or sometimes when he cannot make 
the ablutions at Mass in the usual way, because he will say 
Mass again the same day. It has a small purificator by it. 



§ 3. BOOKS 

There are six liturgical books of the Roman rite. 

The MISSAL (Missale romanum) contains all that is needed 
for Mass, and for certain other functions which take place im- 
mediately before Mass, such as the blessings at Candlemas, 
on Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, the morning services on 
the last three days of holy week, certain blessings (of holy 
water, etc.). It also has the preparation and thanksgiving of 
the celebrant before and after Mass. 

^ The Caer. Ep.., Lib. I, cap. xiv, n. i, says it has six or eight poles, 
borne by " noble laymen." 

'^ Caer. Ep., loc. cit., n. 1-4. 

^ The Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xii, § 15, says it is a cushion of silk, of the 
liturgical colour, or a small silver or wooden stand (legile). A stand is 
far more convenient, and also looks better than a cushion. 

* A cloth of the colour of the day should be used to hold it(Martinucci, 
I, i, p. 102, no. 3) as well as the linen cloth to wipe it. The former is often 
omitted (Le Vavasseur, i, p. 36). 

^ This water, and all water used for ablutions, must be put in the 
sacrariuniy a channel leading to clean earth, generally behind the altar. 



I 



XiturGtcal Dessels, 5n5trument5 ait^ JSooF?5 19 

The BREVIARY (Breviarium romanum) contains all the 
Divine office for the year. 

The RITUAL (Rituale romanum) has the administration of 
other Sacraments, including distribution of Holy Communion 
out of Mass, many blessings, prayers for processions and 
such liturgical functions, as far as they are used by a priest. 
There is less uniformity in the Ritual than in any other litur- 
gical book. Many provinces and dioceses still have their own 
Ritual book, based on the Roman one. Throughout England 
the official Ritual, approved by the English hierarchy, is the 

ORDO ADMINISTRANDI (see pp. 392-393).^ 

The PONTIFICAL (Pontificale romanum) is the book for 
bishops. It contains the Sacraments and other functions per- 
formed only by a bishop, such as Confirmation and Ordina- 
tion, the Consecration of a church, and so on. 

The MARTYROLOGY is a Calendar, giving the names and 
a short statement about martyrs and all Saints, each on his 
day. It is read where the Divine Office is said in choir during 
Prime. 

Lastly the ceremonial (Caerimoniale episcoporum) is a 
directory of ceremonies for bishops and others who take part 
in public services.^ 

There are other books consisting of parts of these printed 
separately for convenience. There is no reason why any 
special service should not be printed in a separate book, so 
long as it conforms to the text in the book from which it is 
taken. 

From the missal the book of lessons is taken. This 
contains the epistles and gospels for the year, to be used by 
the deacon and subdeacon at High Mass. There may be two 
such books, one of epistles and one of gospels. If the church 
does not possess this book, a missal may always be used in 
its stead. The gradual (Graduale romanum) contains the 
parts of the missal needed by the choir, with music. The 
Masses for the dead are often printed in a separate book. 

There are many excerpts from the Breviary. The day 
HOURS (Horae diurnae) contain all the office except matins. 
For use in the choir various extracts are made, with the 
music, such as the vesperal (Vesperale romanum) and 

DIRECTORIVM CHORI. A HOLY WEEK BOOK (Officium heb- 

domadae maioris) contains what is needed for the services of 
Holy Week, taken from the missal and breviary. 

In England we have a book, ritvs servandvs, approved 

^ Ordo adniinistrandi sacratnenta et alia quaedam officia peragendi ex 
rituali romano extractus nonnullis adiectis ex antiquo rituali anglicano 
(London, Burns and Oates, new edition, 1915). 

^ This book [Caer. Ep.), although intended in the first place for bishops, 
contains very full directions for all people at most functions; so that, in 
spite of its title and inconvenient arrangement, it is really a book of 
ceremonies in general. 



20 (Beneral iprinctples concerning Ceremonies 

by the hierarchy, which contains directions and the prayers 
for Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and other non- 
liturgical services.^ The memoriale ritvvm describes func- 
tions for five days, as performed in small churches (see pp. 261- 
264). 

At Mass a missal is needed. It stands on a desk or^cushion 
on the altar. 

At High Mass there must be a Book of lessons, or another 
missal, at the credence table. 

The Caer. Ep.^ says that, at Pontifical functions, and 
(by implication) at other solemn functions too,^ all the litur- 
gical books used (the missal, book of lessons, vesperal, canon 
episcopalis, etc.) are covered with silk of the liturgical 
colour. But in many places this custom is now obsolete. It 
is not very convenient, and is not necessarily an additional 
decoration. Most of our liturgical books are extremely badly 
bound. But if a book has a really fine binding of tooled 
leather, that binding will be a more handsome ornament at 
the function than the cheap silk of bad colour, with gold lace, 
put over books at Rome. Indeed the Roman custom of cover- 
ing up everything on feasts is not an improvement, artistic- 
ally, when the material underneath is fine. 

The ALTAR-CARDS Contain certain prayers from the missal, 
printed separately for the convenience of the celebrant. There 
are three altar-cards. The largest, containing the words of 
consecration and other prayers, stands in the middle of the 
altar, leaning against the cross or tabernacle during Mass. 
The altar-card which contains the prayer at the blessing of 
water (" Deus qui humanae substantiae ") and the Lavabo 
psalm stands at the epistle end; the third, containing the last 
gospel, at the gospel end."* The altar-cards are used only at 
Mass. They should be put in their places on the altar, as part 
of the preparation for Mass and taken away afterwards. In- 
stead of altar-cards a bishop has a book, the canon episco- 
palis, which is opened and placed in the middle of the altar.' 

A card with the prayers ordered by Pope Leo XIII to be 
said after Low Mass is generally placed against the lowest 
altar step on the epistle side. 

^ JRitus servandus in solemni expositione et henedictione sanctissimi 
sacramenti adiectis hyninis et litaniis et orationihus qtiae in ipsa expositione 
et in aliis quibusdam sacris ritibus adhiberi solent {Burns and Oates, new 
edition, 1915), see p. 240. 

^ Lib. I, cap. xii, § 15. ^ Lib. I, cap. xii, § 22. 

* This card should not be on the altar when there is a special last 
gospel. 

' The Canon episcopalis is a book containing the common of the Mass 
from the offertory to the end and other prayers and forms used by 
bishops. At pontifical High Mass it stands on the altar instead of altar- 
cards. See p. 164. 



CHAPTER IV 

COMMON CEREMONIAL ACTIONS 

THERE are many actions, such as bowing, genu- 
flecting, and so on, which occur constantly during 
all services. In order not to have to explain these 
each time, it will be convenient to say here, once for 
all, how they should be done. 

On changing from sitting to kneeling first stand, then 
kneel. Never slide directly on to the knees. 

To make a genuflection, first stand upright facing the 
object or person to whom it is to be made. Unless something 
is held, the hands are joined before the breast. Then, without 
bending the body, touch the ground with the right knee at 
exactly the place where the right foot was. Rise again at once. 

A PROSTRATION is made by first genuflecting as above; 
then, before rising, touch the ground with the left knee where 
the left foot stood. Now, kneeling on both knees, bow the 
head and shoulders slightly.^ 

Everyone who passes the altar where the Sanctissimum is 
reserved, without forming part of a procession, genuflects to 
the Sanctissimum as he passes. Where it is reserved on the 
High Altar, on entering the church genuflect before it, either 
as soon as you enter or before going to your place. Genuflect 
again before going out. In ceremonial entrances everyone 
except the celebrant genuflects to the altar on entering and 
before leaving. But the celebrant genuflects only when the 
Sanctissimum is reserved at the altar; otherwise he bows." 

If the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, that is, during the 
rite of Exposition and in Mass from the Consecration to the 
Communion, on entering or leaving the church make a pro- 
stration. During ceremonies everyone makes this prostration 
at entering and on leaving the church ; during the service 
they only genuflect. When the Sanctissimum is reserved at 
the so-called altar of repose on Maundy Thursday and Good 
Friday morning it is treated as if it were exposed. 

A genuflection is made to a relic of the true cross, if it is 
exposed, also to the cross exposed on Good Friday. It is also 
made to a bishop in his own diocese, a metropolitan in his 
province, a Papal Legate in the place of his legacy, an abbot 
in his own church, a cardinal out of Rome, when they are 
present in vestments or in choir dress. But the genuflection is 
not made to a bishop in the presence of his superior. Prelates, 
canons in their official dress, the celebrant at Mass or other 
service, do not genuflect to anyone. Instead they bow low. 

1 This rule applies also to canons in their own cathedral or collegiate 
church and prelates. 

^ Prostration in this sense must not be confused with the " prostratio " 
(lying prostrate) on Good Friday (p. 303) and Holy Saturday (p. 331). 

21 



22 General ©rtnctples concerning (Teremontes 

If the head is covered it is always uncovered before g'enu- 
flecting. 

If one is about to kneel Immediately at the same place the 
right rule is that one does not first genuflect nor make a 
prostration. But if one is to kneel on a step, then the genu- 
flection is first made on the ground. Rising from this one 
then kneels on the step. 

At the beginning and end of Mass the genuflection is made 
on the ground (this is called '' in piano "). During Mass it is 
made on the lov^est step of the altar. 

The cross-bearer, while holding the processional cross, 
never genuflects.^ When the others do so, he stands. When 
an archbishop gives his blessing, then only does his cross- 
bearer kneel before him, holding the archiepiscopal cross 
turned towards him (p. i8o). The question occurs, when the 
acolytes stand on either side of the cross-bearer, when others 
genuflect and he bows, which should they do? Either practice 
may be seen in various churches; but the overwhelming 
weight of authority is against their genuflecting. They should 
bow with the cross-bearer.""^ This also looks much more 
dignified. 

The rubrics prescribe several kinds of inclinations 
(bows). Thus sometimes they say that the person is profunde 
inclinatuSy sometimes that he is aliquantulum ificlinatus, 
sometimes merely inclinatus\ or they say caput inclinat. 
Generally three bows are distinguished. Alow bow (profunda 
inclinatio) is made by bending the head and body so that the 
hands might touch the knees if they hung down; though, as 
a matter of fact, they are kept joined before the breast. The 
MEDIUM bow (media inclinatio) is made by bending the head 
and shoulders less lowthan before. The simple bow is made 
by bending the head only. 

The general rules for bowing are these : 

In bowing always keep the hands joined before the breast, 
unless they hold something. The celebrant bows low to the 
cross at the beginning and end of services. When one does 
not genuflect to a prelate, then he receives a low bow. The 
deacon or M.C. bows low to the celebrant before and after in- 
censing him. The medium bow is usually made to persons of 

^ The only exception is in the Mem. Rit. for Candlemas, where the 
cross-bearer is told to genuflect before the procession starts (Tit. I, 
cap. ii, § 3, no. 5). But this is probably a slip. Martinucci (I, ii, p. 340, 
no. 60) and Le Vavasseur (ii, p. 192, § 23) both correct it. On Holy 
Saturday the Memoriale expressly tells the cross-bearer not to g'enuflect 
at " Lumen Christi," though everyone else does (Tit. VI, cap. ii, § i, 
no. 16). 

^ Merati, whose authority is all but final, says the acolytes do not 
genuflect (Pars IV, tit. ix, § 41 ; vol. i, p. 291); so do Martinucci-Menghini 
(I, ii, p. 275, § 63); De Herdt (iii, p. 420). Only Le Vavasseur (i, p. 685, 
§ 330; ii, p. 155, § 522) makes the acolytes genuflect at the side of the 
cross-bearer. 



Common Geremonlal Hctions 23 

higher rank than one's own. The head alone is bowed to 
greet persons of equal or less dignity. It occurs also when 
certain words are said; for instance, at the holy Name, when 
the three Divine Persons are named Pater et Films et Spiritus 
sanctus^ at the name of the blessed Virgin Mar^-, of the saint 
of the feast, ^ at the name of the Pope, of the diocesan Ordinary, 
when a prayer for him is said aloud. It is also made during 
the Gloria iii excelsis, and the creed at the verses so indicated 
in the missal. The person who says the word Oremus bows 
the head while saying it. When one bows at the name of 
God (including the holy Name) or at Oremus one should turn 
to the altar cross." In other cases of a bow at a word re- 
cited or sung, it is done straight in front of one, without 
turning. People who are already bowing during any part of a 
service make no further motion on these occasions. Nor does 
anyone bow while he is making the sign of the cross. Every- 
one bows, before and after being incensed, to the person who 
incenses him; and he bows, before and after, to the person in- 
censed (see p. 27). 

While standing or kneeling, when the hands are un- 
occupied, they should be joined before the breast ; that is, 
they are extended and joined palm to palm, the fingers point- 
ing upward. When sitting they should be extended one on 
each knee, over the vestments. In genuflecting at the altar 
the celebrant alone lays the hands on it while doing so. The 
ministers and all others keep the hands joined. When some- 
thing is held in one hand the other should be extended on the 
breast. But the celebrant at the altar lays the other hand on 
it. In bowing the head is always first uncovered. When one 
takes off the biretta it is held in the right hand by the raised 
edge on its right side. When standing hold the biretta against 
the breast in the right and let the other hand hang by the 
side. When sitting rest the biretta on the right knee, while 
the left hand rests extended on the left knee. If several names 
or texts, at each of which a bow should be made, follow one 
another immediately it is more seemly to bow once and to 
remain bowing till all have been said. It is better never to 
bow to the choir when they are kneeling. Those who wear a 
skull-cap ^ in choir take it off whenever they genuflect or bow 
to the altar, when they receive the sprinkling of holy water, 
while they say the Confiteory Misereatur^ Kyrie eleison^ GloHa 
in excelsis^ creed, Sanctus^ Agnus Dei at Mass, while the 
gospel is sung, while they are incensed, at the Elevation, 

^ Not the saint in whose honour a votive Mass or office is said 
(Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, i, p. 12, no. 10). 

^ But only when standing. When kneeling- or sitting- always bow 
straight in front. The choir uncover only, not bowing, to answer a bow. 

^ Cardinals wear a red skull-cap (pileolus, Italian " zucchetto "), 
bishops and some abbots a violet one. Some other prelates (and priests 
for reasons of health) have leave to wear a black skull-cap. 



24 General principles concerning Ceremonies 

while they give and receive the Pax, while Holy Communion 
is given, at the blessing. Also whenever the Sanctissimum is 
exposed, during the gospel at matins, at the confession at 
prime and compline. No one wears the skull-cap when he 
intones the psalms in the middle of the choir, sings the 
Invitatorium, lessons, martyrology, nor while he assists in a 
cope.^ 

In the Roman rite the sign of the cross is made thus: 
Place the left hand extended on the breast. Hold the right 
hand extended also. At the words Patris raise it and touch 
the forehead; at Filii touch the breast at a sufficient distance 
down ; at Spiritus sancti touch the left shoulder ; at Anien 
touch the right shoulder. Then again join the hands, if they are 
to be joined. When the sign is made without spoken words 
the same order is kept. 

The ceremonial kiss (osculum), which occurs frequently, 
should be made by merely touching the object with the closed 
lips. The rule is that every time anyone hands anything to 
the celebrant one kisses first the object, then the celebrant's 
hand. On taking things from the celebrant, first his hand, 
then the thing is kissed. But blessed candles and palms 
are kissed first when they are taken. When the Sanctis- 
simum is exposed, only the kiss at the epistle, gospel, and for 
the chalice and paten remain. The thurible is then not kissed, 
nor the incense spoon. If the Ordinary assists at his throne 
the thurible is not kissed when handed to the celebrant, nor 
the incense spoon, nor the celebrant's hand at the epistle and 
gospel. At Masses for the dead and at funerals nothing is 
ever kissed. 

To handle a thurible neatly is a thing that requires some 
knowledge. This knowledge is acquired most easily by seeing 
the actions done by someone who already knows. It is one of 
the things, not really difficult or complicated, that require 
many words to explain. 

Except when the Sanctissimum is exposed, incense is always 
blessed by the celebrant before it is used.^ When the Sanctis- 
simum is exposed and will alone be incensed, incense is put in 
the thurible by the celebrant without blessing. 

When the thurifer merely holds the thurible, while waiting 
for it to be used, he does so by the chains, just under the disk 
at top ; if it contains no incense, he holds it in the left hand, 
otherwise in the right. The lid may then be raised slightly to 
allow more ventilation to the burning charcoal. To raise the 
lid the ring at the end of the middle chain joined to it should 
be pulled up. 

In holding the thurible the thumb may be passed through 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, I, i, pp. 11-12. 

^ Except also the cases when it is blessed by a higher dignitary pre- 
sent, as will be noted in place. 



{ 



Common Ceremonial Hctions 25 

the ring of the disk, the middle finger through the movable 
ring, or the thumb through this and the little finger through 
the disk ring. With the thumb the ring may be drawn up 
easily, so as to open the thurible below. Holding the thurible 
in this way the thurifer swings it gently, to keep the charcoal 
alight. The other hand, holding the boat,^ should be laid on 
the breast. But when he is kneeling the chains are so long 
that, if he held the thurible this way, it would be on the 
ground. So, when kneeling, he holds the chains under the 
disk in one hand (right, if the thurible contains incense, other- 
wise left), takes the chains about half way down in the other 
and so swings the thurible. 

When the thurifer brings the incense to be blessed he first 
hands the boat to the deacon or M.C. Then he takes the 
chains under the disk in the left. With the right hand he 
pulls the ring up, to open the thurible sufficiently, so that the 
celebrant may conveniently put in the incense. He takes the 
chains about half way down in the right, and so holds up 
the thurible in front of the celebrant at a convenient height. 
He should not stand too near the celebrant. The celebrant 
needs a certain amount of room to put out his hand and put 
in the incense. 

Meanwhile the deacon (or, if there is no deacon, the M.C.) 
opens the incense-boat, takes the spoon and hands it to the 
celebrant, with the usual kiss of the spoon and the celebrant's 
hand. At the same time he says Ittbo dmnne benedice^^e^ The 
celebrant takes the spoon ; with it he takes a little incense 
from the boat and puts it on the live charcoal in the thurible. 
He repeats this a second and third time. Meanwhile the 
deacon or M.C. holds the boat open, so that he can do so 
conveniently. While putting on the incense the celebrant says 
Ah illo henedicaris in cuius hcnwre cremaberisy^ Un\y on one 
occasion, at the off"ertory in Mass, is there another formula. 
Per intercessionem beati Michaelis archangeli, etc., as in the 
missal. Then he hands the spoon back to the deacon or 
M.C, who receives it with the usual kisses. The celebrant 
makes the sign of the cross over the thurible, saying nothing."^ 
While he does so he lays the left hand either on the altar (if 
he is by it) or his breast.^ 

^ In some churches it is usual to employ another server as "boat- 
bearer." There is no provision for such a server in any official book; 
nor do the authors of books on ceremonies say anything- about him. If 
he is employed the boat-bearer will stand or kneel at the thurifer's left, 
and will always hand him the boat before he approaches the celebrant. 

' There is a contradiction here in the rubrics. The Rit. eel., iv, 4, says 
plainly that the celebrant is to say the words, hand back the spoon, then 
make the sign of the cross. So does the Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xxiii, 
n. 1-2. But the Ordo Missae marks the cross in the middle of the word 
"bene + dicaris." The S.R.C. has declared that the Rit. eel. and Caer. 
Ep. are to be followed (18 Dec. 1779^ no. 2515, ad Xj. 

^ Authors disagree whether, when the celebrant stands at the altar, 



26 General principles concernina Ceremonies 

On occasions when the incense is not blessed, namely, when 
the Sanctissimurn is exposed, neither the deacon nor tlie 
celebrant say anything; nor does the celebrant make the sii;n 
of the cross. 

The thurifer waits till the incense is put in and the sign of 
the cross made (if it is to be made). Then he lowers the 
thurible. He shuts down the cover; if there is a ring round 
the chains he puts this down over the cover to hold it firm. 
Then he hands the thurible to the deacon or M.C. To do this 
he holds the upper part of the chains under the disk in his left 
and the chains, about half way down, in the right. The deacon 
takes it in the same way and hands it to the celebrant, who 
proceeds to incense the altar, or whatever is to be incensed. 

The particular directions for incensing the altar, persons or 
things will be given at their place in the ceremonies. Here 
we note only the manner of incensing any person or thing, in 
general. 

To INCENSE anything or anyone take the top of the chains 
of the thurible in the left hand and place it against the breast. 
Take the chains about four inches above the shut cover in the 
right. It is important not to hold the chains far from the 
cover, or the thurible will swing out too far and will perhaps 
get entangled in the chains. The most convenient way of 
holding the chains in the right hand is to pass them all to- 
gether between the first and second fingers. The second, third, 
and fourth fingers, lying together, are then under the chains. 
By moving the hand upwards the thurible is cast outwards 
towards the thing incensed. 

The rubrics distinguish two kinds of incensing, with a 
SIMPLE swing (ductus simplex) and a double swing (ductus 
duplex). The ductus simplex is made in this way. Lift the 
right hand to the level of the breast only, at the same time 
swing the thurible out towards the thing to be incensed and 
let it fall at once to about the knee. As it falls it should make 
an audible click against the chains. 

There are two ways of making the ductus duplex. One is 
to lift the thurible to the level of the face. It will here click 
against the chains. That is one motion. Then swing it out and 
let it fall, so that it makes another click against the chains. 
There are then two motions and two clicks. 

The other way is simply to repeat the ductus simplex twice, 
swinging out, letting the thurible fall back with a click, then 
swinging out again and lowering it. 

but sideways, to bless incense, he should lay his left hand on the altar or 
on his own breast. Rit. eel., iii, 5, says that when he is at the altar (cum 
est ad altare) and blesses anything, he is to lay the left hand on the altar. 
But does *'ad altare" mean facing the altar? Since the authorities dis- 
agree, in practice either way may be adopted. See JVIerati, Pars II, tit. iv, 
§ 21 (tom. i, p. 120); Martinucci-Menghini, I, i, p. 73, no. 2; Van der 
Stappen, iii, p. 424; Le Vavasseur, i, p. 423; de Herdt, i, p. 422. 



Gommon Ceremonial Hctlons 27 

In all incensing the person who incenses should bow to the 
person (or object) incensed before and after. The person in- 
censed bows each time in return, but stands upright with 
folded hands, facing the incenser, while he is incensed. 

The thurible is handed back to the deacon or other person 
who is to receive it. He, as usual, kisses first the hand, then 
the disk of the thurible when it is handed back by the cele- 
brant; otherwise there is no kiss. 

The KISS OF PEACE at Mass is given in this way. The two 
persons stand facing each other with hands joined. The one 
who is to receive the kiss bows. Then the one who gives it 
lays his hands on the shoulders of the other; the receiver puts 
his arms under those of him who gives it. Both bow the head 
over the left shoulder of the other. The one who gives the 
kiss says Pax tecum. The other answers Et cinn spiritu tuo. 
Then they stand again with folded hands facing each other, 
and both bow. 



CHAPTER V 

THE CHOIR AND ASSISTANTS 
AT CEREMONIES 

§ I. THE LITURGICAL CHOIR 

WE must note first that the "choir" during a serv- 
ice does not necessarily mean those who sing. 
It was so originally. In theory, no doubt, it 
should be so still, namely, that the singers have 
their places right and left of the altar and sing 
there. But there are often practical difficulties against this. 
In singing part-music especially it is often difficult to produce 
a good artistic effect when the singers are arranged in two 
rows facing each other, perhaps at some distance, across the 
church. Often, therefore, the actual singers are placed else- 
where, in a space together at the side behind a grating, behind 
the altar, or in a gallery at the other end of the church. In 
such cases no notice is taken of them during the ceremonies. 

There remains, however, the possibility that a liturgical 
** choir" may assist at the service; even if they sing only 
part, or none, of the chants. 

Thus canons in cathedral and collegiate churches, regulars 
In the churches of their order, clergy of any kind, may assist 
in the seats or stalls on either side, before the altar. These 
then form the choir from the point of view of ceremonies. 

They are dressed in cassock and surplice with biretta. 
Dignitaries may wear a cape or mantellettum (p. lo). Regu- 
lars generally wear the habit of their order. ^ 

On entering the choir its members may come in procession 
(with or without a processional cross), the celebrant wearing 
full vestments." In this case the younger or inferior members 
walk in front of the elder or superior ones. But when they 
enter, not in solemn procession, that is, without either a cross 
or celebrant vested, the more dignified walk before the others. 

They walk two and two, at equal distances from each other, 
with head covered till they come into the church. At the door 
of the sacristy they uncover and take holy water, the one 
nearer the stoup giving it to his companion by dipping his 
own fingers and holding them towards the other, who touches 
them. Both then make the sign of the cross. 

Before the altar each pair genuflects in turn, taking care to 
do so exactly together. So they go to their places. 

In their places they either stand or kneel or sit, as will be 
said in the case of each function. The general rule is that 
when they sit they cover the head, except when the Blessed 

^ Namely if their order has a recognized habit. 

' To wear vestments (chasuble, cope, dalmatic or tunicle) is what 
liturgical books mean by being "paratus.' 

28 



XTbe Cbotr anb Hsslstants at Ceremonies 29 

Sacrament is exposed. They never stand or kneel with covered 
head. Before standing they take off the biretta; they put it 
on again after they have sat down. Those who wear a skull- 
cap wear this while standing. They take it off on the occa- 
sions noted at pp. 23-24. 

While members of the choir assist at a service at the High 
Altar they should take no notice of anything that happens in 
any other part of the church, for instance, Low Mass said at a 
side altar. 

If anyone has to leave the choir or come to it alone, he 
must take care not to do so while any text is being said or 
sung, at which the others have to perform a ceremonial act, 
such as bowing. Thus, no one should leave the choir or enter 
while the verse Gloria Patri at the end of a psalm is sung, 
nor while they are sprinkled with holy water, nor while they 
say the Con/iteor, Kyrie^ Gloria in excelsis^ creed, SanctuSy 
Agnus Dei at Mass, nor while the collects, gospel, post-com- 
munion are sung, nor while his side of the choir receives the 
Pax or is being incensed, nor during any short verse at which 
they bow or genuflect.^ 

When anyone has to leave the choir alone he uncovers and 
rises ; holding his biretta in the right hand he goes to the 
middle, genuflects to the cross, bows first to the celebrant, if 
he is sitting at the sedilia, then to each side of the choir, be- 
ginning with the side of greater dignity, and goes out. As a 
general rule, the gospel side is considered that of greater 
dignity. This side will then generally be incensed before the 
other, will receive the kiss of peace first, and so on. The 
exception is that, if a person of higher rank be present, the 
side on which he sits is considered the one of greater dignity. 
Such a person would be a prelate, the hebdomadarius, and 
so on. 

At many functions, such as, for instance, High Mass fol- 
lowing terce, the choir will already be in their places when 
the procession for Mass enters. In this case the clergy and 
servers in the procession bow to the choir, first to the side of 
greater dignity, after genuflecting to the altar on entering, as 
will be noted (p. 106). 

In standing and kneeling the members of the choir face 
each other across the church. They do not turn to the altar, 
except on the special occasions when they are told to do so. 

We shall note in each case the particular rules for the choir 
as to standing, kneeling, bowing, and so on. Here occur only 
certain occasions in general when the choir always bow. 
They are the Gloria Patri wQrsQ after the psalms (not the verse 

^ If a person has to enter the choir alone it is usual to kneel first in 
the middle, say a short prayer, then rise, genuflect, bow to the celebrant 
if he is at the sedilia, bow to either side of the choir, beginning with the 
side of greater dignity (as above) and go to his place. 



30 General principles concerning Ceremonies 

Sicut erat in principio) and whenever the holy Name occurs. 
In this case they bow during' the words lesus Christies^ not 
merely during the first of these. Also when the word Trinitas^ 
or the names of the three Divine Persons in order occur 
{Pater et Filius ei Spiritus sanctus), at the name Maria (of the 
blessed Virgin), at the name of the Saint of the day (not at a 
votive office), of the reigning Pope, of the Ordinary. They 
bow in return whenever anyone bows to them. 

It is important that when there is any common action to 
be performed by all, such as rising, kneeling, bowing, they 
should do so uniformly together. 

All text books of ceremonial insist on certain obvious 
points of deportment in choir. Eviden<"'v th2 members of the 
choir should know what they have to do beforehand, so as to 
be ready to act at once when the time comes. Although their 
part of the ceremony is comparatively slight, nevertheless 
they have a part in it. They must know this part, as the 
servers know theirs. They should kneel, stand and sit 
straight, behaving always with such reverence as to give 
edifying example to the people in church. They should not 
spend the time in choir reading irrelevant books, even pious 
ones. They should not, for instance, say their office during 
Mass nor anticipate their own Matins during Vespers. 

They should attend to the public service at which they 
assist, making this their prayer. When they recite or sing 
any text of the service they should mean what they say ; 
Orabo spiritu^ orabo et Ttiente: psallam spiritu^ psallam et 
mente (i Cor. xiv, 15). Otherwise their attendance would not 
be really an act of religion at all, and they would deserve the 
words : This people honours me with its lips; but its heart is far 
fromme (Is. xxix, 13). 



§ 2. MINISTERS AND SERVERS 

In the case of each service or function the exact number of 
servers required will be stated. Here a note as to the number 
generally needed in the average Catholic church in England 
may be useful. 

For Low Mass one server only attends. For High Mass, 
solemn vespers, solemn Benediction, processions carried out 
with some pomp, and the more solemn offices generally, be- 
sides the priest who celebrates, there are the sacred ministers, 
that is deacon and subdeacon.^ At vespers on the greater 
feasts there may be four or six assistants in copes. For High 
Mass, solemn vespers and such functions the servers required 

1 In the great majority of cases in England the deacon and subdeacon, 
as a matter of fact, are also ordained priests. At vespers the assistants, 
who wear copes, need not be in holy orders (see p. 119). 



XTbe Cboiv an^ Hssistants at Ceremonies 31 

are: A Master of Ceremonies (M.C.)j thurifer, two acolytes. 
At High Mass two, four or six torch-bearers are needed, 
though there may be two only, who are the acolytes < see 
p. 98). At Benediction a thurifer, two, four or six torch- 
bearers, and at least one other server (here called M.C., see 
p. 241) attend. For processions a cross-bearer is needed, ex- 
cept in the cases where the subdeacon carries the cross. A 
sung Mass (Missa cantata) can be celebrated with two servers 
only; or there may be as many as at High Mass (p. 137). 

Pontifical functions require many more assistants and serv- 
ers. Generally there are two Masters of Ceremonies. An 
Assistant Priest (A. P.) is required; in the case of the Ordinary 
using his throne there are two assistant deacons there, be- 
sides the ministers of Mass. Three or four servers (called 
chaplains) hold the hand-candle, book, mitre and (for the 
Ordinary) crozier. If the bishop wears the cappa he has a 
train-bearer. Six servers are needed to vest the bishop, 
though this can be managed with a less number. Altogether 
twenty persons attend the Ordinary, when he sings Mass 
using the throne (p. 165). Not quite so many are required by 
a bishop who uses the faldstool (p. 184). 

At solemn processions (as for Corpus Christi) canopy bear- 
ers, clergy in vestments, the choir and clergy in surplices may 
increase the number indefinitely. 

As a general rule, except in the case of processions and 
funerals (when an indefinite number of clergy, supposed to be 
the choir, stand around the hearse holding lighted candles), 
not more servers should attend than those really needed, who 
have some office to perform. It does not add to the dignity 
of a rite that a crowd of useless boys stand about the sanc- 
tuary doing nothing. Nor is it in accordance with the tra- 
dition of the Roman rite to add useless ornamental attend- 
ance.^ The servers needed for the ceremonies are sufficient to 
make the procession coming in and going out. " Entia non 
sunt multiplicanda sine necessitate." 

A remark by Martinucci about the behaviour of servers in 
church may be noted with advantage here: ''They should 
avoid too much precision or affectation, or such a bearing as 
befits soldiers on parade rather than churchmen. They must 
certainly do all gravely and regularly ; but if they behave 
with too punctilious a uniformity the sacred functions look 
theatrical." - 

Yet perhaps in England the danger is in the other direc- 
tion, lest servers (generally young boys) behave carelessly 
and irreverently. Considerable tact and good taste are 

^ It is remarkable how few people they use in Rome itself for functions, 
never more than are strictly necessar\\ There seems a strong tendency 
to keep down the number as much as possible. 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, II, ii, pp. 550-551, § 21. 



32 General iprinciples concernina Ceremonies 

needed in the priest or M.C. who trains the boys, to find the 
right mean between slovenliness and affectation. 



§ 3. ECCLESIASTICAL RANK 

Ceremonies are sometimes modified according to the rank of 
the person who performs them or assists at them. It is there- 
fore important to understand such rank, as far as it affects 
our subject. 

Most cases are so obvious as to require no special notice. 
The celebrant at Mass, vespers, compline. Benediction, and 
all such functions must be ordained priest. The deacon and 
subdeacon must have received those orders. The one excep- 
tion to this is that a clerk, at least tonsured, may, in case of 
necessity, perform part of the office of subdeacon at High 
Mass and other functions. For this it is required that there 
be a grave reason, and that he omit certain duties performed 
only by a subdeacon (see p. 113). No one may act as deacon 
unless he has received that order. 

The rubrics suppose that the servers and even the members 
of the choir be clerks. The acolytes and thurifer should be 
ordained acolyte, the others should be in minor orders, or at 
least be tonsured. According to the Caerimoniale episco- 
porum, the Master of Ceremonies should be a priest, or at 
least in holy orders.^ But this rule is rarely observed. It is 
now recognized that laymen may serve at Mass or at any 
function, and may form the choir. 

Above the rank of the simple priest are canons in chapter. 
This means, when they are present, in a body, in the church 
of which they are canons; or at another church at which, for 
some reason, the whole chapter assists. A canon may now 
wear his robes and special insignia throughout the diocese to 
which his chapter belongs, even when the chapter is not 
present, but not elsewhere." 

A PRELATE (praelatus) is, in the first case, a bishop. But 
not all bishops receive the same honours at every ceremony 
they may attend. There is, for instance, considerable differ- 
ence between a bishop where he has jurisdiction (as the 
Ordinary in his own diocese), and an auxiliary or a foreign 
bishop visiting a place. 

The liturgical books frequently speak of greater pre- 
lates (maiores praelati, maiores praesules). Under this term 
the following persons are understood : Cardinals "' everywhere 
out of Rome, and in their titular churches at Rome, Patriarchs 
and Archbishops throughout their Patriarchate or Province, 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. v, §§ i, 3. 

^ Cod.^ c. 409. ^ For privileges of Cardinals see Cod.^ c. 239. 



XLbc Cboir ant) Hsststants at Ceremonies 33 

Ordinary bishops in their own diocese, Papal Legates in the 
territory of their legacy. 

Below these in rank come bishops who have no jurisdiction 
in the place where the function occurs. 

Below bishops are the so-called inferior prelates (prae- 
lati inferiores). The first case of these is that of abbots.^ 

A decree of the S. Congregation of Rites, in 1659, lays 
down rules as to the use of pontifical vestments, and other 
distinctions, by inferior prelates.'^ 

Many of these rules are now abrogated by the later legisla- 
tion of Pius X, in regard to prelates of the Roman court (see 
below, p. 34); but the rules of 1659 still obtain in the case of 
abbots. The chief are these. 

Abbots may use pontifical ceremonies and vestments in the 
churches of their order (where they have jurisdiction) only, and 
only on greater feasts. These feasts are days of obligation, 
the day of the local patron Saint, of the founder of their order, 
of the title and dedication of the church.^ On these days they 
may celebrate according to the rite of a bishop, with the follow- 
ing exceptions: 

They may not have a seventh candle on the altar. They 
may not have a fixed throne at the side. They must use a 
chair, to be removed afterwards. Over this chair they may 
have a canopy, not of cloth of gold or other precious material, 
but of simpler stuff than the altar frontal. The chair may be 
covered with silk of the colour of the day ; it may be raised 
two steps only above the floor of the sanctuary. They may 
not be accompanied by the body of monks or canons, as a 
bishop is, on coming to the church or on going away. At 
High Mass they are assisted by the deacon and subdeacon of 
the Mass, by two other deacons in dalmatics, by an assistant 
priest in a cope. Six other monks or canons may attend, 
two in copes, two in chasubles, two in tunicles; but these may 
not sit in the choir stalls ; they must have seats, benches with- 
out a back, covered with green cloth, which are taken away 
afterwards. Abbots may not wear the precious mitre, without 
a special indult of the Holy See.^ Under their mitre they wear 
a black skull-cap. They carry their crozier only in their own 
church, not in public processions. As regulars, they wear no 
rochet, unless it is part of the habit of their order. They may 

1 An abbot is the head of a monastery of monks or of a congreg-ation 
of reg-ular canons. The following- relig^ious orders have abbots : Canons 
of the Lateran (Aug-ustinian Canons), Premonstratensian Canons, Canons 
of the Immaculate Conception, Benedictines of all congregations, Cis- 
tercians. All monks of Eastern rites have Archimandrites or Hegoimenoi, 
who are equivalent to Western abbots. An abbot " nuUius (scil. dioeces- 
eos) " is one who is in no bishop's diocese, having- himself quasi-episcopal 
jurisdiction. Rules for abbots and other lesser prelates are g-iven in the 
Codex, c. 319-327. ^ No. 1 131, 27 September 1659. 

^ No inferior prelates may pontificate at funerals. 

* They use the simple mitre and the one of cloth of gold. 

D 



34 General iprinctples concerning Ceremonies 

take the vestments from the altar only when they are about 
to celebrate pontifically. They may bless the people in the 
pontifical form, making the sign of the cross three times, only 
when they celebrate Mass, vespers or matins pontifically. In 
the presence of a bishop they are not to give blessings with- 
out special indult. If a bishop ^ is present he is to have his 
seat on the gospel side ; it is to be raised by one step higher 
than that of the abbot on the epistle side. Canons of the 
cathedral sit around the bishop, monks or canons of the 
abbot's chapter around his seat. The bishop puts incense into 
the thurible and blesses it ; he kisses the gospel book after the 
gospel; he blesses the people at the end of Mass. The abbot 
may not bless the preachers before the sermon. 

When an abbot says Low Mass he is to do exactly as does 
any other priest of his order. He will vest in the sacristy, 
will not wear a pectoral cross, will not use a silver vessel and 
basin to wash his hands. He will have one server only; two 
candles will be lit on the altar. 

But further rights, for instance, the use of a purple skull- 
cap, are granted by the Holy See to the abbots of greater 
exempt monasteries.* Besides abbots there are other *' in- 
ferior prelates," namely, real or titular officials of the Papal 
court. These are the priests commonly called " Monsignori." ' 
A decree, ''motu proprio," of Pope Pius X* defines exactly 
who these are and establishes their rights. 

I. First among these are protonotaries apostolic 
{protonotarii apostolici). These are divided into four classes: 
I. There are seven Protonotaries **de numero participantium," 
who form a college, still representing the old Notaries of the 
Apostolic See.^ Now they have duties chiefly in connection 
with the cause of canonization and beatification of Saints. 
Their ceremonial privileges are that they may celebrate ponti- 
fically '^ out of Rome, but only having asked and obtained the 

^ Any bishop, according to the words of the decree: "si episcopus 
aderit " {loc. cit.^ § 15). 

^ For the rights of Abbots see Le Vavasseur, Fonctions Pontijicales^ ii, 
pp. 320-326. 

' The title " Monsignore " is not given as such. Certain offices of the 
Papal court, often granted as honorary offices to priests living away 
from Rome, involve that their holder be called "Monsignor." This 
general title is used for dignitaries of various ranks, as will be seen 
from the description above. Like the stars, one Monsignore differeth, 
and very considerably, from another Monsig^nore in glory. Cod.^ c. 328. 

* Inter multiplices^ 21 February 1905. Cod.^ c. 106,7*'. 

* Originally they were the Pope's legal advisers, who drew up docu- 
ments, settled questions of Canon Law according to the " usus forensis," 
and so on. 

* This means always the *' usus pontificalium," namely with the same 
ceremonies and vestments as a bishop, save where an exception is made. 
These Protonotaries use all a bishop's vestments, the shoes, ring, 
pectoral cross, gloves, tunicle, dalmatic, mitre. They do not cross the 
stole ; but they have no crozier. 



Ube Cboir an^ Hssistants at Geremonies 35 

permission of the Ordinary. They may not, however, use 
crozier, throne or cappa magna; nor may they have a 
seventh candle on the altar, nor an assistance of several 
deacons. They do not say Pax vobis, as a bishop does, in- 
stead of Domiyius vobiscum) nor may they sing the verses 
Sit nomen Domini and Adiutoritim nostrum, before blessing". 
They do not bless with the triple sign of the cross. Wear- 
ing the mitre, they bless, singing the usual form for priests, 
Benedicat vos, unless the Ordinary or greater prelate be 
present. In this case, according to the general, rule (p. 159), 
he gives the blessing at the end of Mass. Coming to the 
church to celebrate they wear the mantellettum, and over it a 
pectoral cross (which otherwise they may not wear). They 
are not to be received at the door of the church as a bishop 
is. Their pectoral cross (worn only when they have the 
mantellettum) is to be of gold with one gem ; it hangs from a 
cord of ruddy violet (color rubinus) mixed with gold thread. 
They use a cloth of gold mitre and the simple mitre. Under 
this they may have a black skull-cap. They use the scotula 
(p. 17), Canon episcopalis, and silver vessel and dish to 
wash the hands. At an ordinary Low Mass they have no 
special privilege, except the use of the scotula. They have 
precedence over abbots. All who attend Mass said by one of 
them, even in private oratories, satisfy the obligation of hear- 
ing Mass on Sundays and feasts. 

The choir dress of these Protonotaries is the *' habitus 
praelatitius," namely a violet cassock with a train, which is 
let down only when they celebrate pontifically, a violet silk 
belt, rochet and violet mantellettum, a black biretta with a 
ruddy tassel. They may wear the "habitus planus " (p. 13), 
like a bishop, but without pectoral cross and with a ruddy 
cord round the hat. 

II. Protonotarii apostolici svpranvmerarii are 
the canons of the three Patriarchal basilicas at Rome, the 
Lateran, Vatican, and Liberian (St. Mar^' Major), also canons 
of certain other cathedrals to which this indult is granted.' 
Honorary canons are excluded. 

These prelates have various privileges, according to three 
cases : when they are present together in chapter in their 
own cathedral, or alone but in their diocese, or in another 
diocese. The two former cannot occur in England. In the 
third case they have the same rights as the next class. 

III. Protonotarii apostolici ad ixstar partici- 
PANTivM consist of the canons of certain cathedrals^ and a 

^ At present (1915) the canons of Concordia lulia (prov. of Venice), 
Florence, Gorz, Padua, Treviso, Udine, \'enice {Annuario pontificioy 

19.15' P- 396). 

- Canons of Cag-liari, Malta, Stngonia (Eszergom, Gran, see of the 
Primate of Hungary); Annuario pont., ih. 



36 (Beneral principles concerning Ceremonies 

great number of other priests, to whom the Pope has conferred 
this dignity.^ 

These share the rights of the first class (the '* Participantes ") 
somewhat diminished. They may wear prelate's dress and 
the *' habitus pianus." Out of Rome, with the consent of 
the Ordinary, they may celebrate pontifically. In this case 
they use neither a faldstool nor the gremiale (p. 14); they 
sit at the sedilia with the ministers. They wear a white silk 
mitre, having no further ornament than ruddy fringes at the 
end of the infulae. If the church is not a cathedral, and if no 
greater Prelate be present, they may be assisted by a priest in 
a cope. They wear a pectoral cross of plain gold, without 
jewels, hanging by a violet cord. They say all the Mass at 
the altar, and wash their hands only at the Lavabo. They 
have a ring. They may celebrate pontifically the vespers of 
the feast of which they celebrate pontifical Mass, or, by leave 
of the Ordinary, other vespers. In this case they wear the 
mitre, pectoral cross, and ring. At Low Mass they may use 
the scotula. 

IV. Protonotarii apostolici titvlares are ap- 
pointed by the Pope or by the college of the *' Participantes." 
Every Vicar General or Vicar Capitular, during his time of 
office, is a Protonotary of this class. Outside Rome they 
may use prelate's dress, but all black; that is, a black cassock 
with a train (that may never be let down), a black silk belt, 
rochet and black mantellettum, a black biretta. They take 
precedence of other clergy, of canons not in chapter, but not 
of canons in chapter nor of Vicars general and capitular, nor 
of Superiors of religious orders, nor of prelates of the Roman 
curia. In celebrating their only distinction is the use of the 
scotula. 

Other prelates of the Roman court are the Antistites urbani, 
generally called domestic prelates. These may wear pre- 
late's dress of violet, with a rochet and mantellettum. They 
may never let down the train. They have violet edges and 
tassels to their biretta. In ceremonies their only privilege is 
the use of the scotula. 

There are chamberlains (cubicularii) ^ of the Papal court 
in various orders, '* Cubicularii intimi (camerieri segreti)," 
who may be active or " supranumerarii," and ''Cubicularii 
honoris"; also " Capellani secreti " and " Capellani secreti 
honoris." These titles are given to many priests as a com- 
pliment. 

Papal Chamberlains are not prelates. They wear violet 
cassocks, not the rochet nor the mantellettum. Instead of 

^ The list, as it is for this year, will be found, Annuario pont.^ pp. 396- 
411. 

* Italian "camerieri." There are also lay "camerieri di spada e 
cappa," who have no special rights at ceremonies. 



XTbe Cboir anb assistants at Ceremomes ^7 

this they have a long violet cloak of the same kind as the 
mantellettum, but reaching to the feet. It has slits at the 
sides for the arms and false sleeves which hang down behind.^ 
They have no liturgical privileges. As private dress (habitus 
pianus) they wear a black cassock with a violet belt and 
stock. 

None of these persons, neither prelates, canons, nor Papal 
chamberlains genuflect, but bow only to a bishop, even when 
he gives his blessing. A Vicar General, as such, has no 
liturgical privilege ; but, according to the law of Pius X, all 
Vicars general are now Protonotaries (p. 36) ; they have pre- 
cedence over all the clergy of the diocese (Cod.y c. 370). In 
choir, whereas normally the gospel side is the side of greater 
dignity, receives incense and the kiss of peace first, if a pre- 
late or canon be present, the side at which he has his place 
becomes of greater dignity.' No civil distinction affects any 
ceremony in church, except that the Pontifical and Caeri- 
moniale episcoporum grant certain privileges to ''princes."^ 
This case can hardly occur in England. 

' Called in Italian " mantellone. " On duty at the Vatican they have a 
great red cloth cloak with a cape. 

2 For the rights of prelates see Le Vavasseur, Fonct. Pont., ii, pp. 
327-334- 

* A *'maximus princeps " may have a place in the sanctuary. He is 
given a book of the gospels to kiss (not the one used) after the gospel. 
He is incensed after a bishop (but Kings and the Emperor — the Roman 
Emperor — before); he is given the kiss of peace. " Magistrates, barons, 
and nobles " receive this after all the clergy. A " mulier insignis " is in- 
censed {Caer. Ep.y Lib. I, cap. iv, § 6; cap. xxiii, §§30-31; cap. xxiv, 
§94). 



PART II 
THE HOLY SACRIFICE 



I 



CHAPTER VI 
LOW MASS SAID BY A PRIEST 

§ I. PREPARATION 

ALTHOUGH High Mass, historically, is the original 
rite, so that Low Mass is really only a shortened 
form of that, nevertheless, in practice, the first thing 
a priest must learn is how to say Low Mass.^ He 
does so constantly, generally every morning. The 
ceremonies of normal Low Mass form, as it were, the back- 
ground for all other Eucharistic rites. It is possible to describe 
these others more shortly, supposing that the priest is familiar 
with those of Low Mass. Then we need note only the differ- 
ences on other occasions. 

Nothing is said here about the rite, as far as the prayers 
are concerned ; that is another matter and is extremely com- 
plicated. Here we describe only the ceremonies. 

Before Mass the following preparations must be made. The 
altar must be uncovered of the dust-cloth (so-called vesper- 
cloth, p. 8), leaving the three altar-cloths of white linen. 
It must have a cross and three, at least two, candles, which 
two are lighted. They should stand at either end. The third 
candle, ordered by the rubrics for the consecration,^ should 
stand at the epistle end of the altar, outside the others, or it 
may be fixed to a bracket near the altar. The frontal and 
tabernacle veil (if there is a tabernacle containing the Sanc- 
tissimum) should be of the colour of the \ estments, with the 
exception noted above (p. 6). The missal-stand or cushion 
must be at the epistle side of the altar, straight, so that its front 
line is parallel with the front of the altar. The missal lies on 
it, with its edges towards the cross, unless the server bring 
this with him from the sacristy. In any case, all the places 
should be found and marked in it before Mass begins. 

The altar-cards will be in their place on the altar, as de- 
scribed at p. 20. If it is to be used, the card with the prayers 

'■ For the ceremonies of Low Mass the first norm is, of course, the 
rubrics of the missal {^Ruhricae generales and Ritics seri'andus). The 
standard commentary on these rubrics is Bartholomew Gavanti's The- 
saurtcs sacrorum rittiiim, with the additional notes of Cajetan Merati 
(Venice edition, 1762), especially the second part (vol. i, pp. 89-192). See 
also Pius Martinucci, Manuale sacrarum Caeriino7iiarum, 3rd edition, 
corrected and edited by John Baptist Meng-hini (Reg-ensburg- and Rome, 
Pustet, 1911-1916), vol. i, part i, pp. 343-383; Le V'avasseur, Manuel de 
Littirgie, loth edition, edited by Haegy^ (Paris, Lecoffre, 1910), vol. i, 
pp. 272-362 ; J. B. de Herdt, Sacrae Liturgiae praxis, 9th edition (Louvain, 
1894), vol. i, pp. 261-397; J. F. Van der Stappen, Sacra Liturgia, 2nd 
edition (Mechlin, H. Dessain, 1904-1911), vol. iii, pp. 294-394; I. Wapel- 
horst, Compendium sacrae Liturgiae, 9th edition (Xew York, Benziger, 
I9^5)> PP- 78-107 ; Felix Zualdi, The sacred Ceremonies of Loiv Mass, trans- 
lated by M. O'Callaghan, 9th edition (Dublin, Browne and Nolan, 191 1). 
The rules of the Codex for Mass are contained in c. 801-844. 

^ See pp. 7, 164. 

4^ 



42 Ube 1bol^ Sacrifice 

said after Mass will be at the epistle side, at the bottom of 
the altar steps. 

On the credence table the cruets stand, filled with wine and 
water, with the dish and towel (pp. 16-17). The bell may be on 
the credence table, or (in England more usually) at the epistle 
side, near where the server will kneel. 

In the sacristy the vestments are laid out on the vesting" 
table, in the order in which the priest will put them on, so 
that the one he takes first will be on the top. First the chasuble 
is laid out, conveniently so that the priest can take it at once. 
It is laid on the table with the front part down; then the 
lower part of the back is folded so that he can easily put it 
over his head. On the chasuble the stole is laid, then the 
maniple, the girdle, the alb and amice, in that order. 

Each priest uses his own amice and purificator; so that 
these are kept apart for him. The other vestments are the 
same for any celebrant. 

By the side of the vestments the chalice is prepared with the 
purificator, the paten, having on it the altar bread, the pall, 
veil and burse, with a corporal inside, as described at p. 16. 

Unless the missal is already on the altar, it will be placed 
near the vestments, so that the priest may first find and mark 
the places in it. All these preparations are made by the 
sacristan, or partly by the server, according to the custom of 
the church. In any case the server should look to see that all 
is ready in order before Mass begins. 

The time for Mass is not earlier than an hour before dawn 
nor later than i p.m.^ 

The priest who is about to celebrate must be in a state of 
grace and fasting from midnight. According to the rubric, he 
should have said matins and lauds ; - though this is not con- 
sidered a grave obligation, so that a reasonable cause will 
excuse him from it. 

The rubric of another rite applies very well to that of Rome 
too. " The priest who is about to celebrate the holy mysteries 
must have confessed his sins, must be reconciled to all men and 
have nothing against anyone. He must keep his heart from 
bad thoughts, be pure, and fasting till the time of sacrifice."^ 

Before Mass the priest will spend some time in saying 
preparatory prayers, and will make the intention for which he 
is to off'er the sacrifice. He is not bound to use the prayers 
given for this purpose in the missal ; * but they certainly form 
the best preparation." 

Then, when he is ready, about five minutes before the time 

^ Cod.^ c. 821. '^ Rit, eel., i, i. 

^ Rubric of the Byzantine Euchologion before the " Order of the holy 
Liturg-y." 

■* The '* Praeparatio ad missam pro opportunitate sacerdotis facienda " 
at the beg-inning- of the missal. 

^ Generally he will make this preparation in the church or sacristy. 



Xovv /IDass 5ai^ h^g a priest 43 

fixed for Mass to begin, he goes to the sacristy or vesting 
table. It is supposed that he already wears the cassock.^ If 
he does not wear this habitually, he will put it on before 
saying the preparatory prayers.^ The rubric directs that 
first he find the places in the missal/ Then he washes his 
hands at the place prepared for that purpose, saying the 
prayer appointed. He sees that the chalice is prepared pro- 
perly. Then he puts on the vestments. First he takes the 
amice, places it for a moment on the head, then slips it over 
the shoulders, ties the strings that keep it in place, passing 
them around the body, and inserts the amice all round the 
neck, inside his collar. He puts on the alb and sees that it 
does not trail on the ground. He fastens it round the body 
with the girdle, letting the two ends of the girdle hang down 
in front. He takes the stole, kisses the cross in its middle, 
puts it over the shoulders, crosses it in front, and fixes its 
ends on either side with the ends of the girdle. He takes the 
maniple, kisses the cross in the middle, puts it on the left arm 
and fastens it there with a pin or band. He puts on the 
chasuble, passing the head through the opening, and fixes it 
by tying the strings attached to it around the body. 

As he puts on each vestment he says the prayer appointed 
for that purpose in the missal.* It is usual that the server 
assist the priest in vesting by handing him each vestment, 
helping to arrange the alb, and so on. The celebrant then puts 
on his biretta. 

It is fitting that he be ready a minute or tw^o before the time 
appointed for Mass. He will then stand at the vesting table 
and say his prayers till the time has come. 

From the time he has begun the prayers before Mass, he 
should not speak to anyone, except in case of strict necessity. 

At the time for beginning Mass the priest takes the chalice, 
covered, in the left hand, and lays the right on the burse. 
The veil should cover the chalice in front, so that it cannot be 
seen. If the veil has a cross or ornament on one side, the 
chalice should be held so that this be in front. Holding 
the chalice so, with head covered," he bows slightly to 
the cross in the sacristy, then follows the server into the 
church. At the door of the sacristy it is usual that the priest 

No one may wear a skull-cap while saying- Mass without express 
permission of the Holy See (Decree of Urban VIII at the beginning- of 
the missal). Only Cardinals and bishops have this right normally. If 
anyone else has the privileg-e he must observe their rule (p. 2^). 

"" Cod., c. 8ii. 3 J^iL eel., i, i. 

* In the beginning-, after the " Praeparatio." 

' At Low Mass the celebrant bows to the cross in the sacristy with 
covered head, because he already holds the chalice. At High Mass the 
celebrant and sacred ministers bow with uncovered head. Cfr. Gavanti- 
Merati, Pars II, tit. i, § 2 (torn, i, p. loi); Martinucci, I, i, p. 345, § 14;. 
P- 271, § 63. 



44 ^be 1boli^ Sacrifice 

take holy water and make the sign of the cross with it, though 
this is not prescribed. It is also usual in many churches that, 
on leaving the sacristy door, the server ring a bell there, to 
warn the people that Mass is about to begin. 

If, on going to the altar where he will say Mass, he pass 
before the Blessed Sacrament, he, with the server, genuflects 
to it in passing. He bows to the High Altar if he passes it, if 
the Blessed Sacrament is not reserved there. In neither case 
does he take off the biretta to do so.^ If he pass before the 
Blessed Sacrament exposed, he takes off the biretta and makes 
a prostration. This does not apply to the case of passing- an 
altar at which Mass is being said, between the Consecration 
and Communion.^ But if he pass at the moment of elevation, 
he kneels till the elevation is finished. 

On the way to the altar the priest does not greet anyone, 
except a bishop or another priest in vestments coming from 
an altar. In this case he bows. On arriving at the altar 
where he will say Mass he stops before its lowest step and 
first hands his biretta to the server. If the Blessed Sacrament 
is reserved here, he genuflects on the ground, not on the step. 
If it is exposed he makes a prostration. Otherwise he bows 
low to the cross. ^ 

Then he goes up to the altar, puts the chalice covered on 
the gospel side, takes the burse, opens it, takes out the 
folded corporal and puts it on the altar. He puts the burse on 
the gospel side, leaning against the gradine or a candlestick. 
Then he spreads the corporal in the middle of the altar, and 
puts the chalice on it, with the chalice veil covering the whole 
chalice. He must take care to do this so that room is left in 
front of the chalice for him to kiss the altar. With joined 
hands he then goes to the missal at the epistle side and opens 
it at the introit of the Mass.^ He comes back to the middle, 
bows slightly to the cross," turns by the epistle side," and 
comes down to the ground in front of the steps in the middle. 
Here he again bows low, or, if the Blessed Sacrament be 
exposed, genuflects, this time on the lowest altar step. 

^ Martinucci, I, i, p. 345; Van der Stappen, iii, p. 311 ; Le Vavasseur, 
i, 283. 

^ S.R.C., 20 maii 1904, no. 2; Martinucci, I, i, p. 335, n. 2. 

^ All such reverences as this are intended for the altar. He bows to 
the altar; but, in practice, he always does so towards the cross, as being' 
in the centre of the altar. 

■* At Low Mass by a priest he must always open the book and find the 
places himself. S.R.C., 7 September 1816, no. 2572, ad V. 

° Martinucci, I, i, p. 347. 

" With the exceptions to be noted, the celebrant at Mass always turns 
from the altar and back to it by the epistle side, that is, on turning from 
the altar by his right hand, on turning back to it by his left. At High 
Mass the deacon stands on that side, so that he does not turn his back 
to him. 



Xow /IDass saib b^ a priest 45 



§ 2. TO THE GOSPEL 

Three tones of voice are used at Low Mass. AH that, at High 
Mass, would be sung by the celebrant, at Low Mass is said 
ALOUD, so as to be heard distinctly by all who assist.^ The 
preparatory prayers are said in the same loud voice. All that 
at High Mass would be said secretly is said at Low Mass 
SILENTLY, that is, articulated in a whisper, so as not to be 
heard by bystanders; but the priest should hear himself.^ 
There is a third, medium, voice, namely audible but lower 
than the voice used where at High Mass he would sing. This 
is used for those prayers which, at High Mass, are said aloud 
but not sung. It occurs four times only : at the words Orate 
fratres^ during the whole Sanctus and Be?iedictus, at the words 
Nobis quoque peccatoribus, at the words Dovii7ie non sum dig- 
nus^ said thrice. 

The celebrant makes the sign of the cross, standing before 
the lowest altar step, saying at the same time : In nomine 
Patris, etc. Then he says the antiphon Introibo ad altare Dei 
and the psalm ludica me^ the server answering the alternate 
verses. He bows at the verse Gloria Patri and makes the 
sign of the cross again at Adiutorium nostrum. While he says 
the Confiteor he bows profoundly. He strikes his breast three 
times at the words mea culpa^ mea culpa^ mea maxima culpa. 
He does not turn to the server at the words vobis fratres, vos 
fratres. He remains profoundly bowing while the server says 
the prayer Misereatur. Then he stands erect. He makes the 
sign of the cross again as he says Indulgentiam . . . He bows 
slightly during the verses Deus tu conversus, to the prayer 
Aufer a nobis. 

During all this time, except when he makes the sign of the 
cross, the priest holds the hands joined before the breast. 

As he says Orem^ushQioxo^ the prayer ^?^^ a nobis he separ- 
ates the hands and joins them again, but does not raise them. 
Having said Oremus he stands erect and goes up to the altar, 
saying Aiifer a nobis silently. Arrived at the middle of the 
altar he bows slightly, laying the joined hands on the altar, so 
that the ends of the longer fingers rest on it. So he says the 
prayer Oramus te Dominie. At the words quorum reliquiae hie 
sunt he bends down, separates the hands, laying each with 
palm downwards on the altar, outside the corporal,^ on either 
side of him, and kisses the altar in the middle. This position 

^ But not so loud as to disturb other celebrants {Ruhr, gen., xvi, 2). 

2 lb. 

^ During Mass, except from the Consecration to the Communion, 
whenever the celebrant lays his hands on the altar, he places them, not on 
the corporal, but one on either side of it. Between the Consecration and 
the Communion, when the forefing'ers and thumbs are joined all the time, 
he lays his hands on the corporal. 



46 XTbe Ibolp Sacrifice 

of the hands is to be observed every time he kisses the altar. 
To do so conveniently he should stand slightly away from it, 
so that, when he bends his head, he can just touch the altar 
with the closed lips, an inch or so from its outer edge. 

Then, making no further reverence to the cross, he goes 
with joined hands to the missal at the epistle side. As he goes 
he continues the prayer Oramus te Doviine. 

Here he reads the introit of the Mass in a clear voice. As 
he begins it he makes the sign of the cross laying, as always, 
the left hand on the breast.^ Joining the hands again, he con- 
tinues the introit. At the verse Gloria Patri he turns and 
bows towards the altar cross. In repeating the antiphon of 
the introit he does not again make the sign of the cross. 
When the introit is finished, he comes to the middle, makes no 
reverence to the cross ' and here says the Kyrie eleison alter- 
nately with the server. If the Gloria in excelsis is to be said, 
he begins it as soon as the Kyrie is ended, standing at the 
middle of the altar. As he says the first words, he separates 
the hands, extends them, elevates them about to the height of 
the shoulders, joins them and bows at the word Deo. With 
joined hands he continues the Gloria in excelsis^ reading it (if 
necessary) from the altar-card in the middle. He bows the 
head at the words Adoramus te^ Gratias agiinus tibi, lesu ChristCy 
Suscipe deprecationeni nostram. At the last words, Cum sancto 
Spirihiy he makes the sign of the cross, then lays the hands 
on the altar, and kisses it. 

If the Gloria in excelsis is not said, he kisses the altar, in 
the same way, as soon as the Kyrie eleison is finished. 

With joined hands he turns, by the epistle side, to face the 
people. He says Dominus vobisctim, at the same time extend- 
ing the hands and joining them again. Turning back by the 
epistle side he goes to the missal. Facing the altar he says 
Oi-emus. At the same time he extends the hands and joins 
them again, while he bows, slightly, to the cross. Then he 
reads the collect, holding the hands uplifted and extended, at 
about the height of the shoulders, the palms facing one another. 
When he says Per Dominum nostrtwi, etc., he joins the hands. 
He bows again to the cross at the holy Name, lesum Christum, 

^ This is the rule whenever he sig^ns himself, that the other hand rest 
meanwhile on the breast. He must place the left hand below the lowest 
point of the cross he will form on himself. 

■^ There has been some discussion about this. Most of the older authors 
say that the celebrant bows to the cross every time he comes to, or g-oes 
from, the middle of the altar, unless he has some other reverence (such as 
kissing the altar) to perform at once. So Merati's note on Gavanti, 
Thesaurus sacr. rit.y Pars II, tit. iv, § 8 (ed. cit., p. ii8). The modern 
authors nearly all deny this, saying that in passing thus from one part of 
the altar to the other no such reverence should be made; Martinucci, 
I, i, 348; Van derStappen, iii, 321 (by implication); Le Vavasseur, i, 288. 
So also theS.R.C, 12 November 1831, no. 2682, ad XXVII. De Herdt, 
however (i, 170), still favours the older view. 



%o\v /IDass satb bp a priest 47 

In the same way he says the following collects, if there are 
several. 

After the last collect he lays his hands on the book, one on 
either side, the palms downwards, so that the ends of the 
fing-ers rest on it, while he reads the epistle. It is usual in 
England to give a sign to the server when the epistle is ended, 
that he may answer Deo gratias. This is best done by raising 
slightly the left hand for a moment. 

On certain days, notably the Ember days, there is a series 
of lessons each preceded by a collect, before the gospel. In 
this case Domimis vobiscum is said only before the collects 
preceding the last of these. Immediately after the Kyrie eleison 
the celebrant, instead of saying Domimis vobiscum^ goes at 
once to the missal. He says each collect and the following 
lesson in the usual way. Then, at the place marked in the 
missal, he comes to the middle, says Dorninus z'obiscurn^ and 
continues as above. 

\i Flectamus genua IS to be said, as soon as the celebrant 
has said Oremus he lays his hands on the altar and genuflects 
while he says Flectamiis genua. The server at once answers 
Levate ; he rises and goes on with the collect. 

After the epistle, the priest goes on at once to read, in the 
same tone of voice, the gradual, tract. Alleluia, or sequence, 
as these occur in the missal. Meanwhile he still holds his 
hands on the book. 

In the collect, epistle, gradual, etc., if such a word occurs 
as is noted above (p. 23), that is, the holy Name, name of the 
saint of the day, of the blessed Virgin, he makes a reverence, 
as there described. At the epistle or gradual, he will genuflect, 
laying his hands on the altar in the usual way, when the rubric 
directs this. 

He then comes to the middle of the altar with hands joined, 
leaving the book open at the epistle side. In the middle he 
looks up to the cross, ^ then bows low, without laying the 
hands on the altar, and so says Mtcnda cor meum and lube 
Domine ^ benedicere, Dorninus sit in corde meo, etc. If for any 
reason the server does not carry the missal across to the 
gospel side, the priest does so first, bowing to the cross as he 
passes.^ He lays the missal on its stand or cushion at the 
gospel end diagonally, so that he will turn somewhat towards 

^ See p. 49, n. 2. 

^ At Low Mass the celebrant says " Domine," addressing God. By a 
curious development the mediaeval form "domnus," really nothing but 
a mispronunciation, is now looked upon as the correct one, when a 
merely human superior is addressed. So the rubrics in the Ordo Missae 
gfive the form, " lube domne benedicere " when the deacon at Hig-h Mass 
addresses the celebrant; but "lube Domine benedicere " when, at Low 
Mass, the celebrant prays to God. See Ducang-e, Glossarium med. et inf. 
Latinitatis, s.v, "Domnus." Martinucci-Menghini is wrong here (I, i, 
P' 35o)» contradicting the Missal. 

•" Martinucci, I, i, p. 350 j Le Vavasseur, i, 292. 



48 Ube Iboli^ Sacrifice 

the people when reading the gospel, then comes back to the 
middle and says Munda cor rtieum. 

% 3. FROM THE GOSPEL TO THE PREFACE 

When the celebrant has said the prayer Doniimis sit in corde 
meOy he comes with joined hands to the book at the gospel 
side. He does not here turn his back to the people, but 
he faces half towards them looking across the gospel corner 
diagonally. Without separating the hands he says Domimis 
vohisciim. Then Sequentia (or Iniiium) sancti evangelii secun- 
diun N.^ adding the name of the Evangelist, in the accusative 
case. As he says these words he lays the left hand on the book. 
He holds the right stretched out, the fingers joined, the palm 
downwards, and so makes the sign of the cross with the thumb 
on the book, where a little cross is printed at the beginning of 
the gospel. Then, still holding the hand stretched out in the 
same way, he makes the sign of the cross with the thumb on 
his forehead, lips and breast, laying the left hand on the 
breast.^ He must be careful not to make the cross on his lips 
while he is speaking. If he is saying the words Sequentia 
sancti evangelii, etc., he must pause while signing his lips. 
More probably he will have finished that formula by the time 
he signs his lips. When the server has answered Gloria tibi 
Domi7ie, the priest reads the gospel, with hands joined. If in 
the gospel the holy Name occurs, or any other word at which 
he bows, he does so towards the book. If he has to genuflect 
at any words, he lays his hands on the altar and does so, also 
towards the book, unless the Sanctissimum be exposed. In 
this case he turns and genuflects towards the Blessed Sacra- 
ment." 

While reading the gospel, if he has to turn a page, then, as 
always, he does so with the right hand, laying the left mean- 
while on the altar. 

When the gospel is finished he raises the book with both 
hands, bows his head and shoulders and kisses it at the place 
where the cross is marked, S2iymg Per evangelic a dicta, etc.^ 
He stands erect and replaces the book on the stand. Then he 
brings the missal to the middle of the altar, holding its stand 
with both hands. He places it here at the middle, but on the 
gospel side of the corporal, turning diagonally towards the 
middle. It should not stand on the corporal, but as near to it 
as possible. 

If the creed is to be said, he begins it at once in the middle 
of the altar. As he says Credo in timim Deum he extends his 

' Below where he will make the sig-n of the cross. ^ See p. 67. 

^ Merati {op. cit., i, p. 131, § 8) prefers that the celebrant say the first 
half of this verse (" Per evangelica dicta "), then kiss the book, then say 
the rest. So also De Herdt, i, p. 296. 



Xow /IDass sai^ bp a priest 49 

hands, lifts them to the height of the shoulders, joins them as 
he says the word De^ini, and bows the head. He says the 
creed with joined hands, reading the text, if necessary, from 
the altar-card. At the holy Name he bows. As he says the 
words Et incarnatus est, etc., he lays the hands on the altar 
outside the corporal and genuflects on one knee. He does not 
rise from this genuflection till he has said Et homo f actus est. 
It is better to make the whole genuflection slowly, rather than 
to rest with one knee on the ground. He does not bow the 
head at these words. He bows at the word adorattir (of the 
Holy Ghost). As he says the last words et vitam ventiiri sae- 
cula, he makes the sign of the cross, laying the left hand on 
the breast. 

After the creed he does not join the hands, but lays them 
on the altar at once and kisses it. Then he turns, by the 
epistle side, and says Dominiis vobisciiTn in the usual manner 
(see p. 46). 

If there is no creed in the Mass, he kisses the altar and 
turns to say Doyyiinus vohisciim as soon as he is at the middle, 
after the gospel. 

Facing the altar again and bowing, he says Orenius. In the 
same tone he then reads the offertory. 

The offertory act now follows. The celebrant takes the 
chalice veil from the chalice with both hands, folds it and lays 
it on the altar at his right, just outside the corporal.^ He lays 
his left hand on the altar, outside the corporal. With the 
right he takes the chalice by the knob of its stem and stands 
it outside the corporal, at his right side. He takes the pall 
from the chalice and lays it on the folded veil. He takes the 
paten, having on it the altar bread, and holds this, with both 
hands, over the middle of the corporal, at about the height of 
his breast. He should hold it with the thumb and first finger 
of each hand touching its edge, the other fingers under it. 
Holding it thus he looks up,^ and then down at the bread, 
and says silently the prayer Siiscipe sancte Pater. If other 
altar breads are to be consecrated at the Mass, they must be 
placed on the corporal before this offertory prayer is said. If 
they are in a ciborium, it is put on the corporal and opened, 

^ Some older authors say that he should hand the chalice-veil to the 
server to be folded. Merati (Pars II, tit. vi, § 2; ed. cit.j vol.i, p. 141) says 
so, " if the server is a clerk in surplice." Le Yavasseur (i, p. 294) agrees, 
"even if he is a layman, if it be the custom." Martinucci (I, i, p. 351) and 
De Herdt (i, p. 300) leave it open, whether the celebrant or server fold 
the chalice-veil. Van der Stappen (iii, p. 336) says that the celebrant does 
so himself. This seems to be the usual custom in England. All the rubric 
of the missal says is, " discooperit calicem et ad comu epistolae sistit " 
{Rit. cel.y vii, 2). 

^ In looking up the celebrant always looks at the altar-cross, unless it 
stands beneath his eyes (S.R.C., no. 2960, ad III). This is only a cere- 
monial direction, that the action may be done uniformly. In principle he 
looks up to heaven, as so often in the New Testament {e.g., John, xi, 41). 

E 



50 Ubc t)oli5 SacrtUce 

then shut again after the priest has made the sign of the cross 
with the paten. If he has forgotten the other breads to be 
consecrated, he repeats the prayer or makes a mental offering. 

When the prayer Suscipe sancte Pater is finished, the cele- 
brant lowers the paten ; still holding it as before he makes the 
sign of the cross with it over the corporal, tracing first a line 
towards himself, then one from left to right. He slides the 
altar bread on to the corporal in the middle, in front, without 
touching it. While he does this he lays the left hand on the 
altar, as always in such cases, outside the corporal. He then 
puts the paten on the altar, at his right, and slips half of it 
under the corporal. 

With folded hands he comes to the epistle corner. He 
takes the chalice at its knob with the left hand, and the puri- 
ficator (which lies on it) with the right. With this he wipes 
the inside of the chalice. Then, still holding the knob of the 
chalice in the left, he puts the purificator so that it hangs over 
the left thumb by the side of the chalice. He takes the cruet 
of wine from the server in his right hand and pours as much 
as is needed into the chalice,^ saying nothing. The server 
holds up the water cruet. The priest makes the sign of 
the cross over it, as he begins to say the prayer Deus qui 
humanae suhstantiae. He continues this prayer; as he says 
the words da nobis per huius aquae et vini mysterium he takes 
the cruet in the right and pours a little water into the chalice, 
one or two drops only. In some churches a little spoon is 
used to measure the water. In this case he takes the spoon, 
dips it into the cruet, and so puts one spoonful into the 
chalice. Then he wipes away any drops there may be at the 
sides of the chalice. As he says the holy Name at the end of 
the prayer he bows towards the cross. He puts the chalice 
near the corporal, with the left hand. He either lays the 
purificator at its place on the paten, or puts it near there and 
comes to the middle with joined hands ; or he may come still 
holding the purificator.^ At the middle he arranges the puri- 
ficator so that, folded lengthwise, it shall cover the half of 
the paten not already under the corporal. Meanwhile he lays 
the left hand on the altar. With the right he takes the chalice 
by its knob ; he holds its foot with the left, lifts it about to 
the level of the eyes, and so holding it says the offertory 
prayer: Offerimus tibi Domine. When this is said, he makes 
the sign of the cross over the middle of the altar with the 
chalice ; as before with the paten. To do so he lowers the 
chalice; he should take care not to extend the cross over the 

• Rather less than half what is in the cruet (see p. 62). 

^ Martinucci (I, i, pp. 352-353) directs this last way; Van der Stappen 
("*> P* 338) and Le Vavasseur (i, p. 295, n. 3) prefer that he should first 
lay down the purificator, then come to the middle with joined hands ; so 
also Merati, Pars II, tit. vii, § 12 (^a?. «V., i, p. 144). 



Xow /IDass sai^ b^ a priest si 

bread. He then puts the chalice in the middle of the corporal, 
behind the bread. Laying the left hand, as usual, on the 
altar, he takes the pall with the right and covers the chalice. 
He bows slightly, lays the hands, joined, on the altar in front 
of him, and so says the prayer I71 spiritii huniilitatis ^ silently. 
He stands erect, extends and raises the hands, looks up for a 
moment, then lowers the eyes and joins the hands before the 
breast. While doing so he says the prayer Veni sajictificator. 
At the word henedic he lays the left hand on the altar and 
with the right makes the sign of the cross over the bread and 
chalice together. 

With joined hands he now goes to the epistle end of the 
altar. Facing the server, who stands there, he holds his 
hands over the dish, so that the server pours water over the 
thumb and forefinger of each. Then he takes the towel and 
dries them. In doing this he should hold the hands, not over 
the altar, but outside and in front of it. As soon as he begins 
to wash his hands he says silently the verses of the psalm 
Lavabo inter innocentes and continues while drying them. He 
stands at that end of the altar while saying these verses; if 
necessary he may read them from the altar-card. He bows 
towards the cross as he says the verse Gloria Patri. Then he 
comes to the middle with joined hands, while saying Sicut 
erat, etc. At the middle he looks up and then lowers the eyes. 
Laying the hands joined on the altar before him, and bowing 
slightly, he says silently the prayer Suscipe sancta Trinitas. 
Then, laying the hands palm downwards on either side, out- 
side the corporal, he kisses the altar. Joining the hands he 
turns by his right side to the people. Facing them he stretches 
out the hands and joins them again, as at the Doviinus 
vobiscum. Meanwhile he says Orate fr aires in an audible 
voice. ^ He turns back to the altar, by his left side (completing 
the circle), while he continues, ut vieu7n et vestrurn sacrificiuiny 
etc., in a low voice. The server answers Suscipiat Doviinus, 
etc. If the server does not say this, for any reason, the cele- 
brant says it himself, altering the form to de manibus meis in- 
stead of tins. At the end of this answer he says Amen in a 
low voice. 

Then he extends the hands and joins them again, as before 
the collects. But he does not say Orenius. So he says the 
secrets, reading them from the missal. He says these silently, 
with hands extended. Only the first and last secrets have 
the conclusion per Dmnhium nostrurn^ etc. At the end of 
the last secret (therefore of the first, if there is only one) he 
says the words of the conclusion as far as in unitate Spiritus 
sancti Deus, like all the rest, silently. Then he pauses, lays 
the right hand on the altar, and with the left finds the place of 
the preface in the missal. When it is found he lays the left 
^ '* Voce media," see p. 45. 



52 Zbc 1bol^ Sacrifice 

hand also on the altar and says aloud Per omnia saecula sae- 
culoruni. The server answers Amen^ and answers each verse 
of the following' dialogue. The celebrant, keeping the hands 
on the altar, says Dominus vobiscuin. Then he raises the 
hands to the height of the shoulders or breast, holding them 
with the palms facing one another, as during the collects and 
secrets. So he says Sursuvi corda. He joins the hands as 
he says Gratias agamus\ as he says Deo riostro he looks 
up to the cross and down again. As he begins the preface he 
holds the hands again extended on either side and remains in 
that position till it is ended. 

At the end of the preface he joins his hands, bows over the 
altar slightly, not resting the hands on it, and says the Sanctus 
aloud, but less loud than the preface.^ As he says Benedictus 
qui venit he stands erect and makes the sign of the cross. 
Then, laying the right hand on the altar, he finds with the left 
the beginning of the canon in the missal. This being done, 
if he has not yet finished the Sanctus^ he will join the hands 
again while he says it. 

§4. THE CANON TO THE COMMUNION 

The celebrant looks up to the cross," extends and lifts the 
hands, then looks down, joins the hands, bows low, lays the 
joined hands on the altar, and so begins Te igitur. When he 
has said supplices rogavitis ac peHvius he lays the hands on the 
altar, one on either side, outside the corporal, kisses the altar, 
then stands erect, joins the hands, lays the left hand on the 
altar, and with the right makes the sign of the cross thrice 
over the chalice and bread as he says haec + do7ia, haec + 
munerUy haec + sancta sacrificia illihata. After the third cross 
he does not join the hands, but holds them extended and up- 
lifted before the breast. This is the normal position of the 
hands throughout the canon. 

At the words una ciimfamulo tuo Papa nostra N. he adds 
the name of the reigning Pope in the ablative case,^ and bows 
towards the book. If the Holy See is vacant at the time, he 
omits this clause altogether. At the words et antistite nostra 
N, he adds the name of the Ordinary of the place where he 
says Mass. If the see is vacant he omits this clause. 

As he says Memento Do7nine fa-jnuloTn.im famulariirnque tua- 
rum he joins the hands. He then stands a moment in this 
position, bowing slightly while he remembers any persons for 
whom he wishes here to pray. The words N. et N. are not 
expressed in practice ; or rather, instead of them, he names 

^ See p. 45. ^ See p. 49, n. 2. 

^ Without the number of the Pope: "Papa nostro Benedicto," not 
" Papa nostro Benedicto decimo quinto." 



Xow /IDass sai^ bi^ a priest 53 

as many persons as he likes/ Since this is his own private 
prayer he may make it in any form he likes, or entirely ment- 
ally. It is usual here to renew the special intention for which 
he offers the sacrifice. He should not delay too long at the 
Memento.^ 

Then, standing again erect with the hands extended, he 
continues et omnium circu7nstantiiim. In the prayer Com- 
municanteSy he bows towards the book at the name Mariae\ 
he bows towards the cross and low at the words lesti Christi. 
If the name of the saint whose feast is being kept that day ^ is 
one of those in this list he bows again, slightly, towards the 
book as he says it. At the words Per eiindem., etc., he joins 
the hands. As he begins the next prayer, Hanc igitur ohla- 
tionem, he opens the hands without disjoining them; that is, 
he separates the lower part of the hands, keeping the thumbs 
and forefingers joined, the thumbs crossed, right over left, till 
the hands are spread out in the same horizontal plane. So he 
stretches them over the oblata, so that the extremity of the 
fingers is over the middle of the pall. He does not touch the 
pall. He keeps this position while saying the prayer and joins 
the hands again at the conclusion Per Christum Dominum nos- 
trum. So he continues the next prayer, Qiiam oblationem. He 
makes the sign of the cross thrice, as before, over the oblata, 
at the words be^ie + dictaTn, ascri + ptam.^ ra + tarn,, rationahilem, 
acceptahile^nque facer e digneris. It will be convenient to pro- 
long this last sign of the cross a little, so that it take as long 
to make as it does to say these words. Then he makes the 
sign of the cross over the bread only as he says Cor + pus and 
over the chalice only as he says San +guis. He joins the hands 
and continues, bowing the head as he says lesu Christi. If he 
is to consecrate other hosts besides the one he will receive in 
Communion, he may here renew his intention of doing so. 
He will uncover the ciborium, if there is one on the cor- 
poral, covering it again after the consecration of the bread. 
All bread to be consecrated must be on the corporal at the 
time. 

If necessary, he wipes the thumb and forefinger of each 
hand on the fore corners of the corporal. In any case it is well 
to rub these slightly together, so as to dispel any particles of 
dust on them. 

As he says Qui pridie quam, pateretur he takes the host be- 
tween the thumb and forefinger of each hand. To do this 

^ He may pray for schismatics, heretics, the excommunicate, even 
pagans, since this is not a public prayer of the Church. Merati, Pars II, 
tit. viii, § 7 (vol. i, p. i6o); De Herdt, i, p. 319. 

^ Nor should he make the memory of the living- (and later, of the dead) 
too quickly. Gavanti says: " tu memento ne Memento in missa fiat in 
momento " (Pars II, tit. viii, n. 3; ed. cit., i, p. 159). 

' Not at a votive Mass in honour of a saint. See p. 23, n. i. 



54 ^hc 1boly Sacrifice 

more easily he may first lay the forefing-er of the left hand on 
the upper part of the bread ; then he takes it by the lower ex- 
tremity of the circle with the thumb and forefinger of the 
right, then in the same way with those of the left. He so lifts 
the host a little from the corporal and places the other fingers 
of each hand, joined and extended, behind it. He rests the 
hands on the altar. Still standing erect he continues the words 
accepit pa7ie7n, etc. As he says elevatis oculis in caelum he 
looks up to the cross and at once looks down. As he says 
gratias agens he bows. At the word bene -{-dixit he holds the 
bread in the left only, and makes the sign of the cross over it 
with the right. In doing this he does not keep the thumb and 
forefinger joined, but holds the hand straight out, in the usual 
way when blessing. Then, at once, he again holds the bread 
in both hands as before, and continues, /^-^^xV, deditque disci- 
pulis suis dicens: Accipite et mandiicate ex hoc omnes. He now 
bows over the altar, leaning the forearms on it. Holding the 
bread before him, he sa3's, " secretely, distinctly, and atten- 
tively," ' the words of consecration, HOC EST ENIM COR- 
PVS MEVM. 

He should say these words in a low voice, but so that he 
can hear himself.^ 

He does not touch any other hosts that may be present to 
be consecrated. 

While saying the words of consecration it is usual to look 
at the bread he holds in his hands. 

When the words have been said, without delay, he stands 
erect, then genuflects on one knee ; still holding the Host with 
both hands over the altar, as before. He rises at once and 
holds up the Blessed Sacrament, so that it may be seen by the 
people. He lifts it straight up before him to such a height 
that it may be seen from behind, over his head. He does this 
slowly, taking care to hold it over the corporal all the time. 
He lowers it again and places it reverently on the corporal, 
at the same place as before. He leaves it there, lays his hands 
on the altar, and genuflects again. ^ 

1 Rubric in the Mass. 

^ Namely the form of the Sacrament is part of the visible, or audible» 

^ During" the elevation ceremony the celebrant says no liturgical 
prayers. He may, therefore, say mentally a short private prayer at each 
elevation. In the Sarum rite there is a little prayer (there said just before 
Communion) which would be suitable: "Ave in aeternum sanctissima 
caro Christi [or ' caelestis potus,' at the elevation of the chalice], mihi 
ante omnia et super omnia summa dulcedo. " Or this: "Credo et con- 
fiteor usque ad ultimum spiritum hoc esse vivificum corpus Emmanuelis 
Dei nostri, quod accepit a domina Dei genitrice sancta Maria pro nostra 
omniumque salute. Credo hoc in rei veritate ita esse. Amen." " Credo 
et confiteor usque ad ultimum spiritum hunc esse pretiosum sanguinem 
Emmanuelis Dei nostri, quem effudit pro nobis omnibus in cruce. Credo 
hoc in rei veritate ita esse. Amen " (from the Alexandrine Liturgy of 



%o\v /llbass satb b^ a priest 55 

From this moment till the ablutions at the end the celebrant 
keeps the thumb and forefinger of each hand joined, except 
when he touches the consecrated Bread. In turning over 
pages, holding the chalice, or doing any other such action, he 
must be careful to use the other fingers, in such a way as not 
to separate these. 

From now till the Communion every time he lays his hands 
on the altar he does so on the corporal. 

Rising from the second genuflection he takes the pall from 
the chalice and lays it on the epistle side. Meanwhile he 
touches the foot of the chalice with the left.^ Then he rubs the 
thumb and forefinger of the hands over the chalice, to let any 
crumb there may be fall into it. He does this every time after 
he has touched the Host. Standing erect he says Simili modo 
postqtcam coenatum est. Then he takes the chalice in both hands, 
holding it between the knob and the cup by the stem ; he lifts 
it a little above the altar and sets it down again at once. He 
continues the words, still holding the chalice with both hands. 
As he says gratias ageyis he bows. As he says bene + dixit he 
makes the sign of the cross over the chalice with the right 
(keeping the thumb and forefinger ahvays joined) and holds 
it, still in the same way, with the left. Then he holds the knob 
•with the right hand and the foot with the left as he says dedit- 
que discipulis siiis dicens: Accipite et hihite ex eo otnnes. He 
bends over the altar, leaning the forearms on it. He lifts the 
chalice a little from the altar, putting the second, third and 
fourth fingers of the left hand joined under the foot, the thumb 
and forefinger of the same hand over the foot. He holds the 
chalice quite straight, not sloping towards him. So, in the 
same low but audible voice as before, he says the words of 
consecration over the chalice, *' attentivelv, continuouslv and 
secretely," holding it a little lifted : HIC EST ENIM CALIX 
SANGVINIS MEI NO VI ET AETERNI TESTAMENT! 
MYSTERIVM FIDEI QVI PRO VOBIS ET PRO MVL- 
TIS EFFVNDETVR IN REMISSIONEM PECCA TOR VM. 
He sets the chalice on the altar, stands erect, and says, HAEC 
QVOTIESCVMQVE FECERITIS IN MEI MEMORIAM 
FACIETIS. 

Taking the hands from the chalice he lays them on the altar 
on either side (on the corporal) and genuflects. He stands, 
takes the chalice with both hands, holding the knob with the 
right and the foot with the left partly under it as before. So 
he elevates it to a height where it can be seen by the people 
above his head, lifting it slowly and straight up, so that it is 
always over the corporal. He sets it on the corporal, covers 

St. Basil; Renaudot, Liturgiarinn orientalium collection 2nd edition, 
Frankfurt, 1847, Tom. I, pp. 23, 79-80). 

^ This is the rule every time he covers or uncovers the chalice, namely 
he steadies it by laying the other hand on the foot. 



56 Ube 1boI^ Sacrifice 

it with the right hand, while he holds the foot with the left. 
Then he genuflects again as before. 

Standing erect and holding the hands extended on either 
side, but now always keeping the thumbs and forefingers 
joined, he continues to say the canon at the words, Vfide et 
memores. As he says de tuis donis ac datis he joins the hands 
before his breast; then as he says hostiam + puram, hosiiam-\- 
sanctatn, hostimn + immaculatam he lays the left hand on the 
corporal and with the right makes the sign of the cross thrice 
over both the holy Bread and the chalice. Then as he says 
Panem ■\- sanctum he makes the sign of the cross over the 
Host only. At calicem -\- salutis over the chalice only. 

He extends the hands, as before, and says the prayer, Supra 
quae. 

He bows profoundly, lays the joined hands on the altar 
before him, and so says Supplices te rogamu?, to the word 
quotquot. Here he lays his hands on the corporal on either 
side, and kisses the altar once in the middle. He stands 
erect, joins the hands and continues ex hac altaris par- 
ticipatione^ etc. At the word Cor + pus he makes the sign of 
the cross over the Host; at Saji -\- guinem over the chalice, as 
before. As he says omni benediciione caelesti, he signs himself 
with the cross, holding the left at the breast, but so that the 
thumb and forefinger do not touch the chasuble. Then he 
joins the hands. He extends them again as he says Memento 
etiant Domine. The words N. et N. are omitted. As he says 
in somno pads he joins the hands, bows slightly, looks at the 
Blessed Sacrament before him and so prays silently for the 
faithful departed whom he wishes to commemorate. Then he 
stands erect again with hands extended and continues the 
prayer at the words Ipsis, Dom,ine^ et omnibus in Christo 
quiescentibus. At the conclusion. Per Christum Do7ni7ium. 
nostrum^ he joins the hands and bows. 

As he says Nobis quoque peccatoribus he raises his v^oice 
so as to be heard by anyone near.^ At the same time he lays 
the left hand on the corporal and strikes his breast once with 
the right. He does so with the second, third and fourth 
fingers extended, not touching the chasuble with the thumb 
or forefinger. He continues yJzww/w tuis^ etc., erect, with 
hands extended. If the saint whose feast or octave is kept be 
named among those of this prayer, he bows slightly towards 
the book as he pronounces it. He joins the hands at the con- 
clusion, Per Christum Dominum nostrum. 

Amen is not said here. With joined hands he says. Per 
quern haec omnia \ then at the words sancti +Jicas , vivi+JicaSy 
bene + dicisy he makes the sign of the cross with the right 
over the Host and chalice together, laying the left on the 
corporal. With the right he uncovers the chalice and lays 

1 See p. 45. 



%ovo /nbass satb b^ a priest 57 

the pall on the right. Placing the hands on the corporal on 
either side, he genuflects and rises at once. He takes the sacred 
Host with the right hand between the thumb and forefinger; 
with the left he holds the chalice by its knob. He makes the 
sign of the cross thrice with the Host over the chalice, not 
extending this sign beyond the cup, as he says Per ip-\-sum.y 
et cum ip + sOy et i7i ip + so. Still holding the chalice in the 
same way with the left, he makes the sign of the cross twice 
over the corporal between himself and the chalice, as he says 
est tihi Deo Patri-^ oninipotenti^ in unitate Spiritus + sancti. 
Then he holds the Host over the chalice upright, holding it 
still with the forefinger and thumb of the right hand, by the 
lower edge. He may rest the lower part of the hand on the 
edge of the chalice. With the left he continues to hold the 
chalice at its knob. So, with both hands, he elevates the Host 
and chalice together a little above the altar, as he says onmis 
honor et gloria. Then he places the chalice back on the altar, 
and the Host in the place where it was before, in front of the 
chalice, laying the left meanwhile on the corporal. He rubs 
the fingers of both hands over the chalice, takes its knob 
again in the left hand, while the right covers it with the pall; 
then genuflects, laying both hands on the corporal as usual. 

He stands erect, the hands still on the corporal, and says 
aloud, per ovinia saecula saeciilonim. When the server has 
answered Amen, he joins the hands before his breast, bows 
to the Sanctissimum and says Oremus. Erect, with hands 
joined, he says the introduction to the Lord's prayer, Praeceptis 
salutarihus 7noniti, etc. As he begins Pater noster he extends 
the hands, and looks at the Sanctissimum. In this position 
he says the prayer. W^hen the server has answered Sed libera 
nos a malo, the celebrant answers Amen silently. With the 
left hand on the corporal he takes the paten in the right from 
under the corporal and purificator. He wipes it with the 
purificator, then lays the purificator back on the epistle side 
near the corporal. He holds the paten in the right hand 
between the joined forefinger and thumb together and the 
second finger. He holds it outside the corporal on his right, 
upright, so that its inside faces the middle. So he says silently 
the embolism. Libera nos Domine. As he says et arnnibus 
Sanctis, he lays the left hand on the breast. As he says da pro- 
pitius pacem in diebus nostris, he makes the sign of the cross 
on himself with the paten. As soon as he has made this sign 
he kisses the paten, not in the middle, but at its upper edge. 
Then he slips the paten under the Host, laying meanwhile 
the forefinger of the left hand on the farther edge of the Host, 
while he continues the prayer. 

He uncovers the chalice in the usual way and genuflects 
with the hands on the corporal. Rising, he takes the Sanctis- 
simum in the right hand, holding its lower edge between the 



58 XTbe 1bol^ Sacrifice 

thumb and forefing"er, and assisting, if necessary, with the 
left. He holds it over the chalice; then with both hands he 
breaks it reverently in a straight line down the middle,^ using 
both hands to do this, holding each half between the forefinger 
and thumb of either hand. Meanwhile he continues Per 
etindetn Domimim nostrum^ etc. Still holding one fragment 
in the left over the chalice he lays the other with the right on 
the paten. With the right hand he now breaks off a small 
part of the half of the Host he holds over the chalice in his 
left. Holding this particle in the right over the chalice, with 
the left he lays the rest of the fragment on the paten by the 
side of the half already there. He grasps the knob of the 
chalice in the left. Holding the particle in the right over 
the chalice he rests that hand on the edge of the chalice. So 
he says aloud Per omnia saecula saeculoruni. He makes the 
sign of the cross thrice with the particle in his right over the 
chalice from edge to edge of the cup, not going outside this, 
as he S3iys Pax + Do7nini sii -\- semper vobis + cum. When the 
server has answered Et cum spiritu tuo^ he says silently Haec 
com-Tnixiio, etc., and lets the particle fall into the chalice. He 
rubs the fingers over the chalice, then at once joins the fore- 
finger and thumb of each hand. He covers the chalice with 
the pall and genuflects. 

Rising and bowing slightly towards the Sanctissimum, with 
hands joined before the breast, but not on the altar, he says 
Agnus Dei, etc. He lays the left on the corporal; with the 
second, third and fourth fingers of the right he strikes his 
breast as he says miserere nobis. He does not join the hands 
after this, but holds them in the same position, the left on 
the corporal, the right resting on the breast, till he says the 
second time miserere nobis \ then he strikes the breast again. 
So, in the same way, till and while he says dona nobis pacem. 

Then he joins the hands and lays them on the edge of the 
altar, not on the corporal. Bowing he says the three prayers 
before Communion, Domine lesu Christe qui dixisti, Do^nine 
lesu Christe Fili Dei vivi, and Perceptio Corporis tui. Then 
he stands upright, genuflects, and says Panem caelestem acci- 
piaTn, etc. 

He now takes the Host in the left hand. The most con- 
venient and reverent way to do this is thus: 

The Host lies on the paten in two halves, side by side, the 
half on the celebrant's left being without the small fragment 
which has been put into the chalice. On these he lays the 
forefinger and thumb of the left hand, one on either fragment. 
So he pushes them gently forward till their upper edge pro- 
jects a little beyond the upper part of the paten. He takes the 

' Altar-breads are g-enerally made with a line down the middle and 
another, marking- the division for the fragment to be put in the chalice, 
at the back. These lines should be followed at the fraction. 



Xow /IDass salt) b^ a ipriest 59 

two fragrnents here, at their upper part, between the thumb 
and forefinger of the right hand. The fragments are side by 
side, so as to form a circle, as if the Host were not broken in 
the middle. So he can hold them between the right thumb 
and forefinger together, just at the place where they are 
divided. Taking- the two fragments thus in the right he 
places them in the left hand. The left hand receives them at 
the bottom in the same way, holding- them together, just at 
the line of fraction, between the thumb and forefinger. Then, 
with the right, he takes the paten at the top (not separating 
the thumb and forefinger) and puts it under the forefinger ot 
the left between that and the second finger. He now holds 
the Host in the left between the thumb and forefinger, and 
the paten under it between the forefinger and second finger. 
So he holds them in front of him, not resting the forearm on 
the altar. He bows, and bowing slightly, he strikes the breast 
with the second, third, and fourth fingers of the right as he 
says Domine non sum dignus. As he says these words he 
raises the voice ; ^ then silently he continues ut iritres sub 
tectum meiim, etc. He does this thrice in the same way. 

He stands erect; with the right hand he takes the fragment 
of the Blessed Sacrament at his right at its upper edge, and 
places it exactly above the other half. Then he takes the two 
fragments, lying one on the other, at the lower edge, with 
the right hand. The left hand still holds the paten as before; 
its thumb and forefinger are now joined over the paten. With 
the Sanctissimum he makes the sign of the cross in front ot 
himself over the paten, not going beyond its edge, as he says 
silently Corpus Domini iiostri^ etc. At the holy Name he bows. 
He leans over the altar, resting the forearms on it, and re- 
ceives his Communion. In doing so he does not extend the 
tongue. It is convenient to break the sacred species against 
the roof of the mouth ; but he should not touch them with the 
teeth. He then lays the paten on the corporal, rubs the 
fingers lightly over it, stands upright and "rests a little, 
meditating the most holy Sacrament,"'^ holding the hands 
joined before him. It is usual here to shut the eyes. The 
object of this moment of pause is that he may have time to, 
swallow the holy species.^ It should not be prolonged. Then 
he separates the hands, lays the left on the corporal ; with the 
right he takes the pall from the chalice, lays it on the epistle 
side, and genuflects. Meanwhile he says Quid retribuani, etc., 
silently. Rising he takes the paten in the right, scrapes the 
corporal where the Host lay, to gather up any possible 
crumbs. He may lift the edge of the corporal with the left 
while doing this. He then holds the paten over the chalice 

^ To the medium tone (see p. 45). - Rubric in the Mass. 

^ That is why there is no such pause after Communion in the form ot 
wine. 



6o Ube 1bolp Sacrifice 

and with the left thumb and forefing-er wipes it, so that any 
crumbs may fall into the chalice. If he sees any particles on 
the paten, he lets them fall into the chalice before purifying 
the corporal. He passes the paten to the left hand and holds 
it lying- on the corporal before him. He takes the chalice in 
the right, holding it by the knob between the forefinger and 
the other fingers. He makes the sign of the cross before him 
with the chalice, saying Sanguis Domini nostril etc., again 
bowing at the holy Name. He holds the paten in the left 
hand under the chin. Raising the chalice he drinks all the 
consecrated Wine with the particle in it, with one or at most 
two draughts, not taking the chalice from the mouth mean- 
while and not throwing back the head. 

There is no authority for making a pause to say private 
prayers after the Communion sub specie vini. 

If no one else receives holy Communion the celebrant omits 
all in the following paragraph and goes on at once as directed 
in § 6. 

§ 5. DISTRIBUTION OF HOLY COMMUNION 

If anyone receives holy Communion ^ at the Mass the server 
should begin to say the Confiteor before the celebrant has 
finished making his own Communion, that he may know by 
this sign. 

The celebrant first covers the chalice with the paten and 
places it towards the gospel side, on the corporal. 

He then genuflects, if he distributes Communion with 
Hosts consecrated at the Mass. They will be on the corporal. 
If they are in a ciborium he uncovers this. If they lie im- 
mediately on the corporal he puts them on the paten, using 
the thumbs and forefingers only. He genuflects again. 

If he is to take the Sanctissimum from the tabernacle, as 
soon as he has covered the chalice he removes the altar-card 
from before the tabernacle, draws aside the tabernacle veil, takes 
the key (which should be on the altar or the gradine), opens 
the tabernacle, genuflects, takes the ciborium from it with the 
right hand, and places it in the middle of the corporal. He 
shuts the doors of the tabernacle, not locking them, uncovers 
the ciborium and genuflects again. 

When the server has finished the Confiteor the priest turns 
towards the people, on the gospel side, but facing straight 
down the church, not turning his back to the Sanctissimum; 
with joined hands he says the prayer Misereaiur, then hidul- 
gentiam. As he begins this second prayer he makes the sign of 
the cross over the people with his right hand, not separating 
the thumb and forefinger. Both these prayers are always said 
in the plural form, even if there be but one communicant. 

^ The rules for Communion are in the Cod.^ c. 845-869. The people 
who receive must be in sight of the altar. Cod.^ c. 868. 



Xow /IDass satb b^ a priest 6i 

He turns back to the altar, g-enuflects, takes the ciborium 
in the left hand at its knob, or the paten at its edg-e between 
the forefinger and second finger (keeping, as all this time, the 
thumb and forefinger joined). With the forefinger and thumb 
of the right hand he takes one Host and holds it above the 
ciborium or paten, upright, and so turns to the people by the 
right-hand side, and stands with his back to the middle of 
the altar. 

Looking at the Sanctissimum he says aloud Ecce Agnus 
Deiy etc., and Domine non sum digmis (this last three times). 
When he has said this the third time, not before, he walks to 
the Communion rail, or place where the communicants kneel, 
holding the one Host above the ciborium or paten. If there 
are many people, he goes first to the person at the end of the 
epistle side. Here he says the form of administration. Corpus 
Domhii nostril etc., making the sign of the cross in front of 
the person with the Host he holds in his right. In making 
this cross he should not carry the Sanctissimum beyond the 
Qdi^Q. of the ciborium or paten. Then he lays the Host on the 
communicant's tongue. He repeats the sign of the cross and 
form of administration to each person, however many there 
may be. When all have received holy Communion, he goes 
straight back to the middle of the altar, not genuflecting, 
saying nothing. He places the paten or ciborium on the 
corporal. If any particles remain in it, he genuflects. 

If there are any consecrated particles to be consumed he 
does so at this moment. He receives the consecrated species 
reverently, saying nothing. If he is to change the species in 
the luna for Benediction, he will here take it from the taber- 
nacle, consume the species and put the other Host, consecrated 
at this Mass, in its place.' 

If he has to replace the ciborium in the tabernacle, he covers 
it with its lid, puts it back in the tabernacle, genuflects, then 
closes and locks the tabernacle. 

He then moves the chalice to the middle of the corporal 
again, takes the pall from it and holds it with the right hand 
to the server, who approaches on the epistle side. 

§ 6. FROM THE ABLUTIONS TO THE END OF MASS 

If no one but the celebrant has received Communion, as soon 
as he has drunk the consecrated W^ine he holds out the chalice 
to the server on the epistle side. Meanwhile he lays the left 

1 In no circumstances may the celebrant consecrate one Host at 
Mass, reserve that and receive another for his Communion. He must 
always break and receive a Host consecrated at the Mass he says. In 
the case of renewing- the sacred species in the luna, he must consecrate 
two Hosts. The other then lies on the corporal till he, at this moment, 
after his Communion, puts it in the luna. 



62 ZTbe 1bolp Sacrifice 

hand, still holding the paten, on the corporal. The server 
pours wine into the chalice for the ablution. Meanwhile the 
celebrant says the prayer Quod ore suvipsinius, etc. He may 
make a sign to the server when enough wine has been 
poured, by raising the chalice. The quantity of wine at this 
ablution should be about equal to the amount consecrated. 
The priest turns the chalice about gently, so that the wine of 
the ablution should gather up any drops of the consecrated 
Wine remaining in the chalice. Then he drinks the ablution, 
using the same side of the chalice from which he received 
Communion, holding the paten with the left hand under his 
chin, not making the sign of the cross with the chalice, saying 
nothing. He lays the paten on the altar, on the gospel side 
of the corporal, and sets the chalice in the middle. He now 
puts the thumbs and forefingers of both hands over the cup of 
the chalice and grasps the cup with the other fingers. He 
goes to the epistle side, rests the chalice on the altar there, 
still holding it as before. The server pours first wine, then 
water, over the celebrant's fingers into the chalice. More 
water than wine should be poured. Meanwhile the celebrant 
says the prayer Corpus tuuni Doniine^ etc. If any other finger 
has touched the Sanctissimum, this too must be purified by 
having the wine and water poured over it. The celebrant sets 
the chalice on the altar, near, but not on, the corporal, on the 
epistle side, rubs the fingers a little over it, then takes the 
purificator and dries them. From this moment he no longer 
holds the thumbs and forefingers joined. He holds the purifi- 
cator in the left hand under his chin, takes the chalice in the 
right, and drinks the ablution, saying nothing. He then holds 
the chalice on the altar outside the corporal, on the gospel 
side, grasps it by the stem, in the left,^ and with the right 
wipes it out thoroughly with the purificator. 

He places the chalice on the corporal in the middle, lays 
the purificator over it, as it was at the beginning of Mass, and 
the paten on this. He moves it away from the corporal, on 
the gospel side, takes the corporal, folds it, and puts it back 
into the burse. He sets the chalice in the middle of the altar, 
covers it with the veil, then lays the burse on the top of all. 
So he leaves the chalice in the middle of the altar, covered 
with the burse and veil, so that the veil covers it completely 
in front. If there is a cross or other ornament on the veil, 
this will be in front. 

With folded hands he ^o^s to the epistle side and there 
reads the *' Communio " antiphon, the hands still joined. 

If he has to move the book himself, he will take it after he 
has arranged the chalice and carry it to the epistle side. 

^ The most convenient way to do this is to pass the stem, just under 
the cup, between the third and fourth fingers, and to close all the fing-ers 
around the outside of the cup. 



%o\v /IDass sat^ b^ a priest 63 

After the '* Communio " antiphon he comes to the middle, 
kisses the altar, turns and says Dominiis vobiscurii in the usual 
way. He goes again to the epistle side, says Oremus, bow- 
ing toward the cross, and says the postcommunion prayers 
exactly as he said the collects, with hands extended, observing 
all that is said at pp. 46-47. 

If the last gospel is the prologue of the fourth gospel, he 
shuts the missal when he has finished the conclusion of the 
last postcommunion, leaving it so that the edges of the pages 
face the middle of the altar. If there is a proper last gospel, 
he leaves the book open at the place where this gospel is 
printed. 

He comes to the middle, kisses the altar, turns and says 
again Dommus vobiscum, as usual. Without turning back to 
the altar, still facing the people, he says Ite missa est, with 
hands joined. 

But if he says Be7iedicarnus Domino he first turns back to 
face the altar, and says this versicle in that position. 

Notice again that he turns always towards the epistle side. 

Facing the altar, bowing not low, with the hands joined on 
the altar before him, he says the prayer Placeat tihi sancta 
Trinitas silently. Then he lays the hands, palms downwards, 
on either side, kisses the altar, stands upright, looks up at 
the cross, lifts, extends, and joins the hands, and says Bene- 
dicat vos om.?iipofens Dens. As he says this last word he bows, 
turns by the epistle side, lays the left hand on the breast, and 
with the right makes the sign of the cross over the people, 
saying, Pater et Fitms + et SpiHttcs Saiictus. He makes this 
sign holding the right hand upright, with the fingers joined, 
the little finger towards the people. He joins the hands, turns, 
this time by the gospel side, completing the circle, goes 
straight to the altar-card at the gospel side and there says 
Dominus voMscum facing the card, that is, half turned towards 
the people, as at the first gospel. 

If there is a proper last gospel, and if he himself moves the 
missal, he does so after having given the blessing. 

After saying Doniiniis vobiscum he lays the left hand on the 
altar ; with the right thumb he makes the sign of the cross on 
the altar, then on his own forehead, lips and breast. While 
he signs himself he lays the left hand on the breast. Mean- 
while he says Initium sancti evmigelii secujiditm loannem. As 
he says the words Et verbum caro factum est he genuflects 
where he stands, laying the hands on the altar. 

If the last gospel be proper, he lays the left hand on the 
missal, and makes the sign of the cross at the place marked 
in it with a cross at the beginning of the gospel. He does not 
kiss the book at the end, but closes it, when he has finished, 
with the right hand. 

He then may either ^q straight to the foot of the altar steps, 



64 TLbc Ibolp Sacrifice 

or may go to the middle, bow, and then turn by the epistle 
side and so go down.^ In either case he does so with hands 
joined. 

According- to the present law, after every Low Mass the 
celebrant with the people must say the prayers prescribed by 
Pope Leo XIII in 1884 and 1886; which law was renewed by 
Pius X in 1903. 

To say these he kneels on the lowest step and either says 
them from memory or reads them from a card provided. In 
England they are generally said in the vulgar tongue. Since 
these prayers are not part of the Mass, according to the strict 
principle, the celebrant should take off his maniple before 
saying them. If he does so, he may take it off at the middle 
of the altar and leave it there. But it seems that the general 
custom is not to take off the maniple. 

When these prayers are finished ^ he goes up to the altar, 
takes the chalice, holding it in the left hand by the knob and 
laying the right on it (if he has taken off the maniple, he may 
lay this on the burse). He comes again to the foot of the 
steps, makes a profound inclination ^ to the altar, or a genu- 
flection if the Sanctissimum is there reserved, takes the biretta 
from the server, covers himself and so follows the server to 
the sacristy. 

In some churches the celebrant takes the chalice from the 
altar immediately after the last gospel, and kneels with it in 
his hands to say the prayers of Leo XIII. In this case he will 
not go up to the altar again after having said them. 

On the way to the sacristy he says silently the antiphon 
Trium pueronim (doubled on double feasts and with Alleluia 
at the end in Paschal time), the canticle Benedicite^ the psalm 
Laudale Domirium in Sanctis eius^ etc., as prescribed in the 
missal, to be said after Mass.* 

In the sacristy he first bows to the cross,* then lays the 
chalice on the vesting table, takes off the biretta and unvests, 
in the inverse order to vesting. The server usually assists. 
When the priest takes off the maniple and stole he kisses the 
cross in the middle, as when he puts them on. 

' Martinucci (I, i, p. 367) and Le Vavasseur (i, 315) allow either way. 
The S.R.C., no. 3637, ad VIII, says that the celebrant may go to the 
middle and there bow before coming- down. 

^ If any other prayers are said after Mass, those ordered by Leo XIII 
must be said first (S. R.C., no. 3682, 23 November 1887). 

^ Rit. cel.y xii, 6, "caput inclinat." De Herdt (i, p. 396) and Van der 
Stappen (iii, p. 392) distinguish this inclination from that at the beginning 
of Mass, and say that it should be less profound. But Merati (Pars II, 
tit. xii, § 10; sc. torn, i, p. 192), Martinucci (I, i, p. 367), Le Vavasseur 
(i, p. 316), and most authorities demand the same reverence as at the be- 
ginning. 

* The Gratiarum actio post tntssam after the Praeparatio ad rnissam. 

* Martinucci (I, i, p. 367), " reverentiam capitis profundam"; Le 
Vavasseur (i, p. 316), " une inclination mediocre." 



Xow /IDass sai^ bi^ a priest 65 

In some churches it is usual to give the server a blessing- 
after Mass. 

Having unvested, the celebrant goes to some convenient 
place to make his thanksgiving. "Having adored and thanked 
God for everything, he goes away."^ 

§ 7. RULES WHEN THE SAME PRIEST CELEBRATES 
MORE THAN ONCE ON THE SAME DAY 

Every priest may say Mass three times on Christmas Day, 
and now on All Souls' Day." Moreover, in case of necessity, 
the Ordinary may give leave to a priest to say Mass twice on 
Sundays and Holidays of Obligation.^ 

Each Mass must be said entirely, including the preparatory 
prayers at the foot of the altar. The only difference to be 
observed is with regard to the purification of the chalice. If the 
celebrant is to say Mass again the same day he cannot purify 
the chalice in the usual way, because to do so would break 
his fast.^ If he will say Mass again soon on the same altar, it 
is better to pour all the contents of the wine cruet into the 
chalice at the offertory. This will prevent him from taking 
the ablutions afterwards through oversight. After the Com- 
munion he leaves the chalice unpurified on the altar. He takes 
no ablutions; he purifies his fingers in the little glass vessel 
containing water,'' which should stand on the gradine or altar 
(p. 18). He says the prayers. Quod ore stcmpsiinus ci.nd Corpus 
tuuni Domme^ with hands joined, at the middle of the altar. 
Then he covers the chalice, unpurified, with the purificator 
(not wiping it inside), paten, pall, veil. But he does not put 
the corporal into the burse. The chalice remains standing on 
the corporal, the burse at the side. 

Before the next Mass, or at its offertory, he must put an 
altar bread, to be consecrated, on the paten. At the next Mass 
he does not wipe the chalice inside at the offertory, nor does 
he then place it on the altar outside the corporal. 

If he will say the next Mass at another altar, or if another 
priest will celebrate at the same altar before he does so again, 
the chalice is purified; ® but he does not drink the purification. 

^ Rubric at the end of the Byzantine Liturgfy of St. John Chrysostom. 

2 See p. 358. 

^ To say Mass twice on the same day is called hinatio. It may not be 
done without special faculty from the Ordinary, given only for grave 
cause, namely, to a priest who serves two churches, or when otherwise 
a considerable number of people would be unable to hear Mass on days 
of obligation. 

* The small amount of water he drinks with the consecrated Wine at 
nis Communion is not counted as a breach of fast. 

' The water in this vessel is poured eventually into the sacrarium 
<p. 18, n. 5). 

^ Or the chalice may be put, unpurified, into the tabernacle. In this 
case the priest purifies the fingers in the vessel as before. 

F 



66 XTbe Ibolp Sacrifice 

The server at the time of the ablutions pours water only into 
the chalice, over the celebrant's fingers. The celebrant turns 
the chalice about gently, that the water may gather up any 
drops of consecrated Wine, wipes his fingers on the purificator, 
and pours the water into a vessel prepared for that purpose. 
The water may then be poured into the sacrarium, or it may 
be kept and consumed at the ablutions of the last Mass. The 
chalice is thus purified and may be put aside in the usual way. 
It is not necessary to use the same chalice for the next Mass 
he says. 

§8. MASS BEFORE THE BLESSED SACRAMENT 

EXPOSED 

As a general rule, Mass should not be said at an altar on 
which the Sanctissimum is exposed. However, there may be 
a sufficient reason, approved by the Ordinary, for doing so. 
It is never lawful to distribute Holy Communion at the altar 
of Exposition. 

At Mass said before the Blessed Sacrament exposed these 
differences must be made.^ 

On arriving at the altar he takes off the biretta as soon as 
he is in sight of it; nor does he cover himself again till he is 
away from the altar. Before and after Mass he prostrates 
(p. 21 ) on the ground, not on the step. He makes no prostra- 
tion during Mass. When he has placed the chalice on the 
altar he genuflects, laying the hands on the altar. He goes 
to the missal and finds the places. Coming back he again 
genuflects in the middle, before going down to the foot of the 
altar. He genuflects in this way every time he goes up to, or 
down from, or passes before, the middle of the altar. In 
coming down he must take care not to turn his back to the 
Sanctissimum.""* At the foot of the altar he genuflects again 
on one knee on the lowest step, makes the sign of the cross, 
and begins Mass. 

The general rule is this : every time the celebrant goes from 
the middle of the altar to either side, and every time he comes 
to the middle he genuflects. He makes this genuflection the 
last thing before leaving the centre and the first thing on 
arriving there. Whenever he has to turn to the people, for 
the Dominiis vohiscum or other verse, he genuflects before and 
after turning. If he is already at the centre he makes this 
genuflection last, immediately before turning (therefore after 
having kissed the altar or performed any other such cere- 
mony). But when he comes to the middle in order then to 

^ Gavanti-Merati, i, pp. 199-200; Martinucci-Menghini, I, i, pp. 368- 
370; Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 328-331; De Herdt, ii, pp. 69-75; Van der 
Stappen, iii, pp. 455-468; Wapelhorst, pp. 111-112. 

^ So he comes down, not in the middle, but towards the gospel side. 



Xow /Ilbass satb b^ a priest 67 

turn towards the people, he observes the rule above and genu- 
flects as soon as he is at the centre. 

Whenever he turns, he does so, not quite in the middle, 
but a little towards the gospel side, so as not to turn his back 
to the Sanctissimum. At the Orate fratres and the blessing- 
he does not turn back to the altar by the gospel side, com- 
pleting the circle ; but he turns by the epistle side, as at the 
Dominus vobiscum. 

At the holy Name in the gospel, and at the text, et Verbuvi 
caro factum est in the last gospel, he turns and bows, or genu- 
flects, towards the Sanctissimum. When he washes the hands 
at the Lavabo, he goes down from the foot-pace and turns 
towards the people, having the altar at his right hand, so that 
he does not turn his back to it. 

At the ablutions at the end he does not go to the epistle 
side. Standing in the middle he holds the chalice towards 
the server; then he puts it on the altar just outside the 
corporal and there receives the wine and water in it over the 
fingers. 

At the verse Flee tamus genua in ferial Masses he genuflects 
towards the missal. 



CHAPTER VII 
LOW MASS FOR THE DEAD 

AT Requiem Masses the following points are to 
be observed.^ 
The vestments are always black. For the colour 
of the altar frontal and tabernacle veil, see p. i6. 
In the preparatory prayers the psalm ludica is 
omitted. The antiphon, Introibo ad altare Dei, is said as usual, 
then at once the verse Adiutorium nostrum in nomine Doviini 
and all that follows. 

At the introit the celebrant does not make the sign of the 
cross on himself. He lays the left hand on the altar and with 
the right makes a sign of the cross over the missal. 

Neither Gloria in excelsis nor the creed are said. 

After the prayer Munda cor vieum, before the gospel, the 
form of blessing, luhe Doniine benedicere and Doniinus sit 
in corde meo are omitted. 

After the gospel the celebrant neither kisses the book nor 
says Per evangelica dicta, etc. 

Before pouring the water into the chalice the prayer, Deus 
qui humanae substantiae, is said as usual ; but the priest does 
not make the sign of the cross over the cruet. 

He omits the verses Gloria Patri and Sicut erat in prin- 
cipio at the end of the Lavabo psalm. 

The text of Agnus Dei is changed. The last clauses are 
dona eis requiem twice ; then, the third time, dona eis requiem 
sempiternam. While saying this the priest does not strike the 
breast. He holds the hands joined before him, not lying on 
the altar. 

At the end, instead of the verse Ite missa est, he says Re- 
quiescant in pace. This is always in the plural, even when the 
Mass is offered for one person. He turns towards the altar 
after the Dominus vobiscum before this verse, and says it at 
the middle, facing the altar, with hands joined in front of the 
breast. No blessing is given at the end of Mass. The celebrant 
says the prayer Placeat tibi as usual, kisses the altar, then 
goes at once to the gospel end and begins the last gospel. 

^ Gavanti-Merati, Pars II, tit. xiii (torn, i, pp 193-199); Martlnucci- 
Menghini, I, i, pp. 370-372; Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 231-241; De Herdt, i, 
pp. 54-80; ii, pp. 164-166; Van der Stappen, ii, pp. 297-383; iii, pp. 450- 
452; Wapelhorst, p. 107. 



68 



CHAPTER VIII 

MASS BY A PRIEST IN THE PRE- 
SENCE OF A PRELATE 

IF a priest says Mass in the presence of a Greater Pre- 
late (p. 32),' the following rules are observed.^ 
A faldstool or kneeling--desk is prepared before the 
altar, '^ and is adorned as described at p. 8. 
The pax-brede (instrumentum pacis, p. 18) is prepared, 
with a veil of the colour of the day,* at the credence table. 
If possible, the celebrant should arrive at the altar before the 
prelate. Here he arranges the chalice and missal, then goes 
down to the ground on the gospel side and stands there, 
facing the epistle side across the sanctuary. 

When the prelate arrives at his place, where the faldstool 
or kneeling-desk is prepared, the celebrant bows low to him. 
The prelate gives a sign that Mass may begin ; the celebrant 
bows again to him, then makes the usual reverence to the 
altar, a profound bow to the cross, or he genuflects, if the 
Sanctissimum is reserved there. The server kneels at the left 
of the celebrant. The priest begins Mass as usual, but stand- 
ing at the gospel side and turning slightly towards the altar. 

In the Confiteor^ instead of vohis fratres and vos fratreSy he 
says tibi Pater and te Pater ^ turning and bowing towards the 
prelate. 

Before going up to the altar he bows again to the prelate. 

Mass proceeds as usual, with these differences. After the 
gospel the celebrant neither kisses the missal nor says the 
verse Per evangelica dicta^ etc. Instead, the server takes 
the book to the prelate. He kisses it and says that verse. 
The server makes no reverence to the prelate when he brings 
him the book. He brings it open at the place of the gospel. 
When the prelate has kissed the book, the server genuflects 
to him. The celebrant should wait to continue Mass till the 
server has brought back the book and has replaced it on its 
stand. The prelate does not bless the water at the offertory.^ 

After the Agnus Dei the celebrant says the first of the three 
prayers before his Communion. Meanwhile the server brings 
the pax-brede from the credence table with the veil. He kneels 

^ That is supposing- the prelate to be present officially in his robes. 
See p. 71. 

^ The rules are in the Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, cap. xxx. Cfr. Martinucci- 
Meng-hini, I, i, pp. 375-377; Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 332-3355 E)e Herdt, 
ii, pp. 78-82; Van der Stappen, iii, pp. 469-470; Wapelhorst, pp. 112-114. 

^ It may be at the epistle side, or in another part of the sanctuary, if 
this is more convenient {Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xxx, § i). In this case 
the celebrant says the preparatory prayers in front of the altar, as usual, 
so long as he does not turn his back to the bishop. 

* See p. 18, n. 4. 

^ This is specially noted [Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xxx, § 3). 

69 



niMn 



tA 

« 



I* 



mmmi 



* 






joldbiDol 




A 



FIG. 3. LOW MASS BEFORE A GREATER PRELATE 
THE CONFITEOR 



/IDass bp a priest In tbe presence of a prelate 71 

at the right of the celebrant and holds the pax towards him. 
The celebrant kisses the altar in the middle, then with joined 
hands kisses the pax saying : Pax tecum ; the server answers Et 
citm spiritu itw. The celebrant goes on with the Mass at once. 
The server takes the pax-brede to the prelate, having wiped 
and covered it with the veil. He offers it to the prelate, un- 
covered, saying : Pax tecum. The prelate kisses the pax- 
brede, saying : Et cum spiritu tuo. The server bows low to 
him, wipes and covers the pax and takes it back to the cred- 
ence table. At the blessing, when the celebrant has said Bene- 
dicat vos omnipotens Detis, he turns and bows low to the pre- 
late.^ Then he gives the blessing to the people, not over the 
prelate ; namely, he turns towards his right to do so. 

At the end of Mass, when the last gospel is finished, the 
celebrant does not ^o to the middle of the altar. He turns 
and kneels at the gospel end, facing across the sanctuary. 
Here he says the prayers after Mass. Then he stands there, 
bows to the prelate, and waits till he goes. If the prelate re- 
mains before the altar the celebrant takes the chalice at the 
middle, as usual, comes down to the front of the altar, makes 
the usual reverence to it, bows low to the prelate, takes his 
biretta, covers himself and goes away. 

If a bishop not in his own diocese is present, he receives 
the pax as above, but does not kiss the missal. The celebrant 
bows to him at the beginning and end of Mass. Otherwise 
Mass is said as if he were not present. 

The cushions of the kneeling-desk or faldstool in this case 
are green. For all the rest Mass is said as if he were not 
present.^ 

At Requiem Masses all the ceremonies of kissing the book 
and the pax are omitted. 

A prelate maybe present at Mass unofficially, in his private 
dress (p. 13). In this case Mass is said as if he were not 
there, except that the celebrant should bow to him before and 
after. 

^ "Quasi licentiam benedicendi petens " {Rit. eel.., xii, 3). 

^ Merati and others say that a priest, celebrating" in the presence of 
his own bishop in a private chapel, no one but the bishop's house- 
hold being- present, even outside his diocese, should observe all rules as 
if he were in the bishop's diocese (Pars II, tit. iii, §4; ed. cit.,vo\. i, p. iii). 
The rules for celebrating- in the presence of the Pope will be found there 
(ib.). The case is not likely to occur in England. 



CHAPTER IX 
LOW MASS SAID BY A BISHOP^ 

IF possible, there should be two, or three, servers at Low- 
Mass said by a bishop.^ These are not necessarily 
priests. They wear cassocks and surplices only, not 
stoles. The altar-cards are taken away. The vestments 
should be laid out on the altar, namely those used by 
a priest, but not the maniple, except in the case of a Requiem 
Mass.^ On the credence table are placed the chalice covered 
as usual, the maniple, the larger vessel for water, dish and 
towel used by a bishop, the small portable candle and candle- 
stick (scotula, p. 17), a silver dish for the skull-cap. A fald- 
stool or kneeling--desk is prepared before the altar. 

If the celebrant is a bishop in his own diocese his mozzetta 
(p. 10) is laid out on the faldstool, or desk, conveniently for 
him to put it on. Near it is placed his biretta. In the case 
of a bishop not in his own diocese his mantellettum is laid 
out, folded, on some table or convenient place near. On 
greater feasts four candles should be lighted on the altar, 
otherwise two are sufficient. 

The bishop makes his preparation for Mass at this fald- 
stool, in the mozzetta if he is the Ordinary of the diocese, 
otherwise in the mantellettum. While he reads the prayers 
one chaplain holds the Canon episcopalis (p. 20) before him, 
the other holds the hand-candle, lighted, at his side. 

When the time comes for Mass to begin the bishop takes 
off the mozzetta or mantellettum. Wearing the rochet over 
his cassock and the biretta, he washes his hands. Every 
time he washes the hands the water should be poured and 
the dish held, not by the chaplains, but by a servant; the 
chaplains hold the towel.* The bishop takes off the biretta 
and hands it to a chaplain,' then goes to the altar and vests, 
assisted by the chaplains. He uses the same vestments as a 
priest, except that he takes off his pectoral cross after having 
washed the hands and put it on again, over the alb, immedi- 
ately before taking the stole. He also wears the skull-cap 
and his ring ; he takes off the ring each time to wash the 
hands, and puts it on again afterwards. When the bishop 
has vested, a chaplain puts the Canon episcopalis, open on the 
altar, where the central altar-card would stand. 

^ Caer. Ep.y Lib. I, cap. xxix; Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, pp. 38-48; 
De Herdt, ii, pp. 93-96; Wapelhorst, pp. 120-126. 

'^ Caer. Ep.; " valde conveniens esset " (z6. , § 2). These servers are 
called " capellani" in the Caer. Ep. If there are three, see p. 74. 

^ If the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, the bishop vests in the sacristy. 

* Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, cap. xxix, § 10, " semper in lotione familiaris aliquis 
ministrat aquam et pelvim: capellani vero mantile." 

* A bishop never wears the biretta with vestments (Martinucci, II, i, 
p. 42, § 9)- 

7^ 



Xow /iDass 5aI^ bv a :©l5bop 73 

The bishop (except at Requiem Masses) does not take the 
maniple before Mass, but puts it on when he says the prayer 
Indtilge7itiam ' at the foot of the altar. The maniple therefore 
is taken by the chaplain who kneels at the gospel side while 
these prayers are said, as far as the Indidgeyitiam. Then the 
chaplain kisses the maniple at its side, not at the cross, hands 
it to the bishop, who kisses its cross; the chaplain puts it on 
the bi-shop's left arm. 

The two chaplains answer the prayers at Mass, carry the 
missal across the altar, bring" up the chalice at the offertory,"^ 
and uncover it. They serve with the wine and water; they 
pour wine and water into the chalice at the offertory, one 
of them holding the water cruet up to the bishop and saying 
Benedicite Pater reverendissime . They hand the chalice to the 
bishop with the solita oscula; they also hand him the paten, 
when he takes it, kissing it and his hand, as usual. After the 
ablutions one of the chaplains covers up the chalice and takes 
it to the credence table, as the subdeacon does at High Mass. 

During Mass the chaplains stand one on either side of the 
bishop, at least when he is at the middle of the altar. \\'"hen 
he is at the side they may either stand in the same way, one 
on either side of him, or, according to some authors, they 
should then stand together at his farther side, so that the 
bishop is nearer the middle of the altar. ^ Always while he 
reads the chaplain who is nearer holds the hand-candle, ex- 
cept at the moment of the elevation.^ Throughout Mass the 
one nearest the book turns over its pages. 

The chaplains kneel at the beginning of Mass till the bishop 
goes up to the altar. They genuflect each time with the 
bishop, and when he bows to the cross. They kneel during 
the elevation, the Communion act, and blessing at the end of 
Mass. 

If they are canons, they do not kneel, but bow, at the pre- 
paratory prayers, when the bishop bows, and at the blessing. 

All bishops may now wear the skull-cap while saying Mass, 
except from the preface to the ablutions.' The second chap- 
lain takes it from the bishop at the beginning of the preface 
and puts it on again after the ablutions. If he does not wear 

^ Merati says : " peracta confessione, seu post Indxdgentiam' (Pars II, 
tit. iii, § 23; vol. i, p. 115). In practice he puts on the maniple as soon as 
he has made the sign of the cross at the " Indulgentiam." 

- Some authors say, "at the beginning of Mass." 

' Most authors mention both these ways, leaving the choice open. Cfr. 
De Herdt, i, p. 95. 

^ The chaplain who holds the candle never kneels nor genuflects while 
doing so. At the prayer " Qui pridie " he puts the candle on the altar 
and goes to kneel on the edge of the foot-pace by the side of the other. 
As soon as the elevation is ended he goes back to the bishop's side, by 
the book, genuflects, and again holds the candle. 

^ S. Congr. Cofisistorialis, 2 maii 19 10. The bishop must also remove 
the skull-cap whenever the Sanctissimum is exposed. 



74 'C^be 1bolp Sacrifice 

it duringf Mass (as when the Sanctissimum is exposed), the 
chaplain takes it off before Mass begins and puts it on just 
before he unvests at the end. While he does not wear it, 
it is put on the silver dish on the credence table (p. 72). 

At the end of the secrets the missal is removed from its 
stand and put on the credence table. The Canon episcopalis 
is taken from the centre of the altar and put on the missal 
stand. After the ablutions the Canon episcopalis and missal 
are put back in their places as before. 

The Caerimoniale episcoporum (Lib. I, cap. xxix, § 6) 
says that at a bishop's Mass the bell is to be rung '' thrice 
while the Host is elevated, as many times while the Blood is 
elevated, and no more." This seems to exclude ringing at the 
'* Sanctus." 

When a bishop distributes Holy Communion the com- 
municant kisses his ring before opening the mouth to receive 
the Blessed Sacrament.^ 

After the Communion the bishop again washes his hands, 
as before. 

At the end of Mass the bishop gives his blessing in the 
episcopal form. Facing the altar he says the versicles. Sit 
nomen Domini henedictiun. fy. Ex hoc Jiunc et usque in saeculuni. 
y . Adiutorium nosiricm in nomine Domini, i^. Qui fecit caelum 
et terram. Then he turns and says : Benedicat vos om,nipotens 
Deus^ etc., making the sign of the cross over the people thrice. 
fy. Amen. 

At Low Mass the bishop never uses mitre or crozier, except 
at ordinations ; nor does an Archbishop use the Archbishop's 
cross. 

When Mass is finished, the bishop unvests before the altar 
at the foot of the steps ; the vestments are carried by the 
chaplains to the altar and are laid there. He puts on the moz- 
zetta or mantellettum, resumes the pectoral cross and biretta. 
Then at the desk or faldstool he says the prayers after Mass, 
one of the chaplains holding the book, the other the hand- 
candle, on his right. 

If there are three chaplains, two of them may hold candles 
or torches, kneeling before the altar, during the elevation, 
that is, from the Sanctus to after the elevation of the chalice. 
The third will then assist the bishop, and ring the bell. If 
there are only two, other servers, or servants of the bishop,' 
may hold these candles ; or two large candles in candlesticks 

^ This kissing- of the bishop's ring- is a remnant of the old kiss of peace 
before Communion, as the ministers at pontifical High Mass kiss his 
cheek before receiving. 

'^ The Caer. Ep, (Lib. I, cap. xxix, § 7) says: " Si vero non adsint tres 
capellani, poterunt ad cereos supplere duo scutiferi aut alii familiares, 
arbitrio episcopi, decenter vestiti." Scutiferi are not often met in the 
households of English bishops to-day. Practically these persons "de- 
center vestiti " will mean servers in cassock and surplice. 



Xow ^as5 salt) b^ a ifiStsbop 75 

standing on the ground before the altar may be lit at this 
time and should be extinguished afterwards. 

At a Requiem Mass the bishop puts on the maniple with 
the other vestments, as a priest does at the vesting. Nothing 
is kissed. 

If a cardinal, prince, or prelate of higher rank than the 
celebrating bishop be present, another faldstool or desk is 
prepared for him before the altar. At a bishop's Mass no 
other prelate kisses the missal from which he has read the 
gospel ; the celebrant always does this himself. But after the 
gospel another missal or book of gospels is taken to the pre- 
late who hears Mass; he kisses it, and the server w^ho brings 
it to him observes what is said above at p. 69. 

In the same case the pax-brede is taken to the prelate 
assisting, as described above, p. 71. 

These privileges are not used by abbots, canons, or other 
prelates who are not bishops. They say Low Mass like any 
other priest. But some prelates are allowed the hand-candle, 
and some even the Canon book. 



CHAPTER X 

THE MANNER OF SERVING 
LOW MASS 

^ I. GENERAL DIRECTIONS^ 

WHEN the server does nothing with the hands 
he keeps them joined before the breast, unless 
he hold a book. 
Whenever he hands anything to the celebrant, 
he kisses first the thing, then the celebrant's 
hand. In taking anything he kisses first the hand, then the 
thing. These are the so-called *'solita oscula." They are 
omitted in Masses for the dead and when the Blessed Sacra- 
ment is exposed." While serving one Mass the server must 
take no notice of anything that may be done at another Mass, 
for instance, the elevation at a neighbouring altar. If he 
serves a Low Mass at a side altar while High Mass or a 
sung Mass is celebrated at the high altar, he does not ring 
the Sanctus bell at all. Nor does he do so when the Blessed 
Sacrament is exposed in the church. 

The normal place for the server is, kneeling, on the lowest 
altar step at the side opposite to that where the missal is. 

At the beginning and end of Mass he genuflects to the 
altar, whether the Sanctissimum be reserved there or not.^ 
If it be exposed he genuflects on both knees and bows low. 
When the celebrant signs himself with the cross the server 
should do so also. 

§2. PREPARATION 

Before Mass the serv^er vests in cassock and surplice,^ and 
(if this is needed) goes to prepare everything at the altar.^ 

He takes the two cruets, one containing wine, the other 
water, with the dish and towel for the washing of hands, to 
the credence table. He sees that the altar is uncovered, show- 
ing the altar cloth, that the altar-cards are in their place, that 
the stand for the missal is at the epistle side. If he does not 

' Martinucci-Menghini, I, i, pp. 331-342; Meng-hini, Manuale novis- 
simo di ss. Cerenionie^ i, pp. 93-121; Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 362-379; De 
Herdt, i, pp. 398-404; Wapelhorst, pp. 11 5- 120. 

^ By custom these oscula are now generally omitted altogether by 
laymen. ' S.R.C. 16 November 1906. 

* The rubrics of the missal {Rit. eel., tit. ii, § i), and the S.R.C. (23 
November 1906, No, i) both require that the server, whether a tonsured 
clerk or not, should wear a surplice at Mass. Yet in many countries, in- 
cluding England, it is a common custom that he serve in lay dress. 

In case of necessity a woman may kneel outside the sanctuary and 
answer {Cod.^ c. 813). The priest himself moves the book, and so on. 

^ All or part of this preparation may be made by the sacristan. 

76 



TLbc /IDanner of scvvim %o\v /iDass 77 

bring" the missal with him at the beginning of Mass/ he will 
see that it is already on the stand closed,' He lights the two 
smaller candles used at Low Mass, beginning with the one on 
the epistle side. 

In the sacristy he then assists the celebrant to vest. Unless 
it is already on the altar, he takes the missal closed, bows 
with the celebrant (standing behind him) to the cross in the 
sacristy, and leads him to the altar at which Mass will be 
said. In many churches it is usual that the server ring a bell 
near the sacristy door as he passes, to warn the people that 
Mass will begin. He may take holy w^ater at the sacristy 
door. If they pass an altar at which the Sanctissimum is 
reserved, the server genuflects with the celebrant. He bows 
to the high altar of the church, if they pass it, unless the 
Sanctissimum be there. At the altar at which the Mass will 
be said the server g-oes to the epistle side, takes the cele- 
brant's biretta, with the usual oscula, genuflects as the cele- 
brant either does so or bows. He puts the biretta on the cred- 
ence table or at another convenient place. If he has brought 
the missal he puts it on the stand or cushion at the epistle 
side, going- round the foot-pace to do so, not standing- on it. 

He comes back and kneels at the gospel side, on the 
ground, not on the step. 



§ 3. FROM THE BEGINNING OF MASS TO THE 

PREFACE 

Kneeling here he answers the preparatory prayers. He does 
not bow while the celebrant says the Confiteor. He bows 
slightly towards the celebrant while he himself says the prayer, 
Misereatur tui omnipotens Deus. He bows low towards the 
altar while he says the Confiteor, and remains so while the 
celebrant says Misereator vestri. At the w^ords tibi pater and 
te pater in the Confiteor he turns towards the priest. He 
strikes his breast three times at mea citlpa, mea culpa, mea 
maxima culpa. He bows again slightly at the versicles, Deus 
tu conversus, and remains bowing till the celebrant goes up to 
the altar. He makes the sign of the cross each time with the 
priest. 

As soon as the celebrant goes up to the altar the server 
rises too. He may assist the celebrant by lifting the edge of 
his alb. Then he kneels again, this time on the bottom step 
of the altar. In future he always kneels on this bottom step. 

^ At Low Mass the server may never open the missal, nor turn over its 
pages. This is done by the celebrant himself (S.R.C. no. 3448, XIV). 

^ The rubrics of the missal suppose that the server bring- the missal 
with him when the priest comes out to begin Mass, and that he take it 
back with him to the sacristy afterwards {Rit. eel.., ii, i and xii, 6 "eo 
raodo quo venerat"). In many countries, and generally in England, the 
missal is on the altar before Mass begins and remains there at the end. 



78 Xlbe 1bolp Sacrifice 

At the introit he makes the sign of the cross with the 
priest, as on all occasions when the priest does so (not 
when he signs anything else with the cross). He answers 
Kyrie eleison and says Amen after the first and last collect, 
which have the conclusion. Per Dominum nostrufn, etc. After 
the epistle he says Deo gratias^^ and then goes at once to the 
epistle corner of the altar. He goes round the foot-pace, not 
stepping on it, and stands near the priest, rather behind him, 
to his right. 

On certain days, especially in Lent and Ember days, there 
are several lessons. In this case the server does not ^o to the 
epistle side till the last of these lessons is finished. He answers 
Deo gratias to each, and Levate (without rising) if the priest 
says Flectainiis genua. The sign of the last collects is the 
Dominus vohisciun. When, after Kyrie eleison^ the celebrant 
goes to the epistle side and begins a collect, without having 
first said Dominus vobiscum, then the lesson that follows will 
not be the last one. There may be several such collects and 
lessons. At last the celebrant will come to the middle, turn, 
say Dominns vobiscum^ then go back to the missal. After 
that everything will follow as usual. Before the Dominus vobis- 
cum the server must stay in his place, answer Am-en after 
each prayer, and Deo gratias after each lesson. 

The server waits at the epistle corner during the gradual, 
tract, or sequence. When the celebrant goes to the middle the 
server takes the missal across to the gospel side, and puts it 
here at the corner of the altar diagonally, so that its pages 
face half way towards the middle of the altar. He stands by 
the book. The priest comes to read the gospel. The server 
answers the versicles at the beginning, and makes the sign of 
the cross with the thumb on forehead, lips and breast with 
the priest. Then he goes to the epistle side and stands at that 
corner in front of the lowest step, while the gospel is read. If 
the priest genuflects during the gospel, the server does so too. 
At the end he answers Laus tibi Christe. If the creed is said, 
the server kneels during it ^ and bows low at the verse, Et in- 
carnatus est^ etc. When the priest has said Dominus vobiscunt 
and Oremus at the offertory, the server goes to the credence 
table, ^ takes the dish with the cruets which stand on it and the 

' The priest usually gives a sign at the end of the epistle, turning 
towards the server or lifting his left hand (p. 47). 

■^ This seems an anomaly, since the people generally stand at the creed. 
It is, however, the undoubted rule (S.R.C., no. 2915, ad VI; cfr. Mar- 
tinucci, I, i, p. 338 ; Le Vavasseur, i, p. 368). The rubric in the missal {Ruhr, 
geii. , tit. xvii, § 2) says : ' ' Those who assist at Low Mass kneel always, even 
in Easter tide, except while the gospel is read." The principle seems to 
be that this rule is not urged strictly in the case of lay people in the body 
of the church, who enjoy a certain natural liberty. But it is urged in the 
case of those who assist more officially, the server, clergy, others in 
choir, and so on. 

^ He may fold the chalice veil on the altar (p. 49, n. i). 



Ubc /Iftanner of scvvim ^o\v /iDass 79 

towel. The practice at Rome is that he spread the towel on the 
altar at the epistle corner, put the dish and cruets as they are, 
on the towel, then take the wine cruet in the rig"ht hand, the 
water cruet in the left, stand at that end of the altar and there 
wait till the celebrant come.^ He bows and hands the wine 
cruet to the priest and takes the water cruet in the right. He 
takes back the wine cruet with his left hand. He kisses both 
before handing them to the celebrant, and on receiving them 
back, but, this time, not the celebrant's hand. Then he sets 
down the wine cruet either on the altar or on the credence 
table, lays the towel on the altar or his left arm, takes the dish 
in the left and the water cruet in the right. The priest comes 
to wash his hands. The server holds the dish under the 
celebrant's hands and pours a little water over his fingers 
from the cruet. He must be careful to hold the dish under the 
priest's hands, so that the water poured over the fingers may 
go into it. Before and after washing the priest's hands he 
bows to him. 

He puts all back on the credence table, goes to his place at 
the lowest step on the epistle side and kneels there. 

When the priest says Orate fratres the server should wait 
till he has again turned to the altar; then bowing he says the 
answer, Suscipiat Domiiius, etc. He answers the versicles 
before the preface. As the celebrant says the Sa7ictus the 
server rings the bell three times. He then goes to the epistle 
side and lights the third candle there. This remains alight till 
after the Communion." He comes back to his place. 

§ 4. FROM THE CANON TO THE END OF MASS 

When the priest makes the signs of the cross after having 
stretched his hands over the bread and wine the server comes 
to kneel on the foot-pace at the epistle side, but near the 
middle. He takes the Sanctus bell with him. At each eleva- 
tion he holds up slightly the end of the chasuble in his left,^ 
and rings the bell with his right, either continuously or three 
times. He may arrange this so that he ring once when the 
celebrant genuflects, once when he elevates, once again when 
he genuflects. Since there are two elevations the bell will be 
rung altogether six times.* 

^ Martinucci, I, i, p. 338. 

^ The third candle, Ht at the elevation, is expressly enjoined by the 
rubrics of the missal (^wir.^^w., XX ; Rit. c^/. , viii,6). However, the S.R.C. 
(9 iun. 1899, no. 4029, ad II) tolerates the omission of this where such 
omission is the custom. The question is discussed by Van der Stappen, 
torn, iii, pp. 100-T02. 

^ Only as the priest elevates, not as he genuflects. 

* The rubric says that he rings "ter ad unamquamque elevationem, 
vel continuate " {Rit, eel., viii, 6). Most authors recommend that he ring 
three separate times at each elevation. This is also now the general 
custom. 



So XTbe 1bolp Sacrifice 

The rubrics of the missal say that the Sanctus bell should 
be rung at the Sanctus and at each elevation.^ There is no 
authority in the missal for ringing at the prayer Ha7ic igitur, 
or at Doviine non sum dignus^ After the elevation of the 
chalice and the priest's genuflection following, the server goes 
back to the place where he was before, at the end of the lowest 
step on the epistle side, and kneels there. He may first put 
the Sanctus bell on the credence table. 

He makes the sign of the cross and strikes his breast when 
the priest does so at Agnus Dei. He bows low while the 
priest makes his Communion. If anyone now come to the 
Communion rail, or if the server himself intend to receive 
Holy Communion, he rises as the priest gathers the fragments 
from the corporal with the paten and kneels on the lowest 
step at the epistle side, sideways, facing the gospel side across 
the sanctuary. Here, kneeling and bowing low, he says the 
Confiteor^ beginning as the priest drinks the consecrated wine. 
He should begin the Confiteor sufficiently soon, so that the 
priest may not have to wait when he has opened the taber- 
nacle, put the ciborium on the altar, and is ready to begin the 
prayer Misereatur. The server answers Amen after this and 
the next prayer, Indulgentiam. If the server himself receive 
Holy Communion, he does so first, unless a priest or deacon 
be present and make his Communion wearing a stole. The 
server may receive Communion either at the place where he 
is, or kneeling on the edge of the foot-pace in front of the 
altar, rather to the epistle side. He must take a Communion- 
cloth or card covered with linen from the credence table and 
hold it under his chin. If he kneels at the side, facing the 
gospel side, he may use the end of the altar-cloth as his Com- 
munion-cloth. 

If there is no permanent Communion-cloth at the Com- 
munion rail, the server must take one from the credence table 
and hand it to the people there. If it is a small cloth or card 
he hands it first to the person at the end of the epistle side. 
He will then take it back and replace it on the credence table, 
after all have received Communion. 

For whatever reason the tabernacle be opened, the server 
always kneels till it is closed. After Communion he will take 
the cruets for the ablutions. 

If no one but the celebrant receive Communion, the server 
will take the cruets at once, when the priest has made his 
Communion in the form of wine and begins to cleanse the 
corporal with the paten. He takes the cruets from the cred- 
ence table, the wine in his right and the water in his left. 

^ Rit cel.f vii, 8 and viii, 6. 

^ However, the S.R.C. tolerates the bell at the Dominenon sum dignus, 
•where it is the custom (14 maii 1856, no. 5224, ad IX). Van der Stappen 
Allows it also at Quant ohlationem (v, p. 45), as is usual in England. 



Ube /IDanner of serving %o\v /Il>a55 8i 

He genuflects at the altar steps and stands on the highest 
step outside the foot-pace, at the epistle corner, at the place 
where he handed the cruets to the priest at the offertory. 
When the celebrant holds the chalice towards him the server 
steps on the foot-pace and approaches. He pours some of the 
wine into the chalice, until the priest makes a sign. Then he 
goes back to where he was before. The priest, when he has 
drunk the wine, comes to the server. The server pours into 
the chalice wine (generally all that remains in the cruet), then 
water, both over the priest's fiingers. The priest will usually 
make a sign when enough has been poured. The server then 
bows again to the priest, puts the cruets and dish back on the 
credence table and extinguishes the third candle lit after the 
Sanctus. At the ablutions the server does not kiss the cruets 
nor the celebrant's hand. 

The server then goes to the gospel side, genuflecting, as 
always, in the middle as he passes, takes the missal and 
brings it to the epistle end of the altar, again genuflecting as 
he passes the middle. He should, if possible, do this without 
stepping on the foot-pace. He places the missal straight on 
the altar, facing the people, as it was at the introit. In 
some churches he next takes the chalice veil on the epistle 
side and carries it, with the same genuflections, to put it near 
the centre on the gospel side.^ Then he goes to kneel at the 
lowest step on the gospel side. He answers the post-com- 
munions, Dominus vobisciun, Ite missa est, or other versicle in 
its stead. During the Easter octave the priest adds Alleluia 
twice to the Ite missa est', the server does so too after the 
response, Deo gratias. He makes the sign of the cross at the 
blessing, then stands. 

If there is a proper last gospel the celebrant leaves the 
missal open after the post-communions. This is the sign for 
the server. In this case, as soon as he has answered Ite viissa 
est, he brings the book again to the gospel side. He may 
arrange so that his genuflection in passing the middle with 
the book coincide with that for the blessing. In this case he 
will kneel on both knees at the middle. Or he may bring the 
book to its place, then kneel for the blessing at the gospel side. 

He remains standing at the gospel side, where he was before, 

while he makes the responses at the beginning of the last 

, gospel. Then he goes over to the epistle side and stands there, 

' turning towards the priest. He genuflects with him at the verse 

Et verhiim caro factiim est, and answers Deo gratias at the end. 

^ Le Vavasseur, i, p. 372. Martinucci, I, i, pp. 339-340, says nothing- 
of this transference of the chalice veil from one side to the other. It is an 
I imitation of what is done at High Mass (p. 97). At Low Mass there is no 
I serious authority for it ; nor has it any real object. When he covers the 
I chalice the celebrant can take veil quite as easily from the right side as 
from the left, or even more easily. It is better that the server, when he 
has moved the missal, ^o at once to his place on the altar-step. 

G 



82 Ubc Ibolp Sacrifice 

Unless the missal is to stay on the altar, he now takes it, 
resting it on the left arm. He waits for the celebrant at the 
epistle side. If necessary he hands him the card from which 
the prayers after Mass are said. During these he kneels on 
the lowest step at the epistle side. 

He hands the biretta to the celebrant with his right hand, 
making the solita oscula; genuflects with him and then goes 
in front of him to the sacristy. He may extinguish the altar 
candles before doing so.^ 

In the sacristy he bows, with the priest, to the cross, lays 
down the missal, if he carries it, assists the celebrant to un- 
vest, and bows to him.^ 

Then, if he is to do so, he goes back to the altar, extin- 
guishes the candles, and brings the cruets to the sacristy. 

Lastly, he takes off" his surplice and cassock. 

§ 5. AT REQUIEM MASS 

At Masses for the dead the server omits all kisses; if the 
sequence. Dies zrae, is said, he does not rise to move the 
missal till towards its end. At the end of Mass, instead of 
I^e missa est, the celebrant says Requiescant in pace. To this 
the answer is Amen, He does not kneel for the blessing, since 
there is none. 



§ 6. TWO SERVERS AT LOW MASS 

On great feasts there may be two servers. In this case one 
of the two is the first server ; he does nearly all as above. 
The other may answer with him ; he must take care to bow 
and genuflect with the first. He changes places with the first, 
kneeling or standing always on the other side. 

At the offertory and Lavabo the two servers at the epistle 
side share what is to be done. At the offertory the first takes 
the wine cruet, the second takes the water cruet ; so they hand 
them to the celebrant. 

At the Lavabo the first server takes the towel on the right, 
the second the cruet and dish. While the first goes to carry 
anything from one place to another the second stands. They 
both ^o up and hold the end of the chasuble at the elevation. 
They may hold the cloth extended between them at the Com- 
munion of the clergy or people, if these come to the altar. 

When the first server takes the missal to the epistle side 

^ The missal supposes that the candles are extinguished before the 
priest leaves the altar {Rit. eel., xii, 6). However, this is not the usual 
custom in England now. 

^ In some churches it is the custom for the celebrant to give the server 
his blessing after Mass, at this point. 



Ube /IDannec of scvmng %o\v /iDass 83 

after the Communion the other may take the chalice veil and 
carry it round to the gospel side, where he unfolds it and lays 
it near the chalice. They should do this together, genuflecting 
together in the middle, the first server in front of the second. 

At the ablutions the first ser\'er alone goes to the credence 
table and serves the celebrant; the other stands at his place. 



I 



CHAPTER XI 
HIGH MASS 

N the case of High Mass sung by a priest it will be con- 
venient to describe the functions of each assistant separ- 
ately.^ Figures, showing the position of each person at 
various moments of High Mass, are given at pp. 126- 
129. 

§ I. THE CHOIR AT HIGH MASS 

For general directions for the choir at all liturgical functions 
see chapter V, pp. 28-30. 

The choir may enter with the celebrant and his ministers, 
or they may already be in their places before the altar, as 
when one of the canonical hours (generally terce) is sung 
immediately before Mass. 

If the choir enters with the celebrant the members genuflect 
to the altar and go to their places, in pairs, as described at p. 28. 

If they are already in their places when the celebrant enters 
with the ministers and servers, they stand during that entrance 
and bow in return when the celebrant bows to them. 

They do not genuflect when the servers and ministers do 
so before the altar. They stand during the Asperses ceremony ^ 
and make the sign of the cross as they are sprinkled with holy 
water. ^ They kneel during the preparatory prayers, said by 
the celebrant at the altar steps. ^ While he and the ministers 
say the Confiteor the members of the choir also say it to each 
other, in pairs. They should say the Kyrie eleison in the same 
way, in pairs, while the celebrant says it. If the celebrant sits 
during the sung Kyrie eleison^ the choir sits too. They stand 
while he says the Gloria in excelsis, then sit when the cele- 
brant has done so. They rise as he rises at the end of the 
Gloria) stand during Dominus vohisciini and the collects, sit 
during the epistle and the chants (gradual, tract, sequence or 
Alleluia verse) that follow. They stand for the sung gospel, 
genuflect if the deacon does so, and stand while the celebrant 
says the creed. At the verse, Et incarnatus esl, etc. , they genu- 
flect with the celebrant, as he says it. They then sit as soon 
as the celebrant does so; they do not kneel, but bow, while 
£l incarnatus est is sung.* When the celebrant rises, at the 
end of the sung creed, the choir stand. They sit again when 

^ Gavanti-Merati (i, pp. 89-193), following- the rubrics of the missal, 
describes the whole ceremony together. So do Le Vavasseur (i, pp. 438- 
476) and De Herdt (i, pp. 413-486). Martinucci-Menghini (I, i, pp. 113- 
311), Van der Stappen (v, pp. 1-364), Wapelhorst (pp. I3i-i66)give direc- 
tions for each person separately. 

' All stand bareheaded at this time ; those who wear a skull-cap take 
it off (p. 23). 

^ Canons and prelates do not kneel. 

* S.R.C. 1594, no. 3860, ad II. Cf. Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. viii, n. 53. 

84 



Ibigb /IDass 85 

he has sung Oremus at the offertory. While the celebrant is 
incensed, they stand, and remain standing- till they and the 
deacon have been incensed. While they are incensed they bow. 
Then they sit till the celebrant has finished the secrets. They 
stand when he sings Per oinnia saecula saeculoricm before the 
preface. They say the Sanctus with the celebrant. They kneel 
till after the elevation of the chalice, then stand till the end of 
the celebrant's communion (except at ferial Masses and on 
fast days; see below). They say the Agnus Dei with the 
celebrant. After the Communion they sit. They stand again 
when the celebrant sings Doniimis vobisctim before the post- 
communion, till the blessing. They kneel for the blessing at 
the end of Mass, except prelates and canons in chapter, who 
stand. All make the sign of the cross at the blessing. They 
stand during the last gospel,^ and so till the end of Mass. 
They stand as the procession of celebrants and servers goes 
out, if they do not form part of it. 

At ferial Masses of Advent, Lent, Ember days, vigils kept 
with fast, and at Masses for the dead the members of the 
choir kneel during the collects, post-communions and Oratio 
super popuhim^ also from the Sanctus to the end of the response 
to Pax domini sit semper vobiscuni. The exceptions to this rule 
are the eves of Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Pentecost, and 
the Ember days in Whitsun week. 

The members of the choir bow on all the occasions noted 
at p. 21,. Further they bow, at High Mass, during the 
Gloria in excelsis at the words Adoramus te^ Gratias aginius 
tibi, lesu Christe^ Suscipe deprecationem. During the sung 
creed they bow at the holy Name and at the words Et incar- 
natusest. . . homo f actus est y Simul adoratur. Before the preface 
they bow at Gratias agam,us Domino Deo nostro. For rules for 
removing the skull-cap, in the case of those who wear it, see 
p. 23. For the manner of giving and receiving the kiss of 
peace see p. 27. 

On Christmas Day at all Masses and on Lady Day" the 
choir kneels at the creed during the verses Et iucarnatus . . . 
homo /actus est. They genuflect at the words Flectam.us genua 
on fast days, rising when Levate has been sung. They kneel 
at the sung verse, Adiuva 7ios, Deus salutaris yioster in the 
Lenten tract, ^ at the verse, Veni sancte Spiritus^ in the gradual 
of Whitsunday and its octave, during the gospel of the 

' Le Vavasseur (I, p. 442) says the members of the choir g-enuflect at 
the words: "Et verbum caro factum est" in the last gospel. Martinucci 
(I, i, p. 24) and Van der Stappen (v, pp. 4-5) imply that they do not. 
This is perhaps more natural, since the last gospel is really part of the 
celebrant's private thanksgiving- after Mass. 

' On the day when the Mass of the Annunciation is said. 

^ The tract '*Domine non secundum peccata," in which these words 
occur, is sung at ferial Masses on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays 
in Lent. 



86 XTbe t)ol^ Sacrifice 

Epiphany, at the words Et procidentes adoraverunt eum^ at the 
epistle of the feast of the holy Name, during the words. In 
nomine lesu . . . infernorum^ and on all other occasions when 
the rubric of the missal says Hie genuflectitur. They do not 
genuflect when the celebrant says these words, only when 
they are sung. For the order of receiving Holy Communion 
by members of the choir see pp. 130-132. 



§ 2. THE PROCESSION TO THE ALTAR. PROCES- 
SIONAL CROSS 

At Rome it is not the custom that a processional cross 
be borne before the procession to the altar, when a priest 
sings High Mass; so the Roman books of ceremonies do not 
usually speak of it. The rubrics of the missal, as Gavanti 
observes,^ are incomplete in describing the preparation for 
High Mass. When a bishop celebrates, the Caerimoniale 
episcoporum orders that the cross of the chapter be borne 
in front of the procession, by a subdeacon in tunicle, behind 
the thurifer.^ 

There is no rule against the cross being carried in front of 
the procession when a priest celebrates; in many churches 
this is the custom. If the cross is carried there will be a cross- 
bearer. At Mass sung by a priest he will wear a cassock 
and surplice. He has only to bear the cross in the procession 
on coming to the altar, and again when the procession leaves 
the church at the end of Mass. When a priest celebrates, the 
cross is carried with the figure of our Lord in front. The 
cross-bearer walks between the acolytes. He has no other 
office. When the procession has arrived at the altar he stands 
the processional cross in some convenient place in the sanc- 
tuary,^ and goes to a place appointed for him, generally in 
front of the choir, where he attends Mass, standing, kneeling 
and bowing as the members of the choir do. During the last 
gospel, when the procession is formed to ^q out, he will take 
the cross, place himself between the acolytes before the altar, 
bow when the others genuflect, turn and so ^o out as he 
came. 

Note that the cross-bearer, while he carries the cross, never 
genuflects. For the acolytes at his side see p. 22. According to 
the general rule, the thurifer always goes in front of the pro- 
cession, whether he has the thurible or not. The cross-bearer 
and acolytes follow him. 

If it is the custom of the church that the thurifer precede 
the procession with incense, the celebrant will put the incense 

^ Gavanti-Merati, Pars II, tit. ii, ad rubric V {ed. cit.^ vol. i, p. 106). 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xv, § 8. 

■* There should be a stand for it on the epistle side. 



1blgb /iDass 87 

in the thurible and bless it in the usual way, the deacon assist- 
ing, in the sacristy before the procession goes out. 

The order of the procession to the altar will be thus, if 
there are a processional cross, torch-bearers and members of 
the choir, who enter with it : 

(Verger or Mace-bearer). 

(Boat-bearer). Thurifer. 

Second Acolyte. Cross-bearer. First Acolyte. 

Torch-bearers in pairs (without torches). 

Choir in pairs. 

Master of Ceremonies. 

Subdeacon. 

Deacon. 
Celebrant. 

This order will be modified according to the persons who 
take part in the procession. The simplest order is: 

Thurifer. 

Second Acolyte. First Acolyte. 

Master of Ceremonies. 

Subdeacon. 

Deacon. 
Celebrant. 

But if the celebrant wear the cope, then the ministers walk 
on either side of him, the deacon at his right, the subdeacon 
at his left, holding the ends of the cope. 

The M.C. may walk at the side of the ministers, instead 
of in front of them. 

Merati further quotes authors who say that the M.C. 
should go in front of all in the procession, that he may see to 
any difficulties on the way, open gates, and so on.^ This is 
not usual now. 

§3. THE ASPERGES CEREMONY 

By universal Church law, in all cathedral and collegiate 
churches the ceremony of sprinkling the clergy and people 
with holy water must take place before the chief Mass on 
Sundays." In England the bishops order this in all parish 
churches.^ 

Before we come to the ceremonies of High Mass, it will be 
convenient to describe this ceremony here. In English churches 
High Mass generally begins with the Asperges. 

The ceremony is in no sense part of Mass. Therefore the 



Gavanti-Merati, Pars II, tit. ii, § 22 (vol. i, p. 108). 

S.R.C, no. 4051, ad I; Martinucci, I, i, p. 65. 

Ordo admin, sacr. (ed. 1915), p. 240; Rit. serv. (ed. 1913), p. 56. 



88 Ube 1bolv Sacrifice 

celebrant wears for it the cope, not the chasuble. Nor Is the 
maniple worn. If the Asperses is to be performed before Mass, 
the chasuble for the celebrant will be laid out at the sedilia 
with the maniples for him, the deacon and subdeacon. When 
the procession enters the church the celebrant wears all the 
Mass vestments, except the maniple and chasuble. Instead 
he has a cope of the colour of the day. The sacred ministers 
wear the Mass vestments, except the maniple. On the days 
when the ministers w^ear folded chasubles (pp. 253-254), they 
g-enerally wear these during the Asperges\ or they may put 
them on before Mass. 

The holy water should be blessed by the celebrant, or by 
another priest, before Mass,^ in the sacristy. He does this 
according to the form in the missal and ritual, before he puts 
on the cope (see p. 410). 

On going to the altar the thurifer walks first, carrying the 
vessel of holy water and the sprinkler." The ministers walk 
on either side of the celebrant holding the ends of the cope. 
In this case no one takes holy water at the sacristy door. On 
arriving before the altar all make the usual reverence,' that 
is, all genuflect, the celebrant bows, unless the Blessed Sacra- 
ment be reserved there, in which case he, too, genuflects. 
The acolytes take their candles to the credence table, stand 
them on it and then kneel side by side, facing across the 
sanctuary, near the credence table. The thurifer goes to the 
right of the deacon, on the epistle side of the altar. All kneel, 
even in Paschal time.* The deacon takes the sprinkler from 
the thurifer, dips it into the holy water and hands it, with the 
usual kisses, to the celebrant. The celebrant takes the 
sprinkler and intones the antiphon, Asperges me Domine. The 
choir continues this, the first verse of the psalm Miseref'e, the 
verses Gloria Patri and Sicut ei'at^ and repeats the antiphon. 
In Passion tide Gloria Patri and Sicut erat are omitted. In 
Paschal time, instead of Asperges 77ie, the celebrant begins Vidi 
aquam. This is continued, according to the text in the missal 
and gradual. 

As the celebrant intones the first words, he sprinkles the 
altar three times, first in the middle, then on the gospel side, 
then on the epistle side. He signs himself with the holy water 
on the forehead,' then rises, sprinkles first the deacon, then 
the subdeacon, who bow. The ministers, servers and all who 

^ Rubric of the missal, at the beg-inning of the *'Ordo ad faciendam 
aquam benedictam. " 

^ If incense is borne in front of the procession, the holy water may be 
carried by another server, or by the M.C. 

^ If there is a liturgical choir all bow to it, to the side of greater dignity 
first, before genuflecting to the altar. 

* Rubric of the missal, ib. 

* He may touch his forehead with the sprinkler, or may touch his 
thumb with it and make the sign of the cross with the thumb. 



have been kneeling then rise. The celebrant hands the sprink- 
ler back to the deacon, who receives it, as always, with the 
solita oscula. He gives it to the thurifer. 

The celebrant, ministers and thurifer genuflect and go to 
face the choir on the side of greater dignity (normally the 
gospel side, see p. 37). The deacon again takes the sprinkler 
from the thurifer and hands it to the celebrant, as before. 
They bow to the choir, who bow in return ; the celebrant 
sprinkles them. If there are but few persons in choir, he may 
sprinkle each one. If there are many, he should rather sprinkle 
all together three times, once in the middle, once to his left, 
lastly to his right. He and the ministers bow again, go to 
the other side of the choir and do as before. 

If canons are present in chapter, each is sprinkled separ- 
ately, and the celebrant and ministers bow to each before and 
after doing so. 

After the choir, the celebrant sprinkles the servers, who 
stand by the credence table or altar. 

Then he goes to sprinkle the people. In doing this there 
are different customs. In some churches he stands, with the 
ministers, at the entrance of the sanctuary, facing the people, 
and sprinkles them three times, first in the middle, then right 
and left. In others, and more commonly in England, he goes 
with the ministers and thurifer (carrying the holy water 
stoup) down and around the church, sprinkling the people as 
he passes.^ 

The thurifer walks by the deacon, so that the celebrant can 
easily dip the sprinkler in the stoup as he goes. In going 
down the church he sprinkles first the people on the gospel 
side, then, coming back to the altar, those on the epistle side. 

During this ceremony the celebrant continues the antiphon 
and says the psalm Miserere (in Paschal time, Confitemini) with 
the ministers, in a low voice. ^ When all are sprinkled, the 
celebrant hands the sprinkler to the deacon, who gives it to 
the thurifer. He carries it to the credence table. When they 
have come back to the altar they make the usual reverence to 
it, then stand before it. The M.C. hands the book containing 
the versicles and prayer to follow. The ministers hold this 
before the celebrant with the outer hands. He sings the ver- 
sicles and prayer, according to the text in the missal, to the 
ferial tone. In Paschal time Alleluia is added to the first 
versicle and response. The choir answer. 

When Amen after the prayer has been sung, the deacon 

^ Martinucci allows for both ways (I, i, p. 68). 

^ The rubric of Ihe missal seems to imply that he says the whole 
psalm ("dicens submissa voce cum ministris psalmum Miserere mei 
Deus," loc. cit.). Martinucci thinks it sufficient that he say as many verses 
as he can, till he comes back to the altar (I, i, p. 68, note). He should 
know both these psalms (L and CXVII) by heart. 



90 Ube Iboli^ Sacrittce 

hands the book to the M.C., who puts it on the credence 
table. The celebrant and ministers make the usual reverence 
to the altar (those who genuflect do so on the lowest step), 
and go to the sedilia. The choir sit, and the servers, if this 
be the custom of the church. 

The thurifer should now go the sacristy to see that the 
charcoal is ready in the thurible for the beginning of Mass. 

At the sedilia the celebrant takes off the cope and puts on 
the chasuble and maniple, assisted by a server. The ministers 
put on the maniple. 

All stand as the celebrant and ministers come to the altar. 

Here they again make the usual reverence, and so begin 
Mass. 

If the Sanctissimum is exposed the altar is not sprinkled. 

In churches which have a font, on Easter Day and Whit- 
sunday, the ceremony of sprinkling the people before Mass is 
done, not with the usual holy water, but with water from the 
font, taken from it before the holy oils are put in, when the 
font is blessed the day before. 

The celebrant must perform the ceremony of sprinkling the 
people himself. It is not lawful that another priest do so.^ 

Where there is no liturgical choir he sprinkles the ministers, 
then the servers, then the people. 

At a Missa cantata all is done as above, except, naturally, 
that the deacon and subdeacon are absent. Either the M.C. 
walks at the left of the priest and holds the holy water stoup, 
handing him the sprinkler and doing all the deacon does at 
High Mass, or the thurifer does so, while the M.C. holds back 
the cope on the right. Even when the principal parish Mass 
is a Low Mass, the Asperges ceremony must be performed. If 
there is no choir to sing the celebrant says the antiphon and 
the rest in an audible voice; the server answers the versicles. 



§4. THE THURIFER AT HIGH MASS 

The thurifer^ should come to the sacristy in good time before 
Mass begins, and vest in cassock and surplice. Usually he 
will then assist the celebrant to vest. 

If there is a boat-bearer, he has merely to accompany the 
thurifer at his left side, holding the boat, and to hand it to 
the M.C. when it is wanted. He genuflects and bows with 
the thurifer, and stands aside at all ceremonies with the 
thurible. No rubric supposes the presence of a boat-bearer. 
The Caerimoniale episcoporum always supposes that the 

^ Martinucci, I, i, 69, § 267. 

^ The thurifer is really one (the first) of the acolytes. He is called so 
constantly in the Caer. Ep.y e.g., Lib. I, cap. xxiii, §2, "ipse acolythus 
thuribulum deferens," etc. 



thurifer carries the incense-boat (navicula) himself^ (see p. 25, 
n. i). But Merati allows for a boat-bearer.'^ 

If the Asperges ceremony is performed before Mass, the 
thurifer leads the procession into the church, carrying the 
holy water vessel. He stands at the right of the deacon before 
the altar, genuflects each time with the others, hands the 
sprinkler to the deacon, and accompanies him, on his right, 
down the church, as described above (p. 89). As soon as the 
holy water vessel is put back on the credence table, and the 
celebrant and ministers go to the sedilia to put on the chasuble 
and maniples, the thurifer should go to the sacristy, genuflect- 
ing as usual before the altar as he passes it, and here prepare 
the thurible. He must light the charcoal, put it into the 
thurible, and bring the thurible in his left hand, with the in- 
cense boat in the right, to the church. He must arrive in the 
sanctuary before the end of the Confiteor. Genuflecting as he 
passes the altar, he goes to stand in the sanctuary on the 
epistle side. 

If there is no Asperges the thurifer either leads the pro- 
cession to the church with hands joined, stands on the epistle 
side of the sanctuary, and then goes back to the sacristy for 
the thurible, in time to bring it out during the Confiteor \ or, 
more commonly, he will prepare the thurible before Mass 
begins, lead the procession holding the thurible, and so stand 
on the epistle side of the sanctuary. 

For the manner of handling the thurible and of holding it 
while incense is blessed, see pp. 24-26. 

He comes up to the altar, on the foot-pace, at the epistle 
side, as soon as the celebrant goes up to it. Here he hands the 
boat to the M.C., holds the thurible before the celebrant while 
incense is put in and blessed, hands the thurible to the deacon, 
takes the boat from the M.C. and goes down from the foot- 
pace to the floor of the church. He may have to remove the 
missal while the altar is incensed (see p. 100, n. i). When the 
deacon incenses the celebrant the thurifer stands near him, 
a little behind, on his right, and bows with him (see fig. 6, 
p. 126). He takes the thurible from the deacon and carries it 
back to the sacristy. Then he comes to his place, either to the 
place appointed for him in front of the choir, or with the 
acolytes near the credence table. He stands here, waiting, 
till the end of the collects or epistle.^ 

^ E.g-. , Caer. Ep,^ Lib. I, cap, xxiii, § i. 

- Gavanti-Merati, Pars II, tit. ii, § 21 {ed. cit., vol. i, p. 107). 

^ He must g"0 to fetch the thurible in time to be at hand with it as soon 
as the celebrant has finished reading- the gradual, tract, Alleluia, or 
sequence. The moment when he goes out depends on the leng-th of these. 
If there is only a short gradual he should go as soon as the last collect 
is sung. If there is a long tract or sequence he may wait till the sub- 
deacon has finished reading the epistle. In any case, here as always, the 
M.C. should give him a sign. 



92 XTbe 1bol^ Sacrifice 

Then he goes back to the sacristy, sees that the charcoal is 
burning" in the thurible, if necessary renews it, and comes out, 
with the thurible, in time for the blessing before the gospel. 
When the celebrant has finished reading the gospel the thurifer 
takes the boat from the credence table and comes up to the 
altar on the epistle side, as before. The celebrant puts in in- 
cense and blesses it in the usual way. The thurifer takes the 
thurible in the right hand^ and the boat in the left. He goes 
down with the acolytes, before them, to the middle of the 
sanctuary before the altar steps, some distance from the steps, 
and waits here. 

The deacon and subdeacon come and stand in front of the 
thurifer and acolytes.^ When the M.C. gives the sign, the 
thurifer genuflects with the others, and bows, with them, to 
the choir. He then leads the procession to the place where 
the gospel is sung. He stands here at the deacon's left, allow- 
ing the acolytes to pass before him. For the group at the 
gospel, see fig. 12, p. 128. 

When the deacon has announced the title of the gospel, the 
thurifer shuts down the thurible and hands it to the M.C, 
who gives it to the deacon, to incense the book. The M.C. 
hands it back to the thurifer. He raises the lid a little and 
stands in the same place as before. He should not swing it 
while the gospel is sung.^ When the gospel is finished the 
acolytes and subdeacon go away; the deacon remains to in- 
cense the celebrant. The thurifer hands the thurible to the 
deacon, stands at his right, and bows to the celebrant, with 
him, before and after. He takes the thurible back when this 
is done. 

If there is a sermon he goes at once to the sacristy, genu- 
flecting in the middle first. If the creed is sung he goes to 
the middle, stands there, bows as the celebrant sings the word 
£>eum, then genuflects and goes to the sacristy. If there is 
neither creed nor sermon he does not go out, but stands in 
the sanctuary on the epistle side. 

If he has gone out, he comes back at once, without the 
thurible, and goes to his usual place. Towards the end of the 
sung creed he goes again to fetch the thurible from the 
sacristy. He brings it out and waits at the epistle side of 
the sanctuary. As soon as the subdeacon comes down from 
the altar, the thurifer goes up to it, first taking the boat 
from the credence table, and assists, as usual, while incense 
is put in and blessed. When he receives the boat back from 
the deacon, he takes it to the credence table. He stands here, 
on the ground, at the epistle side, with joined hands, while 
the celebrant incenses the altar, unless he has to move the 
missal (p. 100, n. i). 

^ Because it now contains blessed incense ; see the g-eneral rule, p. 24. 
^ See fig. II, p. 128. ' Martinucci, I, i, p. 117, § 113. 



IbiGb /IDass 93 

When the deacon takes the thurible from the celebrant and 
comes down to incense him, the thurifer goes to his side at 
the left, but a little behind. He accompanies the deacon in 
this way while the celebrant, choir and subdeacon are in- 
censed, bowing- and genuflecting each time with him. 

The deacon gives the thurible to the thurifer after he has 
incensed the subdeacon. The thurifer then incenses the deacon 
(who goes to his place behind the celebrant and turns round) 
with two double swings (see p. 26), then he incenses the M.C., 
the acolytes and other servers, with one double swing for 
each, facing each where he stands, and bowing before and 
after. He comes to the entrance of the sanctuary, genuflects, 
turns to the people and incenses them with three double 
swings, one down the middle, the next towards the epistle 
side, lastly towards the gospel side. Then he turns, genuflects 
again, and takes the thurible to the sacristy. Usually, when 
he goes out the torch-bearers follow him (p. 98). If so, they 
should form in line in front of him, all genuflect together, 
bow to the choir and follow him to the sacristy. 

The thurifer in the sacristy renews the fire in the thurible, 
if necessary. He comes back to the sanctuary a little before 
the elevation, with it. 

In most churches he comes back as the choir begins the 
Sanctus, leading the torch-bearers. They all genuflect together 
in the middle, the thurifer in front of the others. Then he 
goes to the epistle side and stands there, facing across the 
sanctuary. Just before the consecration he, or the M. C, 
puts incense into the thurible. Then, either he hands the 
thurible to the M.C., who kneels and incenses the Sanctissimum 
at the elevation, and kneels at his right (fig. 13, p. 129), or 
the thurifer incenses the Sanctissimum himself.^ Whoever 
incenses makes three double swings of the thurible at each 
elevation (in practice, one each time the bell is rung), and 
bows before the first and after the third of these. If the M.C. 
incenses, the thurifer at his side bows with him. 

After the incensing of the Blessed Sacrament at the eleva- 
tion, the thurifer takes the thurible to the sacristy and puts 
it back in its place. Except when the torch-bearers remain,^ 
he genuflects with them and leads them out. The thurible is 
not used again. 

Here the thurifer's office at Mass is ended. He may, how- 
ever, have to supply the part of another server. After putting 
away the thurible he comes to his place in the sanctuary, and 
stays there till the end of Mass. But if the acolytes take the 
place of torch-bearers, on those days when the torch-bearers 
remain till after the Communion the thurifer and M.C. must 
do certain duties, otherwise done by them. 

^ See p. 104, n. 4. - See p. 99. 



94 'Q^be Ibol^ Sacrifice 

In this case, then, the thurifer will take the humeral veil 
from the subdeacon at the words Dirnitte nobis in the Lord's 
Prayer. He folds it and carries it to the credence table. Also, 
when he has received the pax from the M.C., or the person 
standing next to him, he takes the chalice veil round to the 
gospel side of the altar; then he brings the cruets to the altar 
for the ablutions, takes them back afterwards to the credence 
table, and goes back to his place. 

If the clergy ^q to Communion (see § ii, pp. 130) the 
thurifer, when he has laid the humeral veil aside, takes the 
Communion cloth, goes over to the gospel side and there 
kneels on the ground. After the prayer Indulge^itiam he 
comes to meet the M.C. in the middle. They genuflect to- 
gether, each takes one end of the Communion cloth, they 
separate and ^o one to either end of the altar (the thurifer back 
to the gospel side), stretching the cloth between them. They 
kneel, facing one another, on the two ends of the foot-pace, 
and hold the cloth across between them. The clergy come to 
this cloth and receive Communion over it. Then the M.C. 
and thurifer come again to the middle, fold the cloth there ; 
the thurifer takes it to the credence table, then brings the 
cruets to the altar for the ablutions. 

When the procession leaves the church the thurifer goes 
before the acolytes, with hands joined. 

§ 5. THE ACOLYTES 

The two acolytes should be, as far as possible, of the same 
height.^ In due time before Mass they come to the sacristy 
and vest in cassock and surplice. Unless someone else has 
this duty, the acolytes light the candles on the altar, each 
lighting those on one side. They begin lighting the candle 
nearest the altar cross. If one acolyte light all the candles he 
begins on the epistle side.^ They light their candles in the 
sacristy, or see that these are lighted. Then the first acolyte 
assists the deacon to vest, the second acolyte the subdeacon. 
When the celebrant is vested they hand the maniples to the 
deacon and subdeacon to kiss, then put them on the left arm of 
each. 

If the Asperges comes before Mass, the maniples are not 
put on in the sacristy. 

The acolytes come at the head of the procession, following 
the thurifer. If the processional cross is carried, they ^o on 
either side of it. The first walks to the right of the second. 
He carries his candle, holding it under its knob, in the right 
hand and puts his left under its foot. The second holds the 

^ "In statura, quantum fieri potest, aequales " {Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, 
cap. xi, § 8). 

=* S.R.C., I Feb. 1907. 



1bit}b /IDa55 95 

left hand under the knob of his candle and puts the right 
under its foot. It is important that they should hold their 
candles at exactly the same height. The acolytes can verify 
this, without looking up, by seeing that the feet of the candle- 
sticks are level. 

When they arrive in front of the altar, they do not genuflect 
but go at once to either side, at the corners of the altar-steps. 
Here they turn to face one another. They always genuflect 
when passing the altar, whether the Blessed Sacrament be 
reserved there or not. 

As soon as the celebrant and sacred ministers arrive at 
the altar, the acolytes join behind them and genuflect with 
them. Then they go to the middle behind the celebrant, 
genuflect again and carr\- their candles to the credence table. 
They put them down there, then kneel side by side in front of 
the credence table, facing the altar. 

If the Asperses ceremony takes place before Mass, the 
acolytes stand, at the same place, when the deacon and sub- 
deacon rise. Thev remain standingf there till the celebrant 
and ministers go to the sedilia. Then they go to assist them. 
The first acolyte hands the maniple to the deacon, the second 
to the subdeacon, while the M.C. assists the celebrant (p. 90). 
It may be necessar}' for one of the acolytes to earn** the cope 
to the sacristy. They then go back to their place before the 
credence table. They kneel here during the preparatory 
prayers, and stand when the celebrant goes up to the altar. 
When they are not engaged in some duty they will normally 
stand here, facing across to the gospel side. 

Whenever the celebrant and sacred ministers go to sit 
down, therefore at the Gloria^ creed, perhaps during the sing- 
ing of the Kyrie eleison ox sequence, the acolytes go to assist 
them at the seats. They go to the sedilia, the first acolyte to 
the side nearer the altar, where the deacon will sit, the second 
acolyte to the subdeacon's place. The first acolyte takes the 
birettas of the celebrant and deacon, the second that of the 
subdeacon. As soon as the celebrant sits the first acolyte 
hands his biretta to the deacon, who gives it to the celebrant. 
The acolytes then hand the birettas to the deacon and sub- 
deacon. They arrange the dalmatic and tunicle at the seats. 
If they pass before the celebrant they bow to him. 

On the days when the ministers wear folded chasubles,^ 
while the last collect is chanted the second acolyte goes to 
the subdeacon, helps him to take off the folded chasuble, 
and takes it to the credence table. When the subdeacon has 
kissed the celebrant's hand, after reading the epistle, the 
second acolyte helps him to put it on again. In the same 
way he takes the folded chasuble from the deacon while the 
celebrant reads the gospel; the first acohte helps the deacon .-' j" 

^ See pp. 253-254. - '"• ^^ 



J/ 



96 Ube 1bol^ SacrifKce 

to put on the so-called *' broad stole." ^ At the end of Mass, 
when the deacon has moved the book for the post-com- 
munion, the first acolyte helps him to take off the broad stole 
and takes it to the credence table. The second acolyte bring-s 
the folded chasuble and assists him to put it on. 

Before the sung gospel, while the celebrant puts incense in 
the thurible, the acolytes take their candles from the credence 
table. The thurifer comes down to the middle in front of the 
altar and they join him there, one on either side (fig. ii,p. 128). 
Then, when the deacon and subdeacon have come to stand 
in front of them, the M.C. gives a sign ; all genuflect together 
and bow to the choir right and left. They then go to the 
place where the gospel is sung. The thurifer goes first, then 
the two acolytes side by side, then the deacon and subdeacon. 
The acolytes turn round and stand facing the deacon, on either 
side of the subdeacon, who holds the book, the first acolyte 
on his right (fig. 12, p. 128). They stand while the gospel is 
sung and do not genuflect or bow if the deacon does so. 

When the gospel is ended they go to the middle, genuflect, 
and take the candles back to the credence table. They stand 
here, at their usual place, while the celebrant says the creed; 
they genuflect with him. They go to the seats to make ready 
for the sacred ministers, as at the Gloria. But this time they 
stay there till the deacon comes back from having spread the 
corporal on the altar. They kneel while the choir sings the 
words Et incarnatus esi, etc. ^ The first acolyte assists the 
deacon when he sits ; they then go back to their place, bowing 
first to the celebrant. 

When the subdeacon takes the chalice at the credence table, 
the second acolyte folds up the chalice veil. The first takes 
the towel, dish and cruets, and follows the subdeacon to the 
altar. Here he spreads the towel at the epistle end, and 
stands the dish and cruets on it. He hands the cruets to the 
subdeacon ; ^ when the chalice is filled he takes the towel, dish 
and cruets back. 

While the deacon incenses the celebrant the first acolyte 
takes the towel, the second takes the cruet with water in his 
right hand, and the dish in his left.* As soon as the celebrant 
has been incensed they come to him at the epistle end, the 
first at the right of the second, and bow. The second acolyte 
pours water over the celebrant's fingers into the basin, the 
first hands him the towel. When he gives back the towel 
they bow again, take the cruet, etc., back to the credence 

^ See p. II. ^ Martinucci, I, i, p. 141, § 48. 

^ He does not kiss the cruets at High Mass, since he hands them to 
the subdeacon. 

■* Martinucci, I, i, p. 141, § 51; Le Vavasseur, i, p. 466. Van der 
Stappen gives the cruet and dish to Ac. i, the towel to Ac. 2 (v, p. 21). 
De Herdt does not seem to think it much matters (ii, p. 37, § 4). 



IbiQb /IDass 97 

table and stand before it in their usual place. When they are 
incensed they bow to the thurifer before and after. 

If the acolytes act as torch-bearers, see below, § 6 (pp. 98-99). 
If not, they stay by the credence table during the Canon 
(fig. 13, p. 129). Like the choir, they kneel from the beginning 
of the Canon till after the elevation, then stand. But on the 
days when the choir remains kneeling till the pax (see p. 85), 
the acolytes do so too. 

When the celebrant sings the words Dimitte nobis debita 
nostra in the Lord's Prayer, the first acolyte goes to the sub- 
deacon, takes the humeral veil from him and puts it on the 
credence table. 

They bow at the celebrant's Communion. 

If there are Communions of clergy, and if the acolytes do 
not bear the torches, they hold the Communion cloth as de- 
scribed at pp. 1 30-1 31. 

When the celebrant gathers up fragments on the altar, the 
first acolyte takes the cruets to the altar and hands them to 
the subdeacon. On the way he genuflects to the Sanctissimum. 
The second acolyte meanwhile takes the chalice veil to the 
gospel side, genuflecting as he passes the altar in the middle. 
He comes back to his place, again genuflecting. 

They kneel at their place for the blessing at the end of 
Mass, stand during the last gospel, and make the sign of the 
cross with the celebrant at its beginning. 

Towards the end of the last gospel the acolytes take their 
candles, come to the middle, genuflect and lead the pro- 
cession back to the sacristy, following the thurifer. Before 
doing so they genuflect again with the ministers; if the choir 
remains they bow to it with the others. 

In the sacristy they bow to the cross, put out their candles 
and put them away, take the maniples from the deacon and 
subdeacon; when the celebrant has taken off his vestments 
they help the ministers to do so. Lastly they ^o back to put 
out the candles on the altar. They do this in the inverse order 
to lighting them (see p. 94). 

The place for the acolytes, when they are not occupied, is in 
front of the credence table. However, at High Mass, when 
the celebrant and ministers sit, the acolytes, thurifer and other 
servers may sit too. The Congregation of Rites says they 
may sit on the steps of the presbytery ; ^ often special places 
are appointed for them, a bench or seats in front of the choir. 
When they are not occupied they fold the hands on the breast, 
but join them whenever the celebrant sings or reads. When 
sitting they lay the hands on the knees. 

The candles are held in the hand outside, that is, the first 
a.colyte on the right holds his in the right hand, the other, on 

^ S.R.C., 18 Dec. 1779, no. 2515, ad V. 
H 



98 XTbe 1bol^ Sacrifice 

the left, in the left hand. Whenever they hold anything in one 
hand only, the other is laid on the breast. 

When they hand anything- to the celebrant they kiss it first, 
then the celebrant's hand. In taking anything from him they 
kiss first his hand, then the thing, unless it has been blessed 
(as in the case of blessed candles or palms). In this case the 
thing is kissed first. They kiss neither the thing nor the hand 
when they give a thing to anyone but the celebrant ; at Requiem 
Masses all such kisses are omitted. 

Whenever they pass before the altar they genuflect together 
in the middle. If the acolytes receive Holy Communion at 
Mass, they do so after the deacon, subdeacon, and any priests 
who may communicate. In this case, if they hold torches 
they must first hand these to other servers. They genuflect 
on one knee before and after their Communion. 



§6. TORCH-BEARERS 

The rubric of the missal seems to suppose that the acolytes 
themselves hold torches at the elevation.^ Many authors say 
it should be thus. In some churches it is the custom that the 
two acolytes go to hold the torches. But it is more usual 
that other servers be appointed torch-bearers." There are 
then two cases, one in which other servers are torch-bearers, 
the other in which the acolytes of the Mass perform this 
office. 

If other servers are torch-bearers they may be two, four or 
six, according to the solemnity of the Mass. They come to 
the church in the procession, after the acolytes, with joined 
hands. They go, after the common genuflection, to the place 
prepared for them in the sanctuary, generally a seat in front 
of the choir. Here they attend Mass, having no special office, 
behaving as the members of the choir, till the preface. 

Then they come to the middle of the sanctuary, genuflect 
together, and go to the sacristy in pairs with folded hands. 
It is usual to combine this with the moment when the thurifer 
goes to the sacristy after the incensing at the offertory 
(p. 93).^ In this case the torch-bearers stand before him in 
the middle, genuflect with him and follow him out. 

^ I^iL eel., viii, 8. But it does not follow that the "acolythi" here are 
the two acolytes who serve the Mass. In the missal and Caer. Ep. all 
servers are constantly called acolytes, even the thurifer (e.g-., Caer, Ep.^ 
Lib. I, cap. xxiii, § i). At a bishop's Mass the Caer. Ep. (Lib. II, cap. viii^ 
§ 68) speaks of " quatuor, sex, aut ad summum octo ministri." 

- Merati supposes that the torch-bearers are not the two acolytes of 
Mass (Pars II, tit. viii, § 28; vol. i, p. 165). Most modern authors allow 
for both cases (Martinucci, I, i, p. 141, § 53; Le V^avasseur, i, pp. 467-468 j 
ii, p. 267; Van der Stappen, v, pp. 12, 21, etc.). 

^ Merati (Pars II, tit. viii, § 28; vol. i, p. 165) and most authors suppose 
that the torch-bearers go out and come in with the thurifer. 



fbiQb /IDass 99 

In the sacristy they take the Hghted torches. They follow 
the thurifer back to the sanctuary in pairs, genuflect with the 
thurifer, bow to the choir on either side, then to one another, 
separate and kneel in line (fig. 13, p. 129). 

At most Masses they go out again as soon as the elevation 
of the chalice is ended. They rise, come together, all genuflect 
together with the thurifer, who leads them out (p. 93), but do 
not now bow to the choir. So they go out two and two, put 
the torches back in the sacristy, come back, genuflect, and go 
to their places, as before. They have no further function. At 
the end of Mass the torch-bearers come to the middle with 
joined hands, genuflect with the others, and take their place 
in the procession back to the sacristy. 

But on certain occasions the rubric orders that the torches 
remain till after the Communion. These are fast days, when 
ferial Mass is said in Advent and Lent, Ember days at ferial 
Mass, at Masses of a vigil. Requiems, and when other persons 
besides the celebrant will receive Communion. 

Except, however, the eves of Christmas, Epiphany, Ascen- 
sion, and Pentecost, Rogation days, and the Ember days of 
Whitsun week. 

On the days when the torches remain, the torch-bearers stay 
on their knees in the sanctuary till after the first ablution; 
then they rise, genuflect, bow to the choir, and go out two 
and two. 

If the torch-bearers receive Holy Communion they must 
meanwhile hand the torches to someone else, to hold while 
they do so. 

In the other case, when the acolytes of the Mass are the 
torch-bearers they must go out with the thurifer at the preface, 
perform this function as described, then come back and go to 
their place at the credence table. 

If the acolytes hold torches, and if it is a day on which the 
torches remain till the Communion, it follows that they can- 
not perform their usual service between the consecration and 
Communion. In this case their place is supplied by other 
servers, normally by the M.C. and thurifer (p. 130). 

§7. THE MASTER OF CEREMONIES 

The Master of Ceremonies (M.C.)^ should know, not only 
what he has to do himself, but also the function of everyone 
else. It is his business to see that the ceremony is carried out 
correctly by all who take part in it.^ He must, if necessary, 

^ " Magister caerimoniarum," " caerimoniarius." According- to the 
Caer, Ep. (Lib. I, cap. v, § i) the bishop should have two masters of 
ceremonies, the first a priest, the second at least a subdeacon, who must 
know all functions performed by each person. 

- " Si quid erroris accidat, aut incaute fiat, ipsi uni Caerimoniario im- 
putari solet " {Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. v, § 2). 



loo Uhc 1bol^ SacrtUce 

g^uide the other servers by some sign, as little noticeable as 
possible. If the mistake is unimportant, it is wiser to let it 
pass at the time and to point it out afterwards. 

He comes to the sacristy in good time before Mass begins 
(about a quarter of an hour) and vests in cassock and sur- 
plice. He prepares the chalice and paten, also a ciborium, if 
it will be wanted, and puts these on the credence table. He 
finds the places in the missal and marks them. On the credence 
table he prepares the book of lessons, also marked at the 
epistle and gospel. With the acolytes he sees that the cruets, 
towel, and dish for the Lavabo are on the credence table, 
that the Sanctus bell is in its proper place, that the thurible, 
torches, and everything else that will be needed are ready. The 
missal should lie on the altar, on a stand or cushion, open at 
the introit of the Mass. He tells the celebrant and ministers 
when the time has come for them to vest, and sees that this 
is done properly. The ministers should not put on the maniple 
(or the folded chasuble, when this is used) till the celebrant is 
fully vested. 

The M.C. at the proper time gives the signal for the pro- 
cession to go to the sanctuary. He sees to it that each 
person walks in his proper place. He himself goes with the 
sacred ministers, immediately in front of the subdeacon or to 
their right (p. 87). During the whole service he remains un- 
covered. 

If the celebrant has to go up steps on the way to the 
sanctuary the M.C. will lift his alb. When the celebrant and 
ministers take off their birettas the M.C. will take them from 
the deacon and subdeacon, not kissing them; he genuflects 
and puts the birettas on the sedilia. Then he kneels at the 
deacon's right, behind him, facing the altar. He answers 
the celebrant during the prayers at the altar steps, in a low 
voice, and he makes the usual signs of the cross and inclina- 
tions. 

When the celebrant goes up to the altar, the M.C. goes up 
too. Here he stands at the left of the thurifer, takes the boat 
from him and hands it to the deacon. When the incense is 
blessed, the M.C. goes down to the lowest step on the epistle 
side. When the celebrant comes to this side, incensing the 
altar, the M.C. removes the missal; he puts it back as soon as 
that end of the altar has been incensed.^ In neither case does 

^ In some churches, both at this moment and at the incensing- at the 
offertory, the thurifer removes the missal. Merati leaves the question 
open (Pars II, tit. iv, § 24; vol. i, p. 120): " Caerimoniarius vel ipse 
Thuriferarius " (cfr. Pars II, tit. vii, § 68; vol. i, p. 154). De Herdt (vol. ii, 
pp. 22, 25) and Le Vavasseur (i, pp. 452, 466) say that the M.C. moves 
the book. So does Van der Stappen, thoug-h he allows the possibility of 
the thurifer doing- so, "si non adesset caerimoniarius" (v, p. 15; cfr. 
pp. 54, 58). Martinucci says that the thurifer does so, without qualifica- 
tion (I, i, p. u6, § 25; p. 117, § 37). The Caer. £p., in the detailed 



he genuflect. While the deacon incenses the celebrant the 
M.C. stands at the epistle corner (fig. 6, p. 126). The M.C. 
must remember that, throughout the service, his normal place 
is at the celebrant's side, so that he may assist him in any 
way needed. As soon as the celebrant begins the introit of 
the Mass, the M.C. stands at his right, forming a semicircle 
with the ministers. He may here point to the introit with the 
open palm of the right hand. Whenever he is at the cele- 
brant's side, and the deacon is not there, while the celebrant 
reads or sings, he will attend to the missal, pointing out the 
place and turning the pages. 

If the choir take long to sing the Kyrie^ so that the cele- 
brant and ministers sit while they finish it, then, as soon as 
the celebrant has said \.\\QKyrie^ the M.C. will accompany him 
to the seats. 

Whenever the celebrant and ministers sit, the M.C. stands 
by them, at the right hand of the deacon, facing down the 
church, with folded hands (fig. 8, p. 127). Then, when the 
choir sings the last invocation of the Kyrie eleison^ the M.C. 
bows to choir and celebrant, as a sign that he should ^o back 
to the altar. He himself goes to the epistle side. 

If the celebrant and ministers do not ^q to sit during the 
Kyrie, then, while the last invocation is sung, the M.C. gives 
the sign to the deacon and subdeacon that they should stand 
in line behind the celebrant. When the celebrant has intoned 
the first verse of Gloria in excelsis, the M.C. signs to the 
ministers to go up on either side and to say the Gloria with 
him. When they have finished saying it, the M.C. signs to 
them to go^ by the shorter way, to the seats. He must take 
care that they do not do so while any of the verses are being 
sung at w^hich an inclination is to be made (p. 85). If neces- 
sary, they must wait till such a verse is ended. But, if they 
have started, they go on. He stands by their side while they 
sit, as already explained, and bows to the celebrant, as the 
sign when he is to uncover at the verses. Then the M.C. will 
himself bow towards the altar while the verse is sung. 

At the end of the sung Gloria in excelsis, while the choir 
sing the last verse, Cum sancto Spiritu, the M.C. bows to choir 
and celebrant, as a sign that he should go to the altar. He 
himself goes to the missal at the epistle side, again points out 
the place for the collects, and turns the pages (fig. 9, p. 127). 

As soon as the celebrant begins the last collect, the M.C. 
goes to the credence table. Here he takes the book of lessons 
in both hands, the openings of the pages being in his right ; so 

account of incensing- the altar (Lib. I, cap. xxiii), does not mention the 
removal of the book at all, * a. 

The question whether the M.C. or the thurifer should remove the 
missal when the altar is incensed must remain open. But the greater 
weight of authority is that the M.C. should do so. 



I02 Ube 1bol^ Sacrifice 

he hands it to the subdeacon, bowing- before and after he gives 
him the book. He then stands a Httle behind the subdeacon, 
at his left. As the last collect is ended, he accompanies the 
subdeacon to the middle, genuflects with him, and goes with 
him to the place where the epistle is read. He stands at the 
subdeacon's left while the epistle is read, gives a sign to the 
choir (by bowing to them), if there is any place at which they 
should bow or genuflect. He bows or genuflects with the sub- 
deacon at such places. 

If there is a long sequence or tract, the M.C. will give the 
sign to the ministers to sit, as during the Kyrie. This should 
be after the celebrant has read the gospel ; though they often 
go before. The celebrant at the middle says the Muiida cor 
meurriy the subdeacon carries the missal to the gospel side, 
the deacon takes the book of lessons, as w411 be noted below. 

As soon as the subdeacon has read the epistle, the M.C. 
gfoes with him to the epistle side, where the subdeacon is 
blessed by the celebrant. Then he takes the book of lessons 
from the subdeacon, with the usual inclinations, and hands 
it, with the same inclinations, before and after, to the deacon. 
He waits at the epistle side till the celebrant has finished 
reading the gospel ; then he g^oes up to the foot-pace and 
assists, as before, while incense is put in the thurible and 
blessed. 

On certain ferias of Lent (p. 85, n. 3) the celebrant and minis- 
ters kneel on the edge of the foot-pace while the choir sings 
the verse, Adiuva nos Deus. In this case the M.C. should 
take care that the incense is blessed before that verse is sung. 
Then the deacon may say Munda cor metcm while he kneels 
with the others. 

While the deacon says Munda cor meum the M.C. will see 
that the thurifer and acolytes come to the middle and wait 
there. He stands just behind the deacon while the deacon re- 
ceives the blessing of the celebrant. Then he comes with the 
deacon to the middle. Here he stands at the left of the sub- 
deacon, or behind the acolytes (fig. 11, p. 128). 

All genuflect together, bow to the choir right and left, and 
so go in procession to the place where the gospel is to be 
sung. They go in this order : first, the M.C, then the thurifer, 
then the acolytes together, subdeacon, deacon. 

The group at the place where the gospel is sung is arranged 
as fig. 12, p. 128. 

The M.C. makes the sign of the cross on forehead, lips and 
breast, with the thumb, as the deacon sings Sequentia (or 
Initium) s. evaiigelii^ etc. 

Then he takes the thurible from the thurifer and hands it 
to the deacon ; when the book has been incensed he passes it 
back to the thurifer. During the gospel he stands at the 
deacon's right and turns the pages. If the deacon genuflects 



fbiQb /IDass 103 

at any verse, the M.C. does so too. In this case, and when he 
makes the sign of the cross at the beg-inning", it is better that 
he should turn shghtly towards the celebrant at the altar, so 
as to give him the sign to do so also. 

As soon as the gospel is ended, the M.C, leading the 
acolytes, goes to the epistle side; all genuflect in passing the 
middle. The M.C. stands by the subdeacon and receives the 
book of lessons from him. He puts it on the credence table. 

If a sermon follows here, the M.C. may accompany the 
preacher to the pulpit; he will then go and sit in a place pre- 
pared for him.^ 

If there is no sermon (or when the sermon is finished) he 
goes to the epistle side and stands there, facing across the 
sanctuary. He bows and makes the sign of the cross with the 
celebrant, and genuflects with him at the words £^ incariiatus 
est^ etc. When the celebrant has finished saying the creed, the 
M.C. gives a sign to him and the ministers, that they should 
go to the seats. He arranges everything needed as they sit, 
and himself stands by them, as during the Gloria. When the 
choir sings Et incarnatus est, the M.C. bows to the celebrant 
(as a sign that he should uncover), then kneels, facing across 
the sanctuary. He brings the burse to the deacon. 

At the three Christmas Masses, and on Lady Day, the 
celebrant and ministers kneel at this verse (p. 85), on the 
lowest altar step, at the epistle side. A cushion is placed for 
a prelate. On these occasions the M.C. will give the sign and 
arrange everything required, then kneel behind them. 

As soon as the verse Et incarnatus est has been sung, the 
M.C. gives the sign (by bowing) to the deacon. He goes 
to the credence table, brings the burse to the deacon, bowing 
before and after, then he goes back to the place where he 
stands by the seats. W^hile the choir sings Et vitam venturt 
saeculi. Amen., the M.C. signs to the celebrant and ministers 
to go to the altar. They go by the longer way, bow to the 
choir, genuflect at the altar steps. The M.C. bows and genu- 
flects with them and goes to his place at the epistle corner oi 
the altar. 

When the celebrant has sung Orenms at the offertory, the 
M.C. gives a sign to the subdeacon, who will then come to 
the credence table. Here the M.C. puts the humeral veil over 
his shoulders." It is convenient that the veil should hang 
down rather more on the right side than on the left. The sub- 
deacon takes the chalice from the M.C. and carries it to the 
altar. 

If there is no creed in the Mass, as soon as the gospel has 
been sung by the deacon the M.C. goes to the credence table. 

^ This is the only time the M.C. sits during High Mass. 
^ Some authors propose that the veil be given to the subdeacon by an 
acolyte (Martinucci, I, i, p. 141, § 49; Le \'avasseur, i, p. 464). 



I04 Ube 1bolp Sacrifice 

Here he puts the humeral veil on the subdeacon's shoulders, 
and hands him the chalice with the burse. 

The M.C. may assist at the uncovering- of the chalice. He 
assists at the blessing* of the incense in the usual way. While 
the altar is incensed the M.C. first waits at the epistle side. 
But when the celebrant, incensing-, comes to that side, the 
M.C. goes over to the gospel side, takes away the missal, 
when the celebrant comes to incense the place where it stood, 
steps back, and so carries the missal away, and stands with 
it on the ground (in piano). Then he comes up and puts it 
back in its place, when that end of the altar has been incensed.^ 
He now stands by the celebrant at the missal and turns over 
the pages. He stays by the missal while the celebrant washes 
his hands. He turns round when the thurifer incenses him, 
and bows before and after. When the celebrant is ready to 
begin the preface the M.C. may give a sign to the organist, 
by turning and bowing, that the organ be silent. 

When the preface is ended he signs to the deacon to come 
to the right of the celebrant for the Sanctus. Where it is the 
custom, the subdeacon will also come up to the left.^ In this 
case the M.C. must stand back. At the beginning of the 
canon the deacon takes the place of the M.C. at the missal; 
the M.C. goes to the epistle side. He stands at this corner 
(fig. 13, p. 129). At the words Qui pridie qiiam pateretur he, 
or the thurifer,^ puts incense into the thurible. Then he kneels 
with the thurifer at that side. 

He takes the thurible and incenses the Sanctissimum with 
three double swings at each elevation (of the Host and of the 
chalice), and bows low before the first and after the third. 
This should be so done that one double swing of the thurible 
corresponds to each genuflection of the celebrant, and one to 
the elevation between them (at the moments when the bell is 
rung, if there is a bell). But in some churches the thurifer 
himself incenses at the elevation.* In this case the M.C. may 
ring the bell, if it is to be rung. 

It is not necessary that the Sanctus bell be rung at all at 
High Mass. The obvious ceremonies make this warning 
superfluous.^ If, however, it is the custom that it be rung, it 
is rung at the Sanctus by the first acolyte, at the elevation by 

^ Unless the thurifer removes the missal (see p. 100, n. i). 

* See p. Ill, n. i. ^ See next note. 

* The Caer. Ep. (Lib. II, cap. viii, § 70) says that the M.C. " or some 
acolyte" incenses. According^ to the book the thurifer is "one of the 
acolytes." Most authors leave the choice open. Cfr. Merati, Pars II, 
tit. viii, § 32 (torn, i, p. 165); Martinucci, I, i, p. 118, § 42; Le Vavasseur, 
i, p. 469, § 83. De Herdt says the thurifer incenses (ii, pp. 32-33). Van 
der Stappen says that the M.C. puts the incense in the thurible, the 
thurifer incenses (v, pp. 22, 59). 

^ The Caer. Ep. describes everything accurately (Lib. II, cap. viii); 
yet it says nothing about the bell. The bell is not rung at High Mass in 
Rome. 



fbigh /iDass 105 

the M.C. or thurifer.^ In no case should it be rung at any 
other time. 

After the elevation the M.C. rises and stands at the epistle 
side to the words Per quern haec omjiia. Then he goes round 
to the missal, passing behind the subdeacon, and genuflecting 
in the middle. He now stands again by the missal at the cele- 
brant's left, and turns the pages of the book. He genuflects 
each time with the celebrant. Before the Pater noster, when 
the celebrant sings the words audemus dicere^ the M.C. gives 
a sign to the deacon, that he ^o to stand behind the celebrant. 
At the end of the Pater (at the words dimitte nobis) he again 
signs to the ministers, that they both go to the epistle side of 
the altar. He gives the sign again, that the subdeacon go to 
the left of the celebrant for the Agnus Dei. He then steps 
back to make room for the subdeacon. While the deacon re- 
ceives the pax he goes down to the floor of the sanctuary, on 
the gospel side, and waits there. When the deacon has given 
the pax to the subdeacon, the M.C. accompanies the sub- 
deacon who gives it to the choir. When this is done, he 
comes back to the middle, before the altar steps, with the 
subdeacon, genuflects there with him, receives the pax from 
him, and so gives it to the thurifer, if he is at the credence 
table. If not, he gives it to the first acolyte. He then goes 
to the epistle side and waits there. He may assist at the 
ablutions. 

At the reading of the Communion antiphon and the post- 
communions the M.C. turns the pages of the missal and 
points to the places. If there is a last gospel proper to the 
day he leaves the missal open, finds the place of this gospel 
and hands the book to the subdeacon, when the Ite missa 
est has been sung. Otherwise he closes the missal after the 
last post-communion. During the blessing he kneels at the 
epistle side. Towards the end of the last gospel he arranges 
the procession that will go out. He gives the sign to the 
acolytes to take their candles ^ and to go to the middle before 
the altar steps. He takes the birettas from the sedilia, gives 
them to the ministers (giving the deacon both his own and 
that of the celebrant), bows to the choir and genuflects with 
the ministers, and so goes out, as the procession came in. 

§8. THE SUBDEACON 

In due time before the Mass begins the subdeacon will come 
to the sacristy, wash his hands and vest, assisted by the 
second acolyte. He does not put on the maniple till the cele- 
brant is vested, nor the folded chasuble till then, when it is 

^ Whichever does not incense. Or it may be rung by the acolyte at the 
elevation. 

* And to the cross-bearer, if there be one. 



io6 ^be tbolv Sacrifice 

used. He puts on the biretta after the celebrant has done so. 
When the M.C. gives the sign, he uncovers/ bows to the 
cross, then to the celebrant, and so takes his place in the 
procession, immediately before the deacon. If the Asperges 
precede the Mass, or for any other reason the celebrant wear 
a cope, he walks on his left, holding the end of the cope with 
his right hand, the left on the breast. If, on entering the 
church, the M.C. gives him holy water, he uncovers to make 
the sign of the cross. ^ If on entering the choir they are to 
bow to its members, the ministers stand right and left of the 
celebrant and bow with him. In this case they uncover on 
entering the choir and hand their birettas to the M.C. Other- 
wise they keep in their rank, with head covered, till they 
stand before the altar. 

On arriving at the altar the subdeacon goes to the left. He 
genuflects with the deacon. For the Asperges ceremony, see 
I 3 (PP- .87-90). 

Standing before the lowest altar step he joins the deacon 
in answering the prayers. He makes the sign of the cross 
with the celebrant. He does not bow while the celebrant says 
the Conjiteor. He turns slightly to the celebrant, with a 
moderate inclination, when he says the Misereatur, While he 
says the Confiteor he bows low to the altar, and turns to the 
celebrant at the words tibi pater and te pater. He stands up- 
right while the celebrant says the Indulgentiam prayer, and 
bows slightly during the versicles, Dens tu co?iversics, etc. 

Whenever the subdeacon stands holding nothing, he joins 
the hands before the breast. When he sits he rests them on 
the knees. When he holds anything in the right the left is 
laid upon the breast. 

As the celebrant goes up to the altar he accompanies him 
and holds the end of his alb. The ministers do not genu- 
flect when the celebrant kisses the altar at the beginning of 
Mass. 

While the celebrant blesses the incense the subdeacon 
stands at his left facing the altar. He has no part in this 
ceremony; he should not look round to see what is going on. 

Whenever the celebrant incenses the altar, the subdeacon 
holds the edge of the chasuble over the celebrant's shoulder 
with his right hand. With the deacon he genuflects each 
time they pass the middle of the altar. 

When the celebrant gives the thurible to the deacon, the 
subdeacon goes straight to the deacon's side. Here, standing 
on his left, he bows to the celebrant, with the deacon, before 
and after the celebrant is incensed (fig. 6, p. 126). Then he 
goes with the deacon to the epistle side, behind the celebrant. 
He stands on the altar step below that of the deacon, or on 

^ Martinucci, I, i, p. 179, § 8. 

' This is not done before the " Asperges." 



1bigb /Dbass 107 

the ground, forming a semicircle with him and the celebrant 
(see fig. 7, p. 126).^ 

With the celebrant and deacon he makes the sign of the 
cross at the beginning of the introit ; he answers the invoca- 
tions of the Kyrie with the deacon. If the celebrant and 
ministers sit while the choir sings the Kyrie eleiscni, at the 
sign of the M.C. they bow to the middle of the altar, then go 
straight to the seats. When they are at the side of the altar 
they do not go to the middle before going to the seats. They 
turn so that, in going to their seats, the subdeacon will be on 
the right of the celebrant, the deacon on his left. Then turn- 
ing again at the sedilia they find themselves in the normal 
order. At the sedilia the subdeacon first holds the celebrant's 
chasuble over the back of the seat while he sits down. When 
the deacon has given his biretta to the celebrant, both minis- 
ters take theirs from the acolytes, they bow, not to the cele- 
brant, but to each other, sit and put on the biretta. While sitting 
they rest the hands on the knees. This is the rule each time 
they sit at the seats (fig. 8, p. 127). They rise and go to the 
altar by the longer way, at the sign of the M.C. First they 
uncover and hand their birettas to the acolytes, then they rise, 
wait till the celebrant has risen, then accompany him to the 
altar. They form in line to bow to the choir, the ministers 
genuflect; they hold the ends of the celebrant's alb as he goes 
up the altar steps. All this is to be observed every time the 
celebrant and ministers sit. 

If they have not gone to the seats, when the choir has finished 
the last Kyrie eleison, the ministers form a straight line behind 
the celebrant and so go with him to the middle. The sub- 
deacon keeps his place on the ground or step below the 
deacon. He stands thus at the middle while the celebrant 
intones Gloria i?i excelsis Deo\ he bows at the word Deo^ then 
goes to the left of the celebrant, not genuflecting, and joins 
the celebrant and deacon in saying the Gloria, bowing with 
them and making the sign of the cross at the end. When 
they have finished the Gloria^ the celebrant and mmisters go 
to the seats and sit there, observing everything noted above. 
The subdeacon bows with the celebrant and deacon at a sign 
from the M.C. at the verses so marked.^ In bowing he will 
always first uncover, lay the biretta in the right hand on the 
knee, and the left hand extended on the left knee. The cele- 
brant and ministers return to the altar as noted above. 
The subdeacon stands behind the others, so as to be in line 

^ Most authors say that they form a semicircle (Martinucci, I, I, p. 181, 
§ 23). The rubric of the missal says only: " diacono a dextris eius [sc. 
celebrantis], subdiacono a dextris diaconi stantibus in cornu epistolae " 
{Rit, cel.^ iv, 7). Merati says: "in recta linea " (Pars II, tit. iv, §32; 
torn, i, p. T23). 

' See p. 85. 



io8 Zbc H30li^ Sacrifice 

behind the deacon. So they stand while the celebrant sings 
Dominus vobiscum.^ Keeping* this rank they gfo to the epistle 
side for the collects. Here they stand in line (fig. 9, p. 127). 
They bow each time with the celebrant. 

If the verse Flectamiis genua is sung by the deacon, the 
subdeacon then kneels with him. He sings '' Levate " and so 
himself rises first. If he wear the folded chasuble he takes it 
off while the last collect is being sung. He hands it to the 
first acolyte,^ who lays it on the credence table. He puts on 
the folded chasuble again after he has been blessed at the end 
of the epistle. 

At the beginning of the last collect the M.C. brings the 
book of lessons to the subdeacon at his place. The subdeacon 
takes it, bowing to the M.C. before and after. He holds the 
book, shut, against the breast, having the opening of the 
pages towards his left. So he waits till the celebrant has 
sung lesum Christum in the conclusion of the last collect. 
Then he bows to the altar, goes to the middle before the 
steps, genuflects, bows to the choir on either side, comes 
back to his place behind the celebrant, opens the book and 
reads the epistle.^ If a verse occur at which the rubric tells 
us to kneel, he genuflects as he reads that, facing the altar, 
on the lowest step. When he has finished the epistle he shuts 
the book, goes again to the middle, genuflects and bows to 
the choir, as before; he comes round to the epistle corner of 
the altar, kneels there on the edge of the foot-pace, holding 
the closed book upright. The celebrant lays his right hand 
on the top of the book ; the subdeacon kisses it and is blessed. 
He hands the book to the M.C. and takes the missal round 
to the gospel side, genuflecting as he passes the middle. 
He sets the missal here in its place, and stands by it, facing 
across the sanctuary. So he waits for the celebrant. The 
celebrant comes to read the gospel (fig. 10, p. 127). The sub- 
deacon at his left answers the versicles, makes the sign of 
the cross, bows with him and answers Laus tibi Christe at 
the end. He then moves the missal towards the middle of 
the altar. 

If the choir sing a verse in the gradual at which all kneel» 
the subdeacon does so with the celebrant, at his left hand. 

^ If the " Gloria in excelsis " is not sung, the " Dominus vobiscum," as 
above, follows at once after the " Kyrie eleison,"when the celebrant and 
ministers come to the middle of the altar. 

■^ Martinucci says: to the second acolyte (I, i, p. 191, § 96). 

^ If it is the custom of the church that the epistle be read from a lectern, 
the lectern will be put before the altar steps at the side before the epistle 
(by one of the acolytes). The subdeacon lays the book, open, on it; 
while reading- the epistle he rests the hands on the edge of the pages. 
The lectern is moved away afterwards. This custom may be kept {Caer^ 
Ep.y Lib. II, cap. viii, §40: '' ubi ita consuetum sit, in ambone." Cfr. 
S.R.C., 16 March 1591, no. 9, ad I). 



IblGb /IDass 109 

He waits at the celebrant's left while the incense is blessed, 
then goes down and waits again before the lowest altar step, 
rather to the left. 

The deacon comes with the book of lessons and joins him 
here (fig. ii, p. 128). The subdeacon genuflects and bows to 
the choir with the deacon. He goes at his left, or immediately 
before him,^ to the place where the gospel is sung. Here he 
turns to face the deacon, standing between the acolytes 
(fig. 12, p. 128). The deacon hands him the book of lessons. 
He holds it open against his breast at a convenient height, 
so that the deacon may sing from it. While the deacon sings 
the gospel the subdeacon neither bows, nor genuflects, nor 
makes any other sign. 

If a lectern is used, it is put in place first and taken away 
afterwards. The subdeacon stands behind it, resting his 
hands on the upper edge of the book. If the gospel is sung 
at an ambo, the subdeacon stands at the deacon's right, 
hands him the thurible and turns the pages. ^ 

As soon as the gospel is ended the subdeacon takes the 
book to the celebrant. Holding it open, he walks straight to 
the celebrant at the epistle side of the altar, making no genu- 
flection on the way, even if the Sanctissimum be exposed. 
Arriving in front of the celebrant he holds the book before 
him, pointing with the open palm to the place where the 
gospel begins. When the celebrant has kissed the book the 
subdeacon stands back a step, shuts the book, bows to the 
celebrant, goes down the altar steps on the epistle side and 
gives the book to the M.C., bowing before and after. He 
stands there, facing the deacon, while the deacon incenses 
the celebrant. 

If there is to be a sermon at this point the subdeacon goes 
to the left of the celebrant at the middle of the altar, genu- 
flects there with the deacon, who has come up to the cele- 
brant's right; so the celebrant and ministers go to the seats. 
Otherwise the subdeacon goes to his place behind the deacon 
and genuflects with him before the celebrant intones the creed. 
He bows at the word Deum, then goes to the left of the cele- 
brant, making no genuflection, and with him says the creed. 
The celebrant and ministers go to sit at the seats, when they 
have said the creed, exactly as they do at the Gloria in 
excelsis. They uncover and bow at the words Et ijicarnatus 
est^ except on the days noted at p. 103. They also bow at the 
other verses noted at p. 85. When the deacon, during the 
creed, rises to put the corporal on the altar, the subdeacon 

^ Martinucci (I,i, p.184, §45): *' precedes him. '* Le Vavasseur (i, p. 459): 
*' at his left or, better, preceding- him." Cfr. Rit. cel.^ vi, 5 (" a sinistris ") 
and Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. viii, § 44: " deinde subdiaconus manibus 
iunctis, ultimo diaconus." 

^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. viii, § 45. Both cases are here provided. 



I lo XTbe 1bol^ Sacrifice 

rises too, first uncovering' and holding the biretta in his right. 
He will either stand the whole time till the deacon comes 
back to the seats, or sit as soon as the deacon has gone, then 
rise ag"ain when he comes back.^ When the deacon comes 
back he bows to him and sits as before. 

Towards the end of the creed he g"oes with the celebrant 
and deacon back to the altar, in the way already noticed 
(p. 107). If there is no creed the ministers stand in line behind 
the celebrant as soon as he has been incensed after the gospel. 

The subdeacon stands behind the deacon while the cele- 
brant sings Domimis vobismm and Oremus at the offertory. 
He bows at the word Oremus^ then g-enuflects and goes to 
the credence table. Here he receives the humeral veil on his 
shoulders from the M.C. He takes the chalice veil from the 
chalice ; then he holds the chalice at its knob in the left hand 
bare (not throug^h the humeral veil). On the chalice are the 
purificator, paten, pall. He lays the right end of the humeral 
veil over the pall, lays his right hand, bare, on the chalice so 
covered, and takes it to the altar direct by the shortest way, 
making no genuflection. Here he puts the chalice on the 
altar. The deacon removes the pall and paten. The sub- 
deacon, still wearing" the humeral veil, cleans the inside of 
the chalice with the purificator, then g-ives it to the deacon. 
He takes the cruets from the acolyte and hands the cruet of 
wine to the deacon. When the deacon has poured wine into 
the chalice, the subdeacon holds the cruet of water up, bows 
to the celebrant and says to him Benedicite pater reverende. 
When the celebrant has blessed the water, the subdeacon 
pours a little into the chalice and hands the cruet back to the 
acolyte. 

If there is no creed in the Mass, the subdeacon brings the 
burse on the chalice. The deacon first takes this and spreads 
the corporal (p. 117, n. i). Then all proceeds as above. The 
deacon gives him the paten. He takes this in his right hand, 
bare, covers it with the right end of the humeral veil, and so 
rests it against the breast. Whenever he walks from one place 
to another, when he kneels, while he is incensed, when he 
answers the Orate fratres or joins in the Sanctus, he holds 
the paten like this. So he goes straight to his place in the 
middle, in front of the lowest altar step, g-enuflects on the 
step and stands there, now holding the paten higher, to the 
level of the eyes, supporting his right elbow with the left 
hand, and letting the veil fall over it in front. Except when 
he has some special office this is now his normal place till 
the end of the Pater noster. 

At the Orate fratres^ if the deacon is not yet back at his 
place behind the celebrant, the subdeacon must answer. If so, 

^ Both practices are allowed. See the Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. viii, § 54; 
Merati, Pars II, tit. vi, § 41 (vol. i, p. 139); Martinucci, I, i, p. 186, § i. 



1bigb /IDass 1 1 1 

he lowers the paten to the level of the breast, bows, and so 
says the response Suscipiat Dominus. Then he stands erect 
and holds up the paten, as before. 

When the deacon comes to incense him (after the choir) he 
lowers the paten, turns to face the deacon on his right, bows 
before and after being incensed, then turns to face the altar 
and holds up the paten again. He does not genuflect. 

At the Sanctus^ when the deacon goes to the right of the 
celebrant, the subdeacon, lowering the paten, goes up to the 
left.^ So they say the Sanctus with the celebrant. When 
the deacon kneels for the elevation, the subdeacon also kneels, 
in his place, lowering the paten (fig. 13, p. 129). He rises and 
stands again after the elevation of the chalice. 

When the celebrant sings the verse Et dimitte nobis dehita 
nostra in the Lord's Prayer, the subdeacon genuflects and goes 
to the altar, on the epistle side, to the right of the deacon. 
He hands the paten to the deacon; then the acolyte, or 
thurifer, takes the humeral veil from him. He genuflects and 
goes back to his place at the middle, in front of the steps. 
Here, without again genuflecting, he stands with folded 
hands. When the celebrant sings Pax Domini, etc., he genu- 
flects, goes to the left of the celebrant, and there again genu- 
flects with the celebrant and deacon. Bowing towards the 
altar he joins them in saying Agnus Deiy etc. He strikes the 
breast at the words miserere nobis and dona nobis pacem. Then 
he genuflects and goes back to his former place. At this place 
the deacon comes to give him the pax. He turns towards 
him, on the epistle side, bows before and after, and receives 
the pax in the usual manner. Accompanied by the M.C. he 
then goes to give the pax to the members of the choir, first 
genuflecting. He gives the pax first to the person of greatest 
dignity. If there is no such person present, he will begin with 
the one nearest the altar, in the farthest row, on the gospel side. 
Then he goes to the corresponding person on the epistle side. 
He comes across to him who stands nearest the altar in the 
second row on the gospel side; then to the correspondingperson 
on the epistle side; and so on for each row, however many there 
may be. Each time he passes the altar he genuflects in the 
middle. In giving the pax first he stands in front of him who 
will receive it, while this one bows to him. The subdeacon does 
not bow in return. Then, putting his forearms and hands ex- 
tended over those of the other and bowingover his left shoulder, 
he says Pax tecum. The other answers Etcuni spiritii tiw. Both 
then fold the hands and bow to each other. But if he has to 
give the pax to a dignitary, he puts his arms under those of 
the person who receives it. When he has given the pax to 
the head of each line in the choir he comes back to the middle 

^ In some places the subdeacon does not go up at the " Sanctus." The 
S.R.C. (no. 2682, ad XXX) tolerates this. 



1 1 2 ube 1bol^ Sacrifice 

with the M.C. Here he genuflects, gives it to the M.C., goes 
up to the right hand of the celebrant, genuflects again, and 
stands there. At Domine non sum dignus he bows to the Sanc- 
tissimum, not striking his breast. During the celebrant's Com- 
munion he bows towards the Sanctissimum. Before the 
celebrant's Communion in the form of wine the subdeacon 
uncovers the chalice. The usual sign for him to do this is that 
the celebrant touches the foot of the chalice. He genuflects 
each time with the celebrant. The subdeacon pours the wine 
into the chalice for the ablution, then he pours wine and water 
over the celebrant's fingers and hands him the purificator. 
He gives the cruets back to the acolyte; then he changes 
places with the deacon. The deacon now comes to the epistle 
side, the subdeacon to the gospel side. They genuflect, once 
only, in the middle together, the subdeacon behind the deacon. 
At the gospel side the subdeacon arranges the chalice, puri- 
ficator, paten, pall, veil, corporal and burse, as they were at 
the beginning of Mass. He takes the chalice so arranged in 
his left, laying the right on the burse, and carries it to the 
credence table, genuflecting as he passes the middle. 

He comes back from the credence table and takes his place 
behind the celebrant and deacon, on the ground, in front of 
the lowest altar step. If the celebrant is still at the centre of 
the altar the subdeacon genuflects on arriving at his place 
also in the middle, not if he has to go at once to the epistle 
side. He stands with folded hands behind the deacon, goes 
with him and the celebrant to the middle, and back to the 
epistle side. He stands facing the altar while the deacon sings 
Ite niissa est^ or other versicle. Then, while the celebrant says 
the prayer Placeat tibi^ he goes up to the gospel side, at the 
same level as the deacon. He kneels with the deacon and 
bows for the blessing. Then he rises, goes to the end of the 
altar at the gospel side and assists the celebrant at the last 
gospel, holding the altar-card or turning the pages of the missal. 

If the last gospel is proper to the day, after the Ite missa 
est the subdeacon goes to the epistle side, takes the missal 
and carries it to the gospel side, genuflecting as he passes 
the middle. Then he comes back to the middle and kneels at 
the deacon's side for the blessing, as before. During the last 
gospel he makes the responses. If he is holding the altar-card 
he neither makes the sign of the cross nor genuflects at the 
verse Et Verbum caro factum est. When the last gospel is 
finished, he puts back the altar-card or shuts the book, comes 
to the left hand of the celebrant, on the foot-pace, bows with 
him to the cross, comes down to the floor of the church with 
the celebrant and deacon, genuflects with the deacon, receives 
and puts on his biretta, and goes to the sacristy in front of 
the deacon. He will bow to the choir, if this is to be done, 
with the celebrant and deacon, as he did on coming in. 



1btab/lDass 113 

In the sacristy he stands at the celebrant's left, bows to the 
clergy with him, then to the cross and the celebrant. He first 
takes off the maniple and folded chasuble, if this is used. 

If after Mass prayers for the sovereign, or other prayers 
are to be said before the altar, the subdeacon stands there 
with the others and assists the celebrant, holding the book with 
the deacon. He should take off the maniple before such prayers. 

In case of necessity the place of the subdeacon may be taken 
by a clerk in minor orders.' In this case he does not wear the 
maniple, he does not pour water into the chalice at the offer- 
tory, but leaves this to the deacon ; he does not cover nor 
uncover the chalice; nor does he clean the chalice after the 
ablutions. This is done by the celebrant. Otherwise he fulfils 
all the office of subdeacon. 



§9. THE DEACON 

The deacon comes to the sacristy in due time before Mass 
begins, washes his hands and vests. He does not put on the 
maniple, nor the folded chasuble (if this is to be used) till the 
celebrant has vested. He stands at the right of the celebrant. 
At the sign of the M.C. he bows with uncovered head to the 
cross, then to the celebrant. So he walks in the procession to 
the sanctuary, wearing the biretta, behind the subdeacon. But 
if the celebrant wears the cope, the deacon goes on his right 
holding the end of the cope in his left hand. If he receives 
holy water from the M.C. or subdeacon, he uncovers to make 
the sign of the cross. If on entering the choir they are to bow 
to its members, the deacon uncovers first, waits for the cele- 
brant, takes his biretta, kissing the celebrant's hand and the 
biretta, and hands it to the M.C. Otherwise he goes to the 
right of the celebrant before the altar, and here takes his 
biretta in the same way. The kiss is omitted in Masses for 
the dead. Before the lowest altar step he genuflects with the 
celebrant and subdeacon, then stands to begin the Mass. If 
before Mass there is the Asperges ceremony, see pp. 87-90. 

The deacon joins in the prayers at the altar steps, answer- 
ing the celebrant with the subdeacon. He makes the sign of 
the cross each time with the celebrant. While the celebrant 
says the Confiteor the ministers do not bow. They bow to the 
celebrant while they say the prayer Misereatur. They bow low 
towards the altar while they say the Confiteor^ and turn 
towards the celebrant at the words tihi pater and te pater. 
They still bow while the celebrant says Misereatur; they stand 
upright at the prayer, Indulgentiam. They bow again at the 
versicles, Deus tu conversus, etc. Throughout the service 

^ S.R.C., 14 March 1906: "numquam nisi adsit rationabilis causa." He 
must at least be tonsured {ib.). 

I 



1 14 Xlbe Ibolp Sacrifice 

when the deacon stands, he folds the hands before the breast, 
unless he has to hold anything". When he holds something in 
the right he lays the left extended on the breast. When he 
sits he lays the hands extended on the knees. Whenever he 
is by the side of the celebrant he genuflects with him. 

He goes up to the altar with the celebrant, holding the cele- 
brant's alb at the end as they go up the steps. At the altar he 
takes the incense boat from the M.C., kisses the spoon, hands 
it to the celebrant, and kisses his hand as he does so. When- 
ever he hands anything to the celebrant he first kisses the 
thing, then the celebrant's hand. When he takes anything 
from him, he first kisses the hand, then the thing. These are 
the " solita oscula," all omitted at Requiem Masses. 

As he hands the spoon to the celebrant he says Benedicite 
pater reverende. Only if the celebrant is a bishop does he say 
pater reverendissime. The deacon takes the spoon from the 
celebrant in the way described. When the incense is blessed 
he takes the thurible, holding the chains low down in the 
left hand, high up, just under the rings at the top, in the right. 
So he hands it to the celebrant, again with the ''solita 
oscula." ^ 

While the celebrant incenses the altar the deacon accom- 
panies him at his right, holding the chasuble at the shoulder. 
Then he takes the thurible from the celebrant, with the 
" oscula." He holds as when he gave it to the celebrant, then 
changes hands. He comes down on the epistle side, and here 
incenses the celebrant with three double incensings, bowing 
before and after (see fig. 6, p. 126). He hands the thurible to 
the thurifer and goes to the right of the celebrant on the 
highest step below the foot-pace. Here he will assist the 
celebrant at the introit, pointing the place with the open 
palm of the right hand, turning the leaves and so on (fig. 7, 
p. 126). He answers the Kyrie eleison. If the celebrant and 
ministers are to sit while the choir finishes the Kyrie^ at a sign 
from the M.C. the deacon bows with the others to the altar, 
turns so as to be now at the celebrant's left, and goes with him 
and the subdeacon to the seats. Here he takes the celebrant's 
birettafrom the M.C. and gives it to him with the solita oscula. 
Then he takes his own, waits till the celebrant sits, then sits 
and puts on his biretta. When they rise again, the deacon 
first uncovers, stands, takes the celebrant's biretta with the 
oscula, hands it to the M.C, and goes back to the altar by 
the longer way at the celebrant's right, bowing- to the choir 
on either side, and genuflecting with him in the middle before 
they go up the steps. 

If they do not sit during the Kyrie, the deacon goes to the 
middle of the altar behind the celebrant, on his own step, and 

^ The thurible is kissed at the disk to which are fixed the chains at 
the top. 



stands In the middle while the celebrant Intones Gloria in ex- 
celsis Deo. He bows at the word Deo^ then goes up to the 
celebrant's right, not genuflecting. Here he says the Gloria with 
the celebrant, bowing and making the sign of the cross with 
him. When they have said the Gloria the ministers genuflect 
at the middle where they stand, ^o with the celebrant to the 
seats and sit there, observing all that has been noted above 
(p. 107). With the others, the deacon uncovers and bows at 
the verses so marked (p. 85). They come back to the altar 
as above when the choir sings Cum sancto Spiritu, at a sign 
from the M.C. On going up the altar steps, the deacon always 
lifts the celebrant's alb slightly at the end. He stands behind 
the celebrant on the highest step while the Dominus vohiscum 
is sung and then goes to the epistle side behind the celebrant. 
He stands here during the collects (fig. 9, p. 127). 

If the verse Flectamus genua is to be sung, the deacon 
sings it, at the same time genuflecting. He rises again when 
the subdeacon has said Levate. When the last collect is 
finished the deacon goes to the right hand of the celebrant, 
assists him at the epistle, and answers Deo gratias at the end. 
He stands here while the celebrant reads the gradual, turning 
back, to give the subdeacon room to receive the blessing, at 
the end of the epistle. As soon as the celebrant has begun the 
gospel, the deacon, at a sign from the M.C, takes from him 
the book of lessons. He holds this, closed, against his breast, 
with both hands, so that the opening of the pages be to the 
left, holding the book up, so that the top be nearly to the level 
of his eyes. So he goes to the middle in front of the lowest 
altar step, bows to the choir on either side, genuflects and 
goes up the steps. He lays the book of lessons on the middle 
of the altar, and stands there (fig. 10, p. 127). 

If he wear the folded chasuble, before he takes the book 
from the M.C, he goes to the credence table, takes off" the 
folded chasuble, assisted by an acolyte, and puts on the so- 
called "broad stole" (p. 11). He wears this through the 
Mass till he has taken the missal across the altar, to the 
epistle side, for the Communion antiphon. Then he goes to 
the credence table, takes it off, and puts on the folded chasuble 
again. 

When the incense is blessed before the gospel the deacon 
assists in the usual manner. Then at once he goes down, 
kneels on the edge of the foot-pace, bows low, and says the 
prayer Munda cor meum. Then he rises, takes the book of 
lessons from the altar, kneels on the foot-pace towards the 
celebrant, and says lube domne benedicere. The celebrant 
turns towards the deacon, gives his blessing, lays his hand 
on the top of the closed book, and the deacon kisses his hand. 

The deacon now rises, bows to the celebrant, and comes 
down the altar steps to the floor of the church, where the 



1 1 6 Ube 1bol^ Sacrifice 

subdeacon awaits him. He stands here, at the right of the 
subdeacon, still holding the closed book of lessons (fig. ii, 
p. 128). 

They genuflect, bow to the choir and go to the place where 
the gospel is to be sung. In this procession the deacon walks 
by the subdeacon's side or behind him.^ When they arrive at 
the place (fig. 12, p. 128), the subdeacon turns and faces the 
deacon, who puts the book into his hands, ^ opens it, and with 
joined hands sings Dominus vohiscum. When he sings Sequentia 
[or Initium\ sancti evangelii he makes the sign of the cross 
with the thumb of the right hand at the place where the gospel 
begins in the book, holding the left open on the book; then 
he lays the left hand on the breast and makes the sign of the 
cross with the right thumb on his forehead, mouth and breast. 
He now takes the thurible from the M.C., and incenses the 
book with three double incensings, to the middle, right and 
left, gives back the thurible to the M.C., joins his hands, and 
so sings the gospel. He bows or genuflects towards the book 
if any verse is so marked. 

At the end of the gospel he lays the open right palm at the 
place where it begins, to show it to the subdeacon. Standing 
where he is, he takes the thurible and turns towards the cele- 
brant. When the celebrant has kissed the book he incenses 
him with three double swings, bowing before and after, and 
gives back the thurible to the M.C. He now goes and joins 
the celebrant. If there is to be a sermon he goes to the cele- 
brant's right, genuflects with him, and so accompanies him 
to the sedilia, where they sit in the usual manner. 

If there is no sermon, the deacon goes to his place behind 
the celebrant on the highest step, genuflects at this place, 
and stands while the Credo in tcnum Deum is intoned. He 
bows at the word Deum, goes, without genuflecting, to the 
celebrant's right, and there joins him in saying the creed. He 
makes the sign of the cross, bows and genuflects with the 
celebrant. Then, when they have said the creed, the celebrant 
and ministers go to sit at the seats in the usual way. If there 
is no creed, the deacon goes to stand behind the celebrant 
at Dominus vohiscum and Oremus, and all follows as below 
(p. 1 17). After the choir has sung the verse Et hom,o f actus estj 
the deacon rises, leaves his biretta at his seat, bows to the 
celebrant, and takes the burse containing the corporal from 
the M.C. who brings it. He holds this in both hands at about 
the level of the eyes and takes it to the altar. If he passes the 
celebrant he bows to him, then to the choir; he genuflects on 
the lowest altar step, goes up and puts the burse on the altar. 
Now he takes out the corporal, puts the burse leaning against 
a candlestick or the gradine, near the middle on the gospel 

^ See p. 109, n. i. 

^ Unless he puts it on the lectern or ambo (p. 109). 



side. He spreads the corporal before the altar cross, arranges 
the missal conveniently, genuflects there before the altar, not 
laying his hands on the altar when he does so, and comes 
back by the shorter way to his seat. Here he takes his biretta, 
bows to the subdeacon, sits and covers himself. Towards the 
end of the creed, at the sign from the M.C., the deacon, with 
the others, goes back to the altar by the longer way, in the 
usual manner. 

The deacon stands behind the celebrant while Dominus 
vohiscum and Oremus are sung. At the word Orernus he bows 
and goes at once to the celebrant's right. The subdeacon 
brings the chalice and paten. ^ The deacon takes off the pall 
and puts it near the corporal. He takes the paten, with the 
altar-bread on it, hands it to the celebrant, kissing first the 
paten, then the celebrant's hand. If there is a ciborium with 
bread to be consecrated he opens this and holds it near where 
the celebrant holds the paten. When the offertory prayer is 
ended he covers the ciborium. He takes the chalice from the 
subdeacon in his left hand and pours in the wine, holding the 
purificator with the thumb of the left hand against the stem 
of the chalice. Usually the celebrant gives a sign to show how 
much wine should be poured. The subdeacon then pours in 
the water. The deacon wipes away any separate drops against 
the sides of the chalice, takes it by the stem in the right, hold- 
ing the foot in the left, and so hands it to the celebrant, kiss- 
ing first the foot of the chalice then the celebrant's hand. He 
has left the purificator on the altar near the corporal. As the 
celebrant lifts the chalice, to make the offertory, the deacon 
also holds it, having his right hand on its foot. He lays his 
left against the breast. Looking up towards the crucifix, he 
says the offertory prayer, Offerimus tibi, with the celebrant. 
When the celebrant sets the chalice on the corporal, the 
deacon covers it with the pall, and hands the paten to the 
subdeacon. He now assists at the blessing of incense in the 
usual way. He accompanies the celebrant while the altar is 
incensed, holding the edge of the chasuble at the shoulder 
with his left hand. After the incensing of the oblata he re- 
moves the chalice towards the epistle side, but not outside 
the corporal, while the altar cross is incensed. Then he puts 
it back in the middle. He genuflects each time wnth the cele- 
brant. At the end of the incensing of the altar he takes the 
thurible, with the usual oscula, goes down and incenses the 
celebrant as he did at the beginning of Mass, the thurifer 
standing at his left. Accompanied by the thurifer, he now 
incenses the choir. First they genuflect in the middle, then 

^ If there has been no creed the subdeacon brings the burse on the 
chalice. The deacon then first spreads the corporal, leaning" the burse 
ag-ainst a candlestick or the gradine. While he does this the celebrant 
stands away a little, towards the gospel side. 



1 18 Zbc Ibolp Saeritlcc 

the deacon incenses the choir on the gospel side.^ He bows 
once to all on that side, incenses each person with one double 
swing" of the thurible, then bows again. ^ He turns, genuflects 
at the middle and goes, in the same way, to incense those on 
the epistle side. He genuflects each time by the right side 
of the subdeacon. Then he comes to the middle, to the 
right of the subdeacon, genuflects, turns to him and incenses 
him with two double incensings. He hands the thurible to 
the thurifer, goes up to his place on the highest step behind 
the celebrant, genuflects, turns and is himself incensed, bow- 
ing to the thurifer before and after. He turns towards the 
altar and does not again genuflect. If he is at his place in 
time he answers the Orate fratres\ otherwise the subdeacon 
does so. During the preface he stands behind the celebrant. 
At its last words {supplici confessione dicentes) he ^oo-s,,, with- 
out genuflecting, to the right of the celebrant ; bowing he says 
the Sanctus with him. He makes the sign of the cross at the 
word Benedictus. Then he goes to the left of the celebrant, 
genuflecting as he passes the middle. 

During the Canon the deacon stands at the celebrant's left, 
by the missal, points out the places and turns the pages. 
It is usual that he stand back a step or two at the com- 
memoration of the living and of the dead, that he may not 
hear the names spoken by the celebrant. At the words Quani 
oblationem he goes to the other side of the celebrant, genu- 
flecting in the middle. If there is a ciborium on the cor- 
poral he opens it. He kneels on the edge of the foot-pace 
and lifts the end of the chasuble at the elevation of the Host 
(fig. 13, p. 129). He rises at once, as the celebrant rises 
after his genuflection at the end of this elevation, covers the 
ciborium, if there is one, and uncovers the chalice. Then 
he kneels as before and again lifts the chasuble. Immediately 
after the elevation of the chalice he rises again and covers it 
with the pall. Then he genuflects with the celebrant. He 
goes round to the left of the celebrant, genuflecting not in the 
middle but in the place at which he arrives. Here he stays 
pointing the places and turning the leaves. 

At the words Per quern haec omnia he genuflects and goes 
to the right of the celebrant again, not genuflecting in the 
middle. When the celebrant says praestas nohis^ the deacon 
uncovers the chalice and then genuflects with the celebrant. 
He covers it again after the elevation at this point when the 
celebrant has held his fingers over the chalice. He always 
genuflects with the celebrant when he is at his side. Just 
before the Pater noster^ at the words audenius dicere^ he genu- 
flects, turns to the left and goes behind the celebrant on the 

^ Or the side of greater digriity (see p. 29). 

^ If prelates or canons in chapter be present, the deacon incenses them 
first and bows to each separately before and after incensing him. 



Ibigb/IDass 119 

highest step. Here he does not again genuflect, but stands 
there with folded hands during the Lord's Prayer. At the 
words Dimitte nobis he genuflects with the subdeacon; both 
^o to the epistle side, at the celebrant's right, the deacon 
nearer to the celebrant.^ He takes the paten from the sub- 
deacon, cleans it with the purificator, and hands it to the 
celebrant, with the *' solita oscula." He uncovers the chalice, 
genuflects, as always, with the celebrant and covers the chalice 
again when the particle has been put into it. Standing here 
on the right, he joins in saying the Agnus Dei. When that 
prayer is ended he kneels on the edge of the foot-pace at 
the right. When the celebrant has said the first Communion 
prayer Domine lesit Christe qui dixisti apostolis tuis^ the deacon 
rises; with joined hands he kisses the altar at the same time 
as the celebrant, but outside the corporal, turns to the cele- 
brant, bows, puts his arms under those of the celebrant, and 
receives the pax from him in the usual manner (p. 27). He 
bows again, genuflects to the Sanctissimum, goes to the sub- 
deacon, and gives him the pax. According to the general rule, 
he bows only after having given it. Then he comes up to the 
celebrant's left, genuflects, and stays there till after the ablu- 
tions. He bows low at the celebrant's Communion. If Holy 
Communion is distributed during Mass, see pp. 130-132. 

After the ablutions the deacon takes the missal to the 
epistle side, genuflecting in the middle only. If he w^ears the 
broad stole he now goes to the credence table, takes it off and 
puts on the folded chasuble again. He now again takes his 
place on the highest step behind the celebrant (either at the 
epistle side or in the middle), without genuflecting. He follows 
the celebrant to the middle for the Dominus vobiscum and goes 
behind him to the epistle side for the post-communions. After 
these he goes with the celebrant and subdeacon to the middle. 
The celebrant sings Dominus vobiscum. The deacon turns to- 
wards the people, with his back to the celebrant, and sings 
Ite missa est. If the Sanctissimum be exposed he does not 
turn his back to it, but steps back towards the gospel side 
and looks across the sanctuary towards the epistle side. If 
he has to sing either Benedicamtis Domino or Requiescant in 
pace, he does not turn, but sings the versicle facing the altar. 
When the celebrant has said the prayer Placeat tibi, the 

^ Martinucci (I, i, pp. 226, 227) says that the deacon should answer: 
**■ Sed libera nos a malo " when the celebrant has sung the Lord's Prayer, 
also: '* Et cum spiritu tuo " after the " Pax," in a low voice. On the 
other hand the Ephemerides liturgicae, xiii (1899), p. 736, declare that 
there is no justification for this practice. No rubric in any liturgical book 
nor any decree of the Congr. of Rites authorizes it. In the case of all 
other responses the choir alone sings them ; no one else recites them as 
well. There seems no reason why an exception should be made here, 
except, apparently, to enable the celebrant to hurry on. He had better 
•wait till the choir has performed its part of the liturgical function. See 
Van der Stappen, iii, p. 448. 



I20 TLhc Ibolp Sacrifice 

deacon steps towards the epistle side facing the altar and 
kneels on the edge of the foot-pace for the blessing. At the 
blessing he makes the sign of the cross, bowing. During the 
last gospel he stands at the place where he is with folded 
hands. He makes the sign of the cross with the right thumb 
on forehead, lips, and breast, and genuflects with the celebrant 
at the words JS^ Verbtim caro factum est. He goes up to the 
foot-pace at the right of the celebrant, bows to the altar with 
him, and comes down to the ground with him and the sub- 
deacon. He genuflects with them, takes the celebrant's 
biretta and hands it to him, with the usual oscula, takes his 
own, covers himself after the celebrant has done so, and so 
goes to the sacristy behind the subdeacon, bowing to the 
choir, if this is to be done, as when they came in. If prayers 
are said after Mass, he stands with the others before the altar 
and holds the book with the subdeacon.^ In the sacristy he 
takes off" the biretta, bows to the clergy and celebrant, takes 
off" the maniple (and folded chasuble, if he wears it). He con- 
tinues to unvest after the celebrant has done so. 

§ lo. THE CELEBRANT OF HIGH MASS 

The priest who is to sing High Mass, after having made his 
preparation, comes to the place of vesting, washes his hands 
and vests (the ministers having already done so), saying the 
prayers in the missal as he puts on each vestment. He waits 
there, between the deacon and subdeacon, wearing the biretta, 
till the M.C. gives the sign. Uncovering he then bows to the 
cross in the sacristy, to the deacon and subdeacon, and follows 
the rest of the procession in the last place. ^ If the deacon give 
him holy water on leaving the sacristy, he uncovers to make 
the sign of the cross. If the procession passes an altar where 
the Sanctissimum is reserved the celebrant genuflects to it. 
If the members of the choir are in their places, and are to be 
saluted, he uncovers at the entrance of the choir, gives his 
biretta to the deacon, and bows as described at p. 88, n. 3. 
Otherwise he goes straight to the altar steps. Here he un- 
covers. If the Sanctissimum is reserved at the high altar he 
genuflects, if not he bows low to the altar. For the Asperges 
ceremony see pp. 87-90. 

At High Mass the celebrant uses three tones of voice. Some 
parts of the Mass are sung aloud, to the plain-chant melody 
provided. This is the vox sonora. All the other prayers 
said aloud at Low Mass (the Gloria in excelsis, gospel, creed, 
SanctuSy etc.) are spoken at High Mass, voce svbmissa. 

^ Strictly, the celebrant and ministers should take off the maniple 
before these prayers, as if one of them preach. 

^ If he wears the cope he walks between the ministers, who hold 
its ends. 



IbtOb/IDass 121 

This means loud enough to be heard by those around, but not 
so loud as to disturb the singing. The form of blessing the 
people, however, is specially noted as said " voce intelligibili " 
[Rit. eel. xii, i). The third tone is vox secret a, quite low, 
yet so that he can hear himself. The prayers said secretely at 
Low Mass (the offertory prayers, Canon, Communion prayers, 
etc.) are said in this same tone at High Mass. 

Standing before the lowest altar step, between the ministers, 
the celebrant begins the Mass. He bows low while he says 
the Confiteor. At the words vohis fratres and vos fratres he 
turns first towards the deacon, then to the subdeacon. He 
remains bowing while the ministers say the Misereatiir. He 
does not bow to them when they do so saying the Confiteor. 
He ^OQ.s up to the altar, kisses it in the middle, then puts 
incense into the thurible three times with the spoon, saying 
Ab ilia henedicaris in euius honore cremaheris. Amen, after the 
deacon has said Benedicite pater reverende. He gives the 
spoon to the deacon, and makes the sign of the cross over the 
thurible.^ While he puts the incense into the thurible and 
blesses it, he lays the left hand on the breast.' This is the 
invariable way in which incense is blessed. The deacon hands 
him the thurible and he proceeds to incense the altar. This is 
done in the same way at the offertory. If the Sanctissimum 
be reserved in the tabernacle, he first genuflects, otherwise 
he bows low tow^ards the altar cross. He incenses the altar 
cross with three double incensings.^ Then he either genuflects 
or bows, as he did before. If there are relics or images be- 
tween the candlesticks he next incenses these, first those on 
the gospel side, making two double swings of the thurible for 
all of them together, without moving himself from the middle 
of the altar, or bowing to them.* He again bows to the cross, 
or genuflects to the Blessed Sacrament, and incenses in the 
same way those on the epistle side. Then, without again 
bowing or genuflecting, he continues the incensing of the 
altar. He walks before the altar to the epistle side ; as he does 
so he incenses it over the upper part, the mensa, with three 
single swings of the thurible, one opposite each of the altar 
candles. = At the epistle corner he swings the thurible twice 
along the side, then returns to the middle, again making 

^ It is generally said that the celebrant should pronounce this formula, 
" Ab illo henedicaris," etc., while putting the incense on the charcoal. 
Then he makes the sign of the cross, saying nothing. Merati, Pars II, 
tit. iv, § 21 (tom. i, p. 120); Van der Stappen, iii, p. 424; Martinucci, 
I) i' P- 73> § 2; Le Vavasseur, i, p. 423. This is also in accordance with 
a decision of the S.R.C. See p. 25, n. 2. 

■^ See p. 25, n. 3. ^ S.R.C, 29 maii 1900, ad II. 

* Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, cap. xxiii, § 6. 

^ The candles are only convenient directions. Xot they, but the altar 
is incensed. It is incensed three times on either side, whatever the 
number of candlesticks may be. 



122 u\)c Ibol^ Sacrifice 

three single swings along the top of the altar, bows, or genu- 
flects. He now does exactly the same on the gospel side, first 
three single swings towards the candlesticks, two at the 
gospel end, three coming back, towards the candlesticks. 
Having finished this, he does not quite come to the middle, nor 
does he here bow or genuflect ; but he goes back to the gospel 
end and incenses the front of the altar, where the frontal 
hangs, with three single swings ; genuflecting or bowing he 
continues along the epistle side, again incensing the frontal 
three times along the epistle side. So he arrives at the epistle 
end of the altar; here he hands the thurible to the deacon. 
Except at the point noted he always bows or genuflects when 
he passes the middle of the altar. In incensing the altar he 
swings the thurible in single, not double swings.^ For all this 
see fig. 4. The manner is the same, whenever the altar is 
incensed. At the epistle end of the altar, having given the 
thurible to the deacon, the celebrant stands facing him with 
his left to the altar and is incensed, bowing before and 
after. 

Turning to the altar he says the introit and Kyrie eleison^ 
the deacon answering. If the singing oi\hQ. Kyrie takes much 
time, so that the celebrant and ministers sit during it, the 
M.C. gives a sign, the celebrant bows to the altar cross and 
goes to the seats, without genuflecting, between the deacon 
and subdeacon. He sits first, takes his biretta from the deacon, 
and puts it on. While he sits he lays the hands stretched out, 
with the palms downwards, on the knees. When they rise, the 
ministers rise first; the celebrant uncovers, hands his biretta 
to the deacon, then stands. He goes back to the altar by the 
longer way, bowing to the choir, bows to the altar at the foot 
of the steps, or genuflects if the Sanctissimum be reserved 
there, goes up the steps. This is the invariable rule for sitting 
at the seats and returning to the altar. 

At the altar the celebrant intones Gloria in excelsis Deo, and 
continues with the ministers.^ At the end he bows, or genu- 
flects, and they go to the seats as before. The celebrant un- 
covers and bows during the sung Gloria at the special verses 
so noted. 

When he returns to the altar he kisses it in the middle, 
turns to the people, and sings Dominus vobiscum. Then he goes 
to the epistle side and sings the collects. After the last collect 
he reads the epistle, gradual, tract, sequence, ov Alleluia vQvse. 

^ According to the Rit. eel.., iv, 4, the Caer. Ep., and most authors, the 
altar is incensed with single incensations. Nor is it possible to make 
each swing a double one without inconvenience and loss of dignity. The 
rubrics require the "ductus duplex" for incensing the cross and relics 
only. Cfr. Martinucci (Menghini's note), I, i, p. 74, n. 4. 

^ *' Submissa voce " {Kit. ceL^ iv, 7). This means in such a tone that he 
can be heard by those around. See p. 120. 




FIG. 4. INCENSING THE ALTAR 




FIG. 5. INCENSING THE OBLATA 



123 



124 XTbe 1bolp Sacrifice 

When the subdeacon has read the epistle he comes to the 
celebrant, at the epistle side, holding the book of lessons. 
The celebrant turns to him and lays the right hand on the top 
of the closed book, the left on the breast. The subdeacon 
kisses the celebrant's hand; the celebrant makes the sign of 
the cross over the subdeacon, saying nothing. 

If there is a long sequence the celebrant may go, with the 
ministers, to sit at the sedilia. Otherwise he goes to the 
middle, says the prayer Munda cor meum and the gospel, as 
at Low Mass. At the end he does not kiss the missal ; nor 
does he say Per evangelica dicta, etc. He comes to the middle 
of the altar, puts incense into the thurible, and blesses it in 
the usual way. 

The deacon now kneels sideways before him. The celebrant 
turns to the deacon, gives him the blessing with the form in 
the missal, Dominus sit in corde tuo, etc., and makes the sign 
of the cross over him, at the invocation of the Holy Trinity. 
He lays his hand on the top of the book of lessons and the 
deacon kisses it. 

He goes to the epistle side and stands there with joined 
hands, facing the altar, till the deacon sings Dominus vobis- 
cum. When the deacon sings Sequentia sancti evangelii, etc. , 
the celebrant also makes the sign of the cross with the thumb 
on forehead, lips and breast. At the beginning of the gospel 
he turns towards the place where the deacon sings it. If the 
holy Name is sung, he bows towards the altar cross ; at the 
name of the Blessed Virgin or of the saint of the feast he 
bows without turning. 

At the end of the sung gospel the subdeacon brings the 
book of lessons to the celebrant and shows him the place 
where it begins. The celebrant kisses the book at this place. 
He is then incensed by the deacon standing at the same 
place, bowing before and after. 

If there is a sermon he goes to the middle, bows or genu- 
flects, and goes to the sedilia in the usual way; at the end he 
comes back by the longer way to the altar.^ 

Standing at the middle he intones Credo in unum Deum, 
and continues in a low voice with the ministers. He genu- 
flects while saying the verse Et incarnatus est, etc. Then, 
with the ministers, he goes to the seats and sits as before. 
He uncovers and bows at the special verses and at the words 
Et incarnatus est, etc. If there is no creed, as soon as he is 

^ If the celebrant himself preaches, he may do so at the altar, in which 
case he need only take off the maniple and hand it to the M.C., who lays 
it at the sedile. If he preach from a pulpit, g-enerally he will go to the 
sedilia with the ministers, take off the chasuble and maniple (assisted by 
the M.C.), and will leave them there. The M.C. may accompany him to 
the pulpit. The ministers sit at the sedilia. At the end of the sermon the 
celebrant comes to the sedilia and puts on the chasuble and maniple; 
the ministers go with him, in the usual (longer) way, to the altar. 



I 



IbiQb /IDass 125 

incensed, he goes at once to the middle and continues Mass, 
as follows. 

On returning" to the altar after the creed he kisses it, turns 
and sings Dominus vohiscum^ then, turning" back, Oremus\ he 
reads the offertory antiphon. He takes the paten from the 
deacon and says the prayer for the offertory of the bread, 
Suscipe sancte Pater. He blesses the water, held by the sub- 
deacon, with the usual form, laying" meanwhile the left hand 
on the altar. The deacon hands him the chalice ; holding" it 
up he says the prayer Offerimus tihi with the deacon. 

At High Mass the celebrant never covers nor uncovers the 
chalice himself.^ When this is to be done he gives the sign 
to the deacon by touching its foot. When he has said the 
prayers In spiritu humilitatis and Vent sanctificator^ he puts 
incense into the thurible in the usual way. But this time 
there is a special formula for blessing it, Per intercessionem 
beati MichaeliSy etc. He takes the thurible and incenses the 
oblata. In doing this he makes the sign of the cross over 
the bread and chalice three times with the thurible ; he then 
forms two circles round them from right to left, and one circle 
from left to right. ^ Meanwhile he says the prayer Incensum 
istud a te benedictum, etc., as in the missal. Then he proceeds 
to incense the altar, exactly as before, saying meanwhile 
Dirigatur Domine incensum tsiudy etc. At the epistle corner 
he hands the thurible to the deacon, saying Accendat in nobis 
Dominus. He is himself incensed as before; then he turns to 
the acolytes and washes his hands, saying the Lavaho. He 
comes back to the middle and continues Mass as at Low 
Mass. He sings the preface, Pater noster, and Pax. Other- 
wise there is no difference from Low Mass, till the end of the 
first Communion prayer Domine lesu Christe qui dixisti^ except 
that the deacon uncovers the chalice. 

At the end of this prayer the celebrant kisses the altar, 
turns to the deacon at his right and gives him the pax in the 
usual form (p. 27). Then, turning again to the altar and 
bowing as before, he says the second and third prayers before 
his Communion, and so continues. 

If Holy Communion is to be distributed during High Mass 
see the rules at pp. 130-132. 

After his Communion the celebrant holds the chalice that 
the subdeacon may pour in wine, then wine and water for the 
ablutions. Leaving the chalice, paten, pall and purificator 
unarranged at the middle, he goes to the epistle side and 
reads the Communion antiphon. When the choir has finished 
singing this he comes to the middle for the Dominus vobiscum^ 
then goes back to the epistle side for the post-communions. 
He stands at the middle, facing the people, while the deacon 

^ Except the one case when a clerk, not ordained subdeacon, acts as 
such (see p. 113). 2 gee fig. 5. 



FIGURES 

O F 

HIGH MASS 






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FIG. 6. INCENSING THE CELEBRANT BEFORE THE INTROIT 






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FIG. 7. THE INTROIT 

The celebrant and ministers form a semicircle 



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FIG. 8. AT THE SEDILIA 









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FIG. 9. THE COLLECTS 



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FIG. 10. THE CELEBRANT READS THE GOSPEL 



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FIG. II. 


BEFORE THE GOSPEL 
















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FIG. 13. THE ELEVATION 



sings I^e missa est, but faces the altar if the form be Bene- 
dicamus Domino or Requiescant in pace. Bowing he says the 
prayer Placeat tihi. If there is a last gospel special to the 
day, the celebrant should wait before giving the blessing, that 
the subdeacon may have time to carry the missal across. He 
turns to give the blessing ^ and says the last gospel as at Low 
Mass. Then coming to the middle of the altar he bows, comes 
down the steps to the floor of the church, here bows or genu- 
flects, takes his biretta from the deacon, bows to the choir (if 
this is to be done), covers himself and follows the procession, 
himself last, to the sacristy. If prayers are to be said or sung 
after Mass, the celebrant makes the bow or genuflection first, 
stands for them, then bows or genuflects again.- 

In the sacristy he with the ministers bows to the clergy, if 
they are present, on either side, beginning normally with those 
on the right, bows to the cross and to the deacon and sub- 
deacon,^ unvests. 

^ He should wait till the response, "Deo gratias," is finished. He 
says the formula of blessing" just as at Low Mass, that is loud enough to 
be heard {^Rit. cel.^ xii, 7: " eadem voce et modo quo in missis privatis "). 
This is the only case of words spoken (not sung") in this manner at Hig-h 
Mass. Cfr. Rit. eel., xii, i: " dicit voce intellig^ibili." 

^ He ought to take off the maniple before these prayers; see p. 120. 
n. I. 

^ Bareheaded in each case. 



K 



130 Xlbe Ibolig Sacrifice 



§ II. HOLY COMMUNION DURING HIGH MASS 

On Maundy Thursday there is a distribution of Holy Com- 
munion at High Mass. This does not often occur on other 
days ; but any Catholic has normally a right to present him- 
self for Communion at any Mass, on condition that he is in a 
state of grace and fasting from midnight. Should then there 
be a distribution of Communion at High Mass the following 
rules are to be observed.^ 

As soon as the celebrant has received Communion under 
the form of bread, the M.C. gives a sign to the members of 
the choir, if they w^ill make their Communion. They come to the 
middle of the sanctuary two and two, without birettas, the 
hands joined, and kneel there. 

The torch-bearers do not go away after the elevation, but 
stay kneeling till the Communion. 

The members of the choir who do not make their Com- 
munion remain in their places, stand during the Confiteor, 
Indulgentiam and all the time. When the celebrant has re- 
ceived Communion in the form of wine, the deacon at his left 
covers the chalice and puts it aside towards the gospel side, 
but not outside the corporal. The deacon and subdeacon 
genuflect and change places, the deacon going to the right of 
the celebrant, the subdeacon to his left. The celebrant and 
ministers genuflect ; ^ the deacon opens the ciborium and moves 
it to the middle of the corporal ; all three genuflect. The 
deacon and subdeacon go to the ends of the foot-pace and 
stand on the highest step below it, facing each other one on 
each side. The deacon, bowing, sings the Conjiteor.^ The 
subdeacon at the other side stands and bows low. 

As soon as the Confiteor is begun, the acolytes, or, if they 
hold torches, the M.C. and the thurifer, take the Communion 
cloth, come with it to the middle before the lowest step, 
genuflect, separate, each holding one end of the cloth, and 
go to kneel at the ends of the foot-pace, facing each other 
and holding the cloth stretched across between them. 

The celebrant faces the people, says Mise^-eatur and In- 
dulgentiam^ then turns towards the altar. He genuflects, 
takes the ciborium in his left, holds a consecrated particle in 
the right above it, and says Ecce Agnus Dei. Meanwhile the 
deacon and subdeacon come round to the other side of the 

^ Gavanti-Merati, i, pp. 185-186; Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 70- 
75; Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 477-482; De Herdt, i, pp. 478-480. 

'^ Supposing- that the ciborium is on the altar, as when the particles 
have been consecrated at the Mass. If it is in the tabernacle, the deacon 
first opens the tabernacle, then they genuflect. 

' At Requiem Masses the deacon does not sing the "Confiteor," but 
says it aloud. 



Communion cloth, genuflect, and kneel there. ^ So the cele- 
brant gives them Communion over the cloth. The deacon 
and subdeacon, if they make their Communion, always do so 
before anyone else. The ministers then go to the celebrant's 
side, the deacon at his right, on the gospel side, the sub- 
deacon at the epistle side. The deacon takes the paten and 
holds it while Communion is given under the mouth of each 
communicant. The subdeacon stands with folded hands. If 
the two who hold the Communion cloth make their Com- 
munion, they do so immediately after the ministers. In this 
case they take away the cloth for the time, kneel together on 
the edge of the foot-pace, and there receive Communion. 
Then they again spread out the cloth. 

At the hidulgentiam the members of the choir in the middle 
of the sanctuary kneel upright and make the sign of the cross. 

Priests and deacons wear stoles of the colour of the day. 
The M.C. must see that these are ready; he hands them to 
the communicants just before they leave their places in the 
choir. They put them on as they kneel in the middle. After 
the third Dorni?ie non sum dignus all rise. As soon as the 
ministers, or those who hold the cloth, have made their Com- 
munion, the two members of the choir genuflect, come forward 
and kneel on the edge of the foot-pace, or on the highest step 
below it. When they have received Communion, they rise and 
stand aside to make room for the next two. These come for- 
ward ; all four genuflect together. This is repeated as long as 
Communion is distributed. Those who have made their Com- 
munion go straight back to their places in choir and there 
stand or kneel as do the others in choir. If the torch-bearers 
receive Communion they do so after the clergy of the choir. 
If there is no one in holy orders, they do so before the 
members of the choir. When they are about to come up for 
Communion they hand their torches to others, to hold till they 
come back to take them again. If the number of communicants 
is uneven, at the end three approach together. If there are 
many communicants, and if there is room, they may approach 
four at a time, instead of two. 

If laymen are to communicate, when the members of the 
choir have done so, the acolytes, or those who hold the com- 
munion cloth, come to the middle, genuflect, fold it, and take 
it back to the credence table. The celebrant and ministers 
then go to the Communion rail and give Holy Communion to 
the people, accompanied by two torch-bearers. 

After Communion the celebrant consumes what may remain 
of the holy species, if the altar has no tabernacle. The ciborium 
is then purified by the subdeacon, with the chalice. If there 
is a tabernacle, the deacon may put the ciborium into it, the 
celebrant and both ministers genuflecting before and after. 
^ If they are to receive Holy Communion. 



1 32 Ube Ibol^ Sacrifice 

This order for members of the choir, that they come to the 
middle, then go up to the altar two and two, genuflect and 
separate, as described above, is to be observed not only for 
Communion, but on all occasions when they go to receive 
anything, blessed candles, ashes, palms; or when they go to 
kiss a relic. 



CHAPTER XII 
HIGH MASS FOR THE DEAD 

AT Mass for the Dead certain special rules are ob- 
served.^ The vestments are black. The altar frontal 
should also be black. If the Sanctissimum is re- 
served on the altar, it is better that it should be re- 
moved. If this cannot be done, the tabernacle veil 
must be violet. It is never allowed to hang a black tabernacle 
veil in front of the Blessed Sacrament. The frontal may be 
either black or violet. The altar candles should, if possible, 
be of unbleached wax. The carpet in front of the altar covers 
only the foot-pace, not the altar steps. The seats are bare. 
The credence table is covered with a white linen cloth as usual. 
On it are placed the chalice, cruets, and all that is needed for 
High Mass, also candles to be given to the clergy, and the 
holy water vessel and sprinkler, if the absolution will follow. 
No humeral veil is required. Incense is not wanted till the 
offertory. The processional cross may be put near the credence 
table; not at the head of the coffin, if this is present. 

All kisses of hands or things are omitted.^ While the cele- 
brant and ministers say the confession the M.C. kneels on the 
ground at the epistle side. The altar is not incensed at the 
beginning of Mass, but the ministers go up to the altar with 
the celebrant, as usual, and stand at his sides. They do not 
genuflect when the celebrant kisses the altar. They go, with 
the celebrant, to the epistle side for the introit. At the introit 
the celebrant does not make the sign of the cross on himself. 
He lays the left hand on the altar and makes the cross over 
the book with the right. The ministers do not make the sign 
at all. 

During the collects the clergy in the choir kneel. After the 
epistle the subdeacon does not go to be blessed by the cele- 
brant, but gives the book of lessons to the acolyte and joins 
the deacon. When the celebrant has said the sequence he and 
the ministers may go, by the shorter way, to sit at the seats. 
Candles may be distributed to the clergy in choir by the M.C. 
or his assistants. They light these just before the gospel, hold 
them lighted during the gospel, extinguish them ; light them 
again and hold them lighted from the Sanctiis till the end of 
the Communion. 

The celebrant and ministers, if they sit during the sequence, 
go back to the altar towards its end, at about the verse, Oro 
supple X et acclinis. 

^ Gavanti-Merati, i, pp. 193-199; Martinucci-Menghini, I, i, pp. 194- 
i95» 234-235, 278-279; LeVavasseur, i, 493-499 5 ^e Herdt, ii, 7-11; Van 
der Stappen, ii, pp. 303-305; Wapelhorst, pp. 169-171. 

^ Except of the paten after Pater noster. Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xviii, 
§ 16. The paten and chalice are not kissed at the offertory. 

^Z2> 



1 34 Ubc Ibol^ Sacrifice 

Before the gfospel the deacon kneels as usual to say the 
Munda cormeum^ but he does not ^q to receive the celebrant's 
blessing". 

No incense is blessed before the gospel, nor is the book in- 
censed. The acolytes go, as usual, to stand on either side of 
the subdeacon, who holds the book ; but they carry no candles. 
They stand with joined hands. 

After the gospel the celebrant is not incensed, nor does the 
subdeacon take him the book to be kissed. Instead he hands 
it at once to the M.C., who takes it to the credence table. 
The ministers go to their places behind the celebrant, genu- 
flect there and stand while he sings Dotninus vohisciini and 
Orenius. 

Then the deacon, not genuflecting, goes to the right of the 
celebrant. The subdeacon genuflects, goes to the credence 
table, takes the chalice covered by the chalice veil and burse 
(without the humeral veil) and carries it to the altar. The 
deacon spreads the corporal; the subdeacon uncovers the 
chalice, handing the chalice veil to the acolyte. He pours 
water into the chalice, not asking for the blessing. The sub- 
deacon does not hold the paten at Requiem Masses, so he 
goes at once to the left of the celebrant, genuflecting as he 
passes the middle. After the offertory of the chalice, the deacon 
puts the paten so that part of it lies under the corporal, as at 
Low Mass ; he covers the other part with the purificator. 
Incense is blessed as usual ; the oblata and altar are incensed. 
But then the celebrant only receives incense, not the ministers 
nor choir. The ministers wash the celebrant's hands, the 
deacon taking the towel, the subdeacon the water cruet and 
dish.^ Or this may be done, as usual, by the acolytes, in which 
case the ministers stand in line behind the celebrant, as during 
the collects.^ In any case they will be in line behind the cele- 
brant after the washing of hands. The deacon answers Orate 
fratres. At the end of the preface the deacon goes to the 
right of the celebrant, the subdeacon to his left, to join with 
him in saying the Sanctus, as usual. Then the subdeacon 
goes down to the middle in front of the lowest step, and 
stands there with folded hands. The deacon goes to the book 
and assists the celebrant. At the words Quarn ohlatioiiem the 
deacon, as usual, goes round to the celebrant's right; the 
subdeacon genuflects with him, behind him, as he passes the 
middle, goes to the epistle side, here kneels on the lowest 
step facing the gospel side of the sanctuary, takes the thurible 
from the thurifer, who has already put incense into it, and 
incenses the Sanctissimum with three double swings of the 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, I, i, p. 195, § 129; p. 235, § 166. 

^ Le Vavasseur, i, p. 497, who maintains that it is more correct for the 
acolytes to wash the celebrant's hands, since no rubric makes an excep- 
tion for Requiem Mass in this matter («6. , n. i). 



IbiQb /IDass tor tbe Dea^ 135 

thurible. He then rises, hands the thurible back to the thurifer, 
gfoes to his place in the middle, genuflects, and stands there 
till Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum. The acolytes, or other 
servers, who have come to kneel with torches before the eleva- 
tion, stay kneeling to the Communion. The members of the 
choir kneel from the Sanctus to the end of the response after 
Pax Dom,ini^ etc. They hold their candles lighted from the 
Sanctus to the Communion. 

Towards the end of the Lord's Prayer (at Dimitte nobis) the 
deacon genuflects, goes to the celebrant's right and hands 
him the paten. He remains standing there. Just before 
Agnus Dei the subdeacon genuflects and goes to the cele- 
brant's left. They say Agyius Dei (in the special form for 
Requiems) with the celebrant, not striking the breast. There 
is no kiss of peace; so the ministers change their places at 
once, each genuflecting before and after. After the last 
Do7ni?ius vobiscum the deacon, not turning round, sings Re- 
quiescant in pace (always in the plural). The celebrant should 
say this in a low voice. He, too, does not turn. There is no 
blessing. The subdeacon goes at once to the place where is 
the altar-card for the last gospel ; the deacon stands rather 
towards the epistle side. 

If the absolutions follow,' the thurifer must prepare the 
thurible during the last gospel. For the absolutions, see 
ch. XXX, pp. 420-422. 

If a sermon or panegyric about the dead person is preached, 
it comes at the end of Mass, before the absolution. The 
preacher wears no surplice, but only a cassock and cloak.' 
A bishop or prelate may wear the rochet and mozzetta or 
mantellettum. 

^ There is no law that absolution at a catafalque must follow a Requiem 
Mass. The rubric of the Missal says only: " si facienda est Absolutio," 
etc. {Rit. eel., xiii, 4), and the Congr. of Rites says expressly: " Non ex 
obligatione sed ad arbitrium facienda est absolutio in anniversariis 
mortuorum " (S.R.C., 31 iul. 1665, no. 1322, ad VI). 

^ The cloak usually worn is the garment called in Italian "ferraiolo. " 



CHAPTER XIII 

SUNG MASS (MISSA CANTATA) 

WITHOUT DEACON AND 

SUBDEACON 

S I. THE SIMPLER FORM 



T 



HERE are two ways of celebrating a Sung Mass 
without sacred ministers. The rules for the choir 
are the same as those for High Mass in any 



case.^ 



The first way supposes no servers but two aco- 
lytes, or even one.^ In this case the ceremonies are almost the 
same as at Low Mass (for which see pp. 76-83). The only differ- 
ences are these. When the celebrant sits at the seat, that is 
during the sung Gloria in excelsis^ creed, and possibly the Kyrie 
eleison and sequence the acolytes go to the middle, genuflect, 
go to the seat. The first acolyte hands the biretta to the cele- 
brant with the usual kisses, then arranges his chasuble over 
the sedile. They stand on either side of the celebrant, facing 
each other, with joined hands. ^ The first acolyte takes the 
biretta from the celebrant before he rises, with the same 
^'solita oscula," and lifts the chasuble from the seat. They 
follow him to the altar. At the verses so marked in the sung 
Gloria and creed they bow to the altar. They genuflect at the 
verse Et incarnatus est, etc. 

The ceremonies performed by the celebrant do not differ 
from those of Low Mass. He sings all that is sung at High 
Mass, including the gospel, indite tnissa est or other versicle. 
The epistle may be read by a clerk ordained Reader. He does 
not go to the celebrant for the blessing, but to the middle, 
genuflects, then takes the book of lessons back to the credence 
table. There may be torch-bearers at the elevation. If so, 
they observe the rule of High Mass. They go to fetch their 
torches at the preface, come out with them at the Sanctis, 
genuflect in the middle, then kneel, one on either side, in the 
middle of the sanctuary till after the elevation. They genuflect 
again before the altar and take the torches back to the sacristy. 
But at Masses for the dead, on fast days, and when others 
besides the celebrant will receive Holy Communion they stay 
till after the Communion. 

^ Mutatis mutandis, since there is no kiss of peace and may be no 
incense. 

' Martinucci-Menghini, I, i, pp. 317-324; LeVavasseur, i, pp. 515-516; 
Van der Stappen, iii, pp. 407-420; Wapelhorst, pp. 174-177. 

•'' This is Martinucci's rule {I.e., p. 320, no. 17). However, often they 
^o to sit on a bench. 

136 



Sung /IDass wttbout Beacon anb Subt)eacon 137 



§ 2. THE MORE SOLEMN FORM 

The other form of Sung- Mass without deacon and subdeacon 
is more solemn. It supposes a M.C./ acolytes, thurifer, torch- 
bearers, and partakes more of the nature of High Mass, ex- 
cept for the absence of the sacred ministers. This form is not 
used at Rome, where there is no difficulty in celebrating" High 
Mass. It is indeed expressly forbidden to use incense at Mass 
without deacon and subdeacon, unless there be a custom ap- 
proved by the Ordinary to the contrary." In Eng-land, in the 
great majority of churches, it is impossible to provide sacred 
ministers. In such churches, therefore, High Mass is hardly 
ever celebrated. As a substitute for High Mass it has long 
been the custom to celebrate this kind of Missa cantata, as 
the principal Mass on Sundays and feasts. This is done with 
the knowledge and approval of the bishops. There can there- 
fore be no doubt that we have here a case of the custom 
allowed by the Congregation of Rites. 

In this Missa cantata the same server can perform the 
function of both thurifer and M.C.; but it is better to have 
two persons. 

The manner of celebration is as follows: ' 

The servers vest in good time in the sacristy. Six candles 
on the altar are lit. The M.C. assists the celebrant to vest. 
All bow to the cross, at a sign from the M.C, and go to the 
sanctuary in procession, in this order. The thurifer goes first, 
with joined hands ; he is followed by the acolytes carrying 
their candles, any other servers who may, later, be torch- 
bearers, the M.C, lastly the celebrant wearing the biretta. 

Before the altar the celebrant uncovers and hands the 
biretta to the M.C, who receives it with the solita oscula and 
takes it to the sedile. All genuflect together. 

If the Asperses ceremony is to take place, the celebrant will 
come from the sacristy in a cope of the colour of the day,^ the 
M.C or thurifer carries the holy water vessel and sprinkler. 
Two servers may hold the ends of the cope, one at either side. 
At the altar the celebrant and servers kneel. The M.C' is at 
his left, then at the right he hands the sprinkler to the cele- 
brant, with the solita oscula. The celebrant takes it, intones 
Asperges me Domine^ or, in Paschal time, Vidi aquam^ and 
sprinkles the altar in the middle, on the gospel side, on 
the epistle side. If necessary, a server holds the Ritus ser- 

^ S.R.C., 25 September 1875, no. 3377, ad I. 

^ S.R.C., 18 March 1874, no. 3328; 9 iun. 1884, no. 361 1, etc. 

^ Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 516-525. 

* In this case the chasuble and maniple must be laid out on the sedile 
beforehand. 

* Or thurifer, if the M.C. carries the holy water. 



138 XTbe 1bolp Sacrifice 

vandus book before him. The celebrant makes the sign of 
the cross on his forehead with the sprinkler,^ then rises and 
sprinkles the servers on the gospel and epistle sides. He and 
the M.C.^ genuflect, turn and go down the church, sprinkling 
the choir and people on the gospel side. The M.C. walks at 
his right, holding the cope. Meanwhile the celebrant recites 
the antiphon and verse of the psalm, as in the Ritual.^ At the 
end of the church they turn, the M.C. keeping to the cele- 
brant's left, and come back to the altar, sprinkling the people 
on the epistle side. When they come in front of the altar they 
genuflect. The celebrant gives back the sprinkler to the M.C. 
who receives it with the oscula, as usual. Standing before the 
altar the celebrant sings the versicles Ostende 7iobiSy etc., as in 
the ritual. 

Meanwhile the acolytes have taken their candles and put 
them lighted on the credence table, as soon as the celebrant 
leaves the altar. They stay by the credence table standing. 

The celebrant, after the Asperges ceremony, goes to the 
seat with the M.C. The M.C. puts down the vessel of holy 
water and the sprinkler. Assisted by him, the celebrant takes 
off the cope and vests in the maniple and chasuble. The first 
acolyte takes the cope to the sacristy. The thurifer must now 
^0 to prepare the thurible. 

The celebrant and M.C. come to the front of the altar steps 
and genuflect. Mass begins, the M.C. answering the pre- 
paratory prayers. When the celebrant goes up to the altar, 
the M.C. and thurifer come to him. He puts incense in the 
thurible, and blesses it as at High Mass,^ the M.C. saying 
Benedicite pater reverende. The celebrant incenses the altar. '' 
The M.C. moves the missal when the celebrant is about to 
incense that part of the altar. Or the M.C. may accompany 
the celebrant at his right, the thurifer at his left, while he in- 
censes the altar. In this case the first acolyte removes the 
missal. When the altar is incensed, the M.C. takes the thur- 
ible from the celebrant, with the solita oscula, goes down 
to the floor of the church and incenses the celebrant with 
three double swings of the thurible. The thurifer meanwhile 
stands at his left. Both bow before and after. The M.C. gives 
the thurible to the thurifer, who takes it to the sacristy. The 
M.C. stands by the missal and assists the celebrant, answer- 
ing the Kyrie eleison^ which the celebrant says there, at the 
epistle side.^ If the celebrant goes to sit during the sung 
Kyrie he goes straight to the seat after he has said the 
Kyrie \ the M.C. accompanies him, hands the biretta with the 
oscula, arranges the chasuble over the back of the seat and 
stands at the celebrant's right, facing down the church, with 

^ See p. 88, n. 5. - Or whoever carries the holy water. 

^ See p. 89, n. 2. * P. 121. ^ Pp. 121-122. 

* Wapelhorst, p. 175. 



Sung /IDass vvitbout Deacon an^ Sub^eacon 139 

folded hands. This same rule is observed everv time the cele- 
brant sits, except during the sermon. If the celebrant has 
gone to the seat while the Kyrie is sung, he goes back to the 
altar towards its end. He gives the biretta to the M.C., who 
takes it, as usual, with the oscula, and puts it on the seat. 
The celebrant goes to the altar by the longer way, genuflect- 
ing in the middle before the lowest step. The M.C. goes back 
to his place by the missal. He stays there while the celebrant 
goes to the middle, to intone the Gloria in excehis. The cele- 
brant then goes to sit as before. At the verses at which every- 
one is to bow the celebrant uncovers and bows. The M.C. 
gives him a sign to do so, by bowing to him; then he turns 
and bows towards the altar. The celebrant comes back to the 
altar, as before, towards the end of the Gloria^ at the verse 
Ciim sancto Spiritu} The M.C. goes to the missal and stands 
there at the epistle side. If a clerk is to read the epistle, he 
takes the book from the credence table during the last collect, 
goes to the middle in front of the lowest step, there genuflects* 
goes to stand behind the celebrant and waits. 

When the last collect is finished he reads the epistle." Then 
he again genuflects in the middle and takes the book back to 
the credence. He does not ^o to the celebrant for the bless- 
ing. If there is no one else who will read the epistle, the cele- 
brant does so himself, at the epistle corner. The servers answer 
the epistle and gospel (not singing). 

During the epistle the thurifer goes to the sacristy to pre- 
pare the thurible. If there is a sequence or a long tract the 
celebrant may ^q to sit while it is sung, after he has read it 
himself.^ 

He comes to the middle towards the end of the sung 
gradual or sequence. The thurifer and M.C. come to him; he 
puts in and blesses the incense. Then he says the prayer 
Munda cor rneum. Meanwhile the M.C. moves the missal to 
the gospel side. The acolytes take their candles from the 
credence table. They come to the middle, where the thurifer 
awaits them. All three genuflect, the thurifer between the 
acolytes. 

It is convenient so to arrange that their genuflection should 
coincide with that of the M.C. as he carries the missal across 
the altar. In this case they will genuflect behind him. The 
acolytes ^o to the gospel side of the altar and stand on the 
ground, side by side, facing the epistle side, holding their 
candles, behind the missal. The M.C. stands near, at the left 
of the celebrant, when he comes to the missal, the thurifer 

^ If the " Gloria in excelsis " is not sung- immediately after the " Kyrie 
eleison," the celebrant g-oes to the middle, singes " Dominus vobiscum," 
then back to the missal at the epistle side, to sing- the collects. 

- Not chanting- it. S.R.C., 3350. 

^ In this case the thurifer may g-o later to prepare the thurible, to- 
wards the latter part of the sequence. 



I40 XTbe 1boli? Sacrifice 

just behind the M.C. The celebrant sings Do^ninus vobiscuvi 
and Sequentia sancti evangelii. Then the M.C. takes the thurible 
from the thurifer and hands it to the celebrant with the usual 
kisses. The celebrant incenses the missal, as the deacon does 
at Hig-h Mass. He gives the thurible back to the M.C, who 
receives it again with the oscula and hands it to the thurifer. 

At the end of the gospel the M.C. goes down to the ground, 
at some little distance, on the gospel side and takes the thurible 
from the thurifer. The celebrant turns towards him and is 
incensed by him, as at the introit. The thurifer takes the 
thurible to the sacristy. 

The acolytes carry their candles to the credence table, 
genuflecting as they pass the middle of the altar. They must 
wait till the celebrant has been incensed before doing this. If 
there is a sermon the celebrant goes to sit as usual. During 
the sermon all the servers sit in some convenient place. If the 
celebrant himself preaches he takes off the maniple before he 
begins and gives it to the M.C. to put on the credence table. 
He may also take off the chasuble at the seat. He may be 
accompanied to the pulpit by the M.C. 

If there is no creed, the Dominus vobiscum before the offer- 
tory follows at once. 

The celebrant intones the creed, at the middle of the altar, 
and continues it in a low voice. When he genuflects at the 
words Et incarnatus est^ etc., all the servers genuflect with 
him. Then he goes, by the shorter way, to sit. The M.C. 
assists him as before. When the verse Et incarnattis est^ etc. , 
is sung, all the servers kneel at their place; the M.C. turns 
and kneels on the lowest altar step at the epistle side. The 
celebrant uncovers and bows. He goes back to the altar in 
the usual way. 

When the celebrant has sung Oremus at the altar, the 
M.C, if he is allowed to do so,^ will bring the chalice, covered 
with the veil, to the altar from the credence table. Otherwise 
it should be on the altar from the beginning of Mass. The 
celebrant uncovers the chalice and makes the offertory of the 
bread. The M.C or the acolytes bring up the cruets and 
hand them to the celebrant, as at Low Mass. 

As soon as the creed is finished, the thurifer goes to the 
sacristy and prepares the thurible. He comes out when the 
celebrant sings Oremus^ or soon after, so as to be ready after 
the offertory. The M.C and thurifer come to the celebrant 
after the prayer Veni sanctificator\ he puts incense into the 
thurible and blesses it as usual, the M.C. assisting in place of 
the deacon. The thurifer goes to the gospel side and removes 
the missal, when that part of the altar is to be incensed. The 

^ According to the law, only a tonsured clerk may handle consecrated 
vessels (S.R.C., 14 March 1906; 23 November 1906, ad lum; i February 
J907). 



Sung /IDass witbout Beacon ant) Subbeacon 141 

M.C. stands at the epistle corner. If the M.C. and thurifer 
accompany the celebrant during the incensing, the first acolyte 
will remove the missal. At the end of the incensing of the 
altar, the M.C. takes the thurible from the celebrant and in- 
censes him, as at the introit, the thurifer standing at his left 
and bowing with him. The M.C. now goes to stand by the 
missal till the Consecration.^ The thurifer genuflects in the 
middle and goes to incense the choir and people. He bows to 
the choir on the side where are those of greater dignity, or 
on the gospel side, and incenses those in the farthest row 
with one double swing of the thurible for each, bowing at the 
beginning and end of the whole row. Then he does the same 
for those on the epistle side. He returns to the gospel side 
and incenses in the same manner those in the next row, then 
those in the corresponding row on the epistle side, and so on, 
according to the number of rows in the choir. Each time, on 
passing in front of the altar, he genuflects. He next incenses 
the M.C. with one double swing, then the acolytes, with a 
double swing for each, but bowing once only to the two, 
before and after (if there is no liturgical choir on either side, 
he incenses the M.C. first). Then, genuflecting, he turns and 
incenses the people. He bows once down the church, makes 
three double swings, one down the middle, one towards the 
gospel side, one towards the epistle side, then bows again. 
He turns to the altar, genuflects and goes to the sacristy. If 
there are special servers to be torch-bearers, it is convenient 
that they form in line at the middle in front of the thurifer 
before he goes out, genuflect and go with him. 

As soon as the celebrant has been incensed, the acolytes 
come to the epistle corner of the altar with the water cruet 
and dish, held by the second at the left, the towel by the first 
at the right. Here they wash the celebrant's hands, as at Low 
Mass. They then stand at their place by the credence table. 
If the acolytes are to bear torches at the elevation they go to 
fetch them in the sacristy at, or just before, the beginning of 
the preface. They may join the thurifer, genuflect and go out 
with him. If the torches are at the credence table they take 
them towards the end of the preface. 

At the Sanctiis the thurifer comes from the sacristy, accom- 
panied by the torch-bearers, if they have been there. All genu- 
flect in the middle together, the thurifer in the middle of the 
torch-bearers, who genuflect in a straight line across the 
sanctuary. The thurifer goes to the epistle side. The torch- 
bearers separate, bow to one another, and kneel facing the 

^ The M.C. at the missal turns the pages and assists the celebrant. 
It may be convenient that he give a sign to the organist (by bowing to 
him) before the preface and Lord's Prayer. He should stand back a step 
at the commemorations of the living and of the dead, so as not to over- 
hear their names. 



142 XTbe 1bol^ Sactiflice 

altar, in line along the middle of the sanctuary. They stay 
here till after the elevation. The thurifer at the epistle side 
waits till just before the Consecration. At the words Qin pridie 
he, or the second acolyte, puts incense into the thurible. He 
kneels on the lowest step on the epistle side, facing the gospel 
side. At the elevation he incenses the Sanctissimum with three 
double swings at each elevation, bowing once before and after 
each group of three incensings. It is convenient that he time the 
incensings so as to correspond with the celebrant's genuflec- 
tion, elevation, genuflection. At the words Qui pridie the 
M.C. kneels. He may kneel on the edge of the foot-pace at the 
celebrant's right, behind him, and raise the end of the chasuble 
as the celebrant holds up his arms. If the bell is rung, the 
first acolyte will ring it at the Sanctiis, and three times at each 
elevation, not at any other time during the Mass. After the 
elevation the M.C. rises, goes to the side of the celebrant by 
the book, genuflects and stands there, turning the pages. He 
will again stand back a step at the commemoration of the 
dead. The thurifer rises, comes to the middle, genuflects and 
takes the thurible to the sacristy. His office is now ended. 
The torch-bearers, if they are to take the torches to the 
sacristy, rise and genuflect with him, then follow him to the 
sacristy. But at Requiems, Masses on fast days, and when 
people will receive Communion, the torch-bearers stay kneel- 
ing till after the Communion. 

The thurifer and the torch-bearers (unless these be the 
same persons as the acolytes) have no more duties, after they 
come back from the sacristy, where they have left the thurible 
and torches. They go to kneel and stand at some convenient 
place prepared for them. It may, however, be convenient to 
delegate one or two further duties, otherwise belonging to 
someone else, to the thurifer, in order to avoid haste or con- 
fusion. This is so especially if there are to be people other 
than the celebrant who receive Holy Communion. 

If there is such a Communion the M.C. may go to the 
epistle side and there, standing, say the Confiteor. Or this 
may be done by the thurifer. 

The acolytes spread the Communion cloth across the front 
of the foot-pace (if people in the choir or sanctuary are to 
communicate) as described at p. 130. If the acolytes hold 
the torches, this should be done by the M.C. and thurifer. 

After the Communion the first acolyte presents the cruets 
to the celebrant, as at Low Mass. He carries the missal to 
the epistle side; the second acolyte takes the chalice veil and 
carries it to the gospel side, where he lays it near the cele- 
brant.^ As the M.C. and acolyte cross in front of the altar 
they genuflect together, the M.C. passing in front of the 

^ This removal of the chalice veil is quite unnecessary really. See 
p. 81, n. I. 



Sung /IDass witbout Deacon anb Sub^eacon 143 

acolyte. If the M.C. has the right to do so, he carries the 
chaHce to the credence table. He then takes his place at the 
epistle side by the missal and assists the celebrant by point- 
ing" the place and turning the leaves. 

After the last collect he shuts the missal, unless there be a 
proper last gospel. In this case he leaves it open and carries 
it to the gospel side, as soon as the Ite ??iissa est or corre- 
sponding versicle has been sung. He may arrange this so 
that he makes his genuflection in the middle as the celebrant 
gives the blessing, and so receive the blessing there. Other- 
wise he will kneel for the blessing at the gospel side. The 
acolytes and thurifer kneel for it where they are.^ 

During the last gospel the procession is formed to go back 
to the sacristy. The thurifer will go first, so he stands behind 
the others; ^ the acolytes stand at his sides with their candles, 
the torch-bearers near, so that they can take their place behind 
the acolytes in the procession. Meanwhile the M.C. stands 
by the altar-card or missal, answers the verses at the be- 
ginning of the last gospel, and says Deo gratias after it. At 
the end of the last gospel the celebrant comes to the middle 
of the altar, bows, and comes down to the ground before the 
altar steps. The M.C. comes round the foot-pace, to stand 
here at his left. 

If the prayer for the sovereign, or any prayer ordered by 
the bishop, is to be said, the celebrant should take off the 
maniple and hand it to the M.C. before this prayer. He and 
the servers stand in their places in front of the altar during 
the prayer. Then all genuflect together, and go out as they 
came in. 

If there is no prayer after Mass, as soon as the celebrant 
comes down before the altar, all genuflect and go out. 

^ For the choir and organ at the blessing, see p. 129, n. i. 
^ He will be in front of them when all turn round. 



CHAPTER XIV 
THE ASSISTANT PRIEST 

§ I. AT HIGH MASS 

IT is not lawful for any celebrant to be assisted by another 
priest in a cope.^ The canons of certain chapters have this 
privileg^e, either by indult or immemorial custom. When 
a priest says or sings his first Mass, or first three Masses, 
he may be assisted by another priest. If it is a High 
Mass, the assistant priest may wear a cope. In this case many 
of the ceremonies performed by the ministers are modified, as 
follows.^ 

A seat, a stool without a back, is prepared for the assistant 
priest ( = A.P.) at the sedilia, to the right of the deacon's 
place, facing down the church ; or it may be at the left of the 
subdeacon, so that the A. P. faces the altar. 

The A. P. wears a surplice, or a rochet (if he have this right). 
He should also wear the amice, and a cope of the colour of 
the Mass. When he sits he covers the head with his biretta, 
as do the celebrant and ministers. 

If the Asperges ceremony is performed before Mass, the 
A. P. has no function at that time. He should go to his place 
in the choir, without the cope, and put on the cope when 
Mass begins. Otherwise he vests with the celebrant and 
ministers, putting on the surplice and amice first, the cope 
when the celebrant has vested. 

He comes to the altar at the left of the celebrant, the 
deacon and subdeacon walking, as usual, in front. If there 
is a choir, when they come to it, the A. P. passes behind the 
celebrant, goes to his right and there bows with him. The 
deacon goes to the celebrant's left, the subdeacon to the left 
of the deacon. Before the altar they stand in this order.' 
The A. P. answers the preparatory prayers with the minis- 
ters. When the celebrant goes up to the altar, the A. P. 
goes round to the epistle corner, and stands there by the 
missal, the deacon to the celebrant's right. When the 
altar is incensed at that side the A. P. removes the missal, 
then replaces it. When the deacon incenses the celebrant 
the A. P. stands at the deacon's right and bows with him. 
Then he goes back to the corner by the missal. He answers 
Kyrie eleison with the ministers. If they go to sit during 
the Kyrie eleison^ the A. P. observes the general rule for 
such occasions, as below, at the Gloria. When the cele- 
brant intones Gloria i7i excelsis^ the A. P. may ^o with him to 
the middle and point out the place in the missal, which he 

^ Cod.^ c. 812. 

^ Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, i, pp. 313-316; Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 507-513; 
De Herdt, ii, pp. 13-20; Van der Stappen, v, pp. 307-313; Wapelhorst, 
pp. 166-169. ^ See fig-. 14, p. 145. 

144 



Ube Hssistant priest 



145 



will bring with him; then he goes back to the epistle corner. 
Or he may stay there while the Gloria is intoned. 

At the end of the Gloria he makes the sign of the cross 
with the celebrant. Then, without genuflecting, he goes 
straight to his seat by the sedilia, sits here with the others, 
and puts on the biretta. At the end of the sung Gloria he 
rises and uncovers with the others, %oq.s, by the longer way 
to the middle, at the celebrant's right, while the ministers are 
both at his left.^ The A. P. bows to the choir with the cele- 
brant and genuflects when he bows. This is the rule every 
time they ^o to sit. 

The A. P. now goes again to the epistle corner and points 
out all that is to be sung or said. He carries the missal to 







* ^ * 





















H 



a 



Tsru^^ 



M 



FIG. 14. HIGH MASS WITH ASSISTANT PRIEST: "lUDICAME 



the gospel side, making the usual genuflection in the middle 
as he passes. The subdeacon accompanies him. He stands 
by the missal between the celebrant and subdeacon while the 
celebrant reads the gospel, points out the place and turns the 
pages. After the celebrant has read the gospel, the A. P. 
goes to the epistle side and waits there. When the celebrant 
comes to that side, he stands at his left and faces the deacon 
who sings the gospel, with the celebrant. When the deacon 
has incensed the celebrant after the gospel, the A. P. mav go 
to the middle, put the missal in its place near the centre of 
the altar, and point out the place for the celebrant to intone 
the creed. If this is not necessary, he will stay at the epistle 
corner. He recites the creed with the celebrant and genu- 

^ Whenever both ministers are at the left of the celebrant the deacon 
stands nearer to him, the subdeacon on the other side of the deacon. 

L 



146 Zbc 1boI^ Sacrifice 

fleets with him at the text £l incarnatus est^ etc. Then he 
goes to his seat by the sediHa as before. While they sit, the A. P. 
rises and uncovers as the deacon goes to spread the corporal, 
observing the same rule as the subdeacon (see pp. 109-110). 
He goes back to the altar, as after the Gloria) but this time 
he passes behind the celebrant as they go up to the altar, so 
as to be on his left by the missal. He stays here and moves 
the book when the altar is incensed. The deacon incenses 
the A. P. with two double incensings before he incenses the 
subdeacon. 

Since the A. P. now takes the place of the M.C. by the 
missal, the M.C. must stand away, on the floor at the epistle 
side. At the Sanctus the deacon comes to the right of the 




R 



a 



FIG. 15. HIGH MASS WITH ASSISTANT PRIEST: THE BEGINNING 

OF THE CANON 



celebrant, the A. P. stays at his left, the subdeacon at the foot 
of the altar steps. During the canon the A. P. is by the missal 
at the celebrant's (left. He stands back a step at either Me- 
mento. The deacon meanwhile stands behind the celebrant. 
At the elevation the A. P. kneels at the edge of the foot-pace 
on the gospel side; or he may kneel behind at the deacon's 
left and hold up the chasuble with him. Then he comes back 
to the book, genuflects and stands there, turning the pages 
and genuflecting each time the celebrant does so. At the 
Agnus Dei the subdeacon stays at the foot of the altar steps. 
The A. P. and deacon say the Agnus Dei with the celebrant. 
Then they genuflect and change places. The A. P. kneels at 
the edge of the foot-pace, at the celebrant's right ; he rises, 
kisses the altar (outside the corporal) with the celebrant, not 
laying his hands on it. He receives the kiss of peace from 



Ubc Hsststant priest 147 

the celebrant. The A. P. gives the pax to the members of the 
choir. Returning-, he gives it to the deacon, who gives it to 
the subdeacon. The A. P. goes to the celebrant's left, the 
deacon to his right. They bow low at the celebrant's com- 
munion. When the time comes, the A. P. moves the book to 
the epistle side. He then stands there, by the missal, and 
assists the celebrant, as before. He shuts the book after the 
last post-communion, or moves it to the gospel side, if there 
is a proper last gospel. He receives the blessing kneeling 
alone at the gospel side. He goes to the gospel side, stands 
there between the celebrant and subdeacon, and assists at 
the last gospel. He comes down, so as to be at the right 
of the deacon before the altar steps. The deacon gives the 
celebrant his biretta; the A. P. receives his from the M.C. 
All genuflect together. The A. P. passes behind the celebrant 
to his left, and walks out with him, the ministers in front. 



§2. THE ASSISTANT PRIEST IN A SURPLICE ONLY 

It may be, especially in the case of the first three Masses of a 
newly ordained priest, that another priest assist, not wearing 
the cope. In this case he does not perform all the ceremonies 
described above. His office is really only to see that the cele- 
brant makes no mistake ; his ceremonial function is reduced 
to a very simple one.^ 

The A. P. wears a surplice only, even if he otherwise have 
the right to some distinction of dress. He has no biretta, and 
does not cover the head at all during Mass. If it is a High 
Mass, the A. P. walks to the altar at the celebrant's left, or he 
comes to the altar when Mass begins, if it is preceded by the 
Asperges ceremony. During the prayers before the altar steps 
he kneels on the ground at the epistle side. He then goes to 
the epistle corner by the missal and assists the celebrant 
here, instead of the M.C. The M.C. meanwhile must stand 
aside, near the credence table. The A. P. sits near the sedilia, 
when the celebrant sits there, but uncovered. At the altar he 
stands by the celebrant, sees that he makes no mistake, turns 
the leaves of the book and points out the places, as otherwise 
would be done by the M.C. At the offertory he is incensed by 
the deacon, after the celebrant. He stands by the book during 
the canon; the deacon remains behind the celebrant. When 
the subdeacon carries the missal across before the gospel, and 
when the deacon carries it back to the epistle side after the 
Communion, the A. P. walks wdth them and genuflects with 
them in the middle. He does not receive the kiss of peace 
from the celebrant; instead he goes down to receive it from 

^ Le Vavasseur, i, p. 513. 



1 48 Ubc Ibol^ Sacrifice 

the subdeacon, after it has been g-iven to the members of the 
choir. The A. P. gfives it to the M.C. 



fc>' 



§ 3. THE ASSISTANT PRIEST AT LOW MASS 

The liturgical books give no special directions for this case. 
It will, however, occur at the first three Masses said by a 
newly ordained priest, if they are Low Masses. 

It is not difficult to understand, from the rubrics in general, 
what the A. P. has to do. He will accompany the celebrant to 
the altar, kneel at the epistle side during the preparatory 
prayers, answering with the server. He will then go to the 
epistle corner and stand by the book. During all the Mass he 
stands at the celebrant's side, by the book. Only at the moment 
of the elevation he steps back and kneels on the edge of the 
foot-pace, at the gospel side. His office is only to be near 
and to guide the celebrant throughout. He must attend to 
what the celebrant does and says, pointing out places and 
correcting any serious mistake. 



f 



CHAPTER XV 

HIGH MASS IN THE PRESENCE 

OF A GREATER PRELATE 

§ I. IN PRESENCE OF A BISHOP IN COPE AND 

MITRE 

FOR the definition of " Greater Prelates " see pp. 32- 
33- 
Note, in general, that a genuflection is the nor- 
mal reverence paid to all greater prelates, therefore 
to the Ordinary, metropolitan, legate, to all cardinals 
out of Rome. But canons, prelates, and the celebrant of Mass 
bow to greater prelates. 

No one ever genuflects to any other bishop ; for instance, 
an auxiliary or foreign bishop, nor to an abbot, except in 
churches of his jurisdiction. To these they bow. 

The first case is when the prelate assists with more solem- 
nity, wearing cope and mitre. The Ordinary should assist in 
this manner on the chief feasts, if he does not himself cele- 
brate.' 

The following preparations must be made. 

If there is a chapel or altar of the Blessed Sacrament, dis- 
tinct from the High Altar of the church, a faldstool or kneel- 
ing-desk is prepared in front of the tabernacle. It is covered 
with a cloth with two cushions of the appropriate colour.^ 

By the High Altar the bishop has his throne. In the cathe- 
dral this will be a fixed ornament of the church. In other 
churches a throne is prepared in the sanctuary, normally on 
the gospel side. Over the seat is a canopy, of the colour of 
the Mass. The seat is raised three steps above the floor of 
the sanctuary. These steps are covered with a carpet and the 
seat itself with a cloth, if possible of silk. Near by is a cushion 
on which the bishop will kneel. All these cloths and cover- 
ings should be of the colour of the Mass. On either side of 
the throne, on its platform, is a stool for the assistant deacons ; 
at the bishop's right is a third stool for his assistant priest ^ 
(see fig. 2, p. 5). 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxxiv, §§ 1-4; cap. ix, § 4. For the ceremony 
see Caer. £p., Lib. II, cap. ix; cfr. Lib. I, caps, viii, xi, xii, xv, xx, xxi, 
etc. ; Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, pp. 146-166; Le Vavasseur, Fond. Pont.^ 
i, pp. 219-236; Wapelhorst, pp. 195-197. 

^ Red or violet for a cardinal, corresponding with the colour he wears 
(namely, violet for fast days and mourning) ; green for a bishop in purple, 
violet when he wears black (fast days and mourning-). One cushion is on 
the faldstool for his arms, the other to kneel on, cm the ground before it. 
The covering of the " genuflexorium " should be of silk for a cardinal, 
cloth for a bishop. The cushions may be silk for a bishop ; for a cardinal 
they may be fringed with gold (Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, p. 34, § 5). 

' Martinucci, II, i, p. 71, § 38. The place of the A.P. may be on the 
other side, facing down the church. 

149 



ISO XTbe 1bol^ Sacrtfiice 

In front of the altar is another faldstool or kneeling-desk, 
at which the bishop will say prayers before Mass.^ 

At the entrance of the sanctuary four or six large candle- 
sticks stand, with burning candles. 

The bishop's vestments are spread on the altar. In the 
middle are the cope, stole, pectoral cross, girdle, alb, amice. 
These are covered with a veil of the colour of the day. On 
the gospel side stands the precious mitre and by it the veils 
(vimpae) for it and the crozier (p. lo). The golden mitre 
stands on the epistle side. Both mitres are so placed that 
their infulae hang over the frontal. The crozier stands near 
the altar. The chalice with paten, veil, etc., the cruets, missal, 
book of lessons, humeral veil for the subdeacon, and other 
things needed for Mass, are put on the credence table, also 
the Canon episcopalis, another missal ^ for the bishop, hand- 
candle and book containing the formula of the indulgence, if 
this is to be proclaimed. 

All the vestments for the celebrant, ministers and servers 
are prepared in the sacristy. 

The persons who assist at the ceremony are, besides the 
ministers and servers required for High Mass, two deacons 
and an assistant priest "at the throne," to wait on the 
bishop. These should be, if possible, canons; but others 
may supply their place. They are dressed in their canonical 
robes, or choir dress, not in vestments. A train-bearer^ and 
four other servers or chaplains are needed, one to hold the 
mitre, one for the crozier, one for the book, one for the hand- 
candle.* 

There is a first M.C. besides the second M.C. of the Mass, 
who guides the whole service. Other servers assist at the 
bishop's vesting and unvesting. He has an attendant who 
carries away and brings back the cappa magna. When the 
bishop is at the throne, the normal place of the first M.C. is 
standing at his left. There is a place for the bishop's serv- 
ants and attendants (his "familiares "), generally east of the 
throne. 

During the ceremony, whenever the celebrant and ministers 
come to or leave the altar, and on all other occasions when 
they bow to the choir, they make a reverence to the bishop 
before they bow to the choir. All servers and others who 
approach the bishop for any purpose do so too, both before 

^ Arrang-ed as above, p. 149, n. 2. 

'^ The missals should be covered with a silk covering- of the colour ot 
the Mass. The book of lessons has a similar covering- (see p. 20). 

^ Whenever the bishop is vested the train-bearer wears purple cassock 
and surplice. When the bishop wears the cappa, the train-bearer has a 
purple cassock only. 

* The bearers of mitre and crozier will take the white silk scarves de- 
scribed at p. 10, through which they hold them. For these four chaplains 
see pp. 166-167. 



Ibt^b /IDass in presence of a Greater prelate 151 

and after they bringf anything to him/ This reverence is a 
genuflection, except in the case of canons and the celebrant of 
the Mass, who bow low. 

Whenever the bishop wears the cope or chasuble and mitre 
his skull-cap is taken off only when he genuflects or kneels 
before the Sanctissimum, and during Mass from the preface 
to the Communion. At all other times he keeps it on, even 
when kneeling or bowing. But when he is not in vestments, 
but wears the cappa, mantellettum, or mozzetta and the biretta, 
he takes off the skull-cap at other times (p. i6i). 

The first of the assistant deacons always puts on the 
bishop's mitre, the second always takes it off Each takes it 
from, or gives it to, the mitre-bearer, who holds it through 
his scarf. 

Notice also that the bishop reads from the missal four 
times during Mass, namely, the introit; epistle, gradual and 
other verses, and gospel; then the oft"ertory, the communion. 
He reads these at his throne ; the book-bearer holds the 
missal before him; the bearer of the hand-candle is at his 
left holding it. The missal is not held before the bishop 
at the Kyrie eleison^ Gloria in excelsis, creed, Sanctus^ Agnus 
Dei.^ Nor is it used in this way at all, if a higher prelate be 
present. 

Five times during the Mass the canons, if they are present,^ 
come to form a circle around the bishop. These occasions 
are, while he vests, when he says the Kyrie and Gloria^ the 
creed, the SanchiSy the Agmis Dei. Each time they come 
from their stalls, those of less dignity in front of the others; 
they make the usual reverence to the altar in passing, and to 
the bishop (bowing). The A. P. takes his place among them. 
They stand before the throne in a w^ide circle and say the 
text with the bishop. Those of higher dignity stand nearer 
the bishop. In going back to their stalls these ^o first. When 
they bow to the bishop on retiring he gives them his blessing, 
making the sign of the cross. This circle of the canons is not 
made in Masses for the dead, nor when a higher prelate is 
present. It is only made w^hen the chapter is present, and 
only to the Ordinary of the diocese.^ 

During Mass the deacon omits the solita oscula, except for 
the chalice and paten at the offertory. 

At the beginning of the ceremony the celebrant, ministers 
and servers come to the altar in the usual way and ^o to the 
seats. 

When the bishop arrives at the church the bells should be 

^ The exception to this rule (when the subdeacon brings the book of 
lessons after the gospel) is noted at p. 156. 
- The bishop says these from memory. 
^ Only the canons of the cathedral church. 
* Caer. Ep.y Lib. I, cap. xxi. 



152 Uhc 1bol^ Sacrtttce 

rung and the organ sounded.^ He is met at the door by the 
highest dignitary of the chapter, or by the rector of the church, 
who offers him holy water. The bishop signs himself with 
this, then sprinkles those around. He arrives in rochet, cappa 
magna and biretta. He goes, accompanied by the deacons 
of the throne and other attendants and servers, his train borne 
behind, to the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, if there is 
one ; there, kneeling at the faldstool, he makes a short prayer. 
The front of the cappa is spread over the faldstool by the 
M.C.^ His attendants kneel behind him. Then he comes in 
procession to the High Altar. All in choir stand, then kneel 
to receive his blessing as he passes. The celebrant and minis- 
ters stand up at the sedilia. The A. P. is at the first stall, in 
choir. ^ When the bishop arrives at the faldstool or kneeling- 
desk, before the High Altar, he first turns to the celebrant 
and ministers and blesses them. The celebrant bows low, the 
others genuflect, unless they are canons. The bishop bows to 
the altar, kneels at the faldstool and says a prayer, his attend- 
ants kneeling behind him. He then goes to the throne. Here 
he vests, while the celebrant, ministers and others sit. He 
takes off the biretta and cappa, which are laid aside by his M.C. 
or the attendant. The canons come to form a circle around 
the throne. The bishop gives them a sign that they may put 
on the biretta. Servers bring the vestments from the altar; 
the deacons at the throne assist the bishop to put on these. 
Finally, the first assistant deacon puts on the precious mitre, 
the bishop takes the crozier in his left hand. So he goes to 
the altar, blessing the choir as he passes ; the deacons at the 
throne hold the ends of the cope, the train-bearer carries his 
train behind, the bearers of the mitre and crozier follow. 

If the Asperges ceremony comes before Mass, the bishop 
stands at his throne, mitred, but not holding the crozier. The 
celebrant sprinkles the altar, then comes to the throne, ac- 
companied by the M.C. of the Mass only. He presents the 
sprinkler to the bishop with the usual reverences and oscula. 
The bishop signs himself, then sprinkles the celebrant and his 
own assistants. The celebrant receiving back the sprinkler 
returns to the altar. He sprinkles the ministers, then the choir 
and people, accompanied by his M.C. only. The ministers 
stand meanwhile before the altar. 

At the altar steps the bishop gives the crozier to its bearer; * 
the first deacon takes off the mitre. 

Meanwhile the celebrant of the Mass comes to the altar 
with his ministers; he stands at the bishop's left before the 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xv, § 4, 

^ This is the g-eneral rule when the bishop kneels at a faldstool or 
kneeling--desk in cappa. 

^ This is his place always when he is not at the throne (Martinucci, 
II, i, p. 68, § 28). 

* The crozier-bearer always receives the crozier kneeling. 



oo 



1bigb /IDass In presence of a Greater prelate i 

steps, a little back. The deacons of the throne stand behind 
the bishop, the deacon and subdeacon of the Mass behind the 
celebrant, the other chaplains or servers of the bishop behind 
these. The first M.C. is on the epistle side, the second on the 
gospel side. The train-bearer stands aside on the epistle side. 
All, except the bishop and celebrant and canons (including the 
ministers) kneel. The bishop and celebrant say the prayers 
at the altar steps, the celebrant answering the bishop. All 
the others also say these prayers two and two, according 















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FIG. l6. HI 


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ISS 


BEFORE A GREATER PRE 


LAT 


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"IVDICA me" 





to the usual rule (p. 84). After the prayer hidiilgentiani the 
celebrant turns back and stands between the ministers of 
Mass; the deacons at the throne come and stand on either 
side of the bishop. So they say the verses, Deiis hi conversuSy 
etc.^ As soon as the bishop has said Orenms^ adding no prayer, 
he bows to the altar, the first deacon puts on the mitre, the 
bishop takes the crozier, blesses the celebrant, and goes to 
the throne, blessing the choir as he passes. The train-bearer 

^ Martinucci (II, i, p. 150 n.) deduces this from Caer. Ep., Lib. II, 
cap. xii, § I, which says that the bishop makes the confession with the 
celebrant. But the confession ends with the prayer *' Indulgentiam." 



154 XTbe Ibol^ Sacrifice 

comes behind him and holds the train. The celebrant then 
gfoes up to the altar, kisses it, says the usual prayers, Aufer a 
nohis^ etc., and waits there till the incense is brought to 
him. 

The bishop lays aside the crozier and sits on his throne. 
The train-bearer gfoes to his place among- the **familiares " 
of the bishop, east of the throne. The assistant priest comes 
from his stall to the throne. The thurifer brings the thurible, 
hands the incense boat to the assistant priest at the throne, 
and kneels before the bishop, holding up the thurible. The 
assistant priest holds the boat, hands the spoon to the 
bishop with the solita oscula. The bishop puts on the incense 
and blesses it. The thurifer takes the boat, then carries 
the thurible to the altar, hands it to the deacon, who gives it 
to the celebrant. The celebrant incenses the altar as usual. 
Meanwhile at the throne the assistant priest goes to his 
place by the bishop's side. When the altar is incensed, 
the deacon incenses the celebrant with two swings; then he 
hands the thurible to the thurifer, who takes it to the throne 
and here meets the assistant priest before the bishop. The 
A. P. and thurifer make the reverences to the altar and bishop, 
each according to the general rule for their degree (p. 151). 
The A. P. takes the thurible and incenses the bishop with three 
double incensings. The bishop rises to be incensed. When 
this is done the A. P. bows, or genuflects, and the bishop 
makes the sign of the cross over him. Making again the 
proper reverences to the altar and bishop, the A. P. goes to 
his place in choir; the thurifer takes the thurible to the 
sacristy. 

The second deacon at the throne now takes off the precious 
mitre, hands it to the mitre bearer who puts it on the credence 
table ; he takes the golden mitre, brings it to the throne and 
waits here. The bishop rising, uncovered, says the introit of 
the Mass, one chaplain or server holding a missal before him, 
the other the hand-candle at his left. The missal and candle 
are then taken away ; the bishop says Kyrie eleison, etc. 

Meanwhile, if the chapter is present, the canons come to 
form a circle around, as described above (p. 151). The A.P. 
is among them.^ If the sung Kyrie will take some time, the 
bishop signs to the canons (blessing them) that they may go 
back to their stalls ; he sits and is covered with the golden 
mitre by the first deacon assisting. If the Kyrie is not long, 
and if Gloria in excelsis follows, the canons do not go to their 
stalls ; they stay, and the bishop still stands to say the Gloria 
together. The celebrant at the altar intones the Gloria and 
the choir continues it, as at every High Mass. Meanwhile the 
bishop and the canons in a circle say it together. Then the 
bishop sits, wearingthe golden mitre. The deacons at the throne 
^ It is always supposed that he is a canon. 



Ibtgb /Iftass in presence of a Greater prelate 155 

and A. P. sit in their places, the servers who carry the mitre, 
crozier book, and candle sit on the steps of the throne, genu- 
flecting" to the bishop, before and after. 

When the Gloria has been sung-, the second deacon at the 
throne takes off the bishop's mitre. The bishop stands while 
the collects are sung. Towards the end of the last collect the 
subdeacon takes the book of lessons, but does not move from 
his place. The bishop sits, the first deacon puts ow his golden 
mitre. The subdeacon comes to the middle, genuflects to the 
cross, then to the bishop, reads the epistle. He should stand 
not quite facing the altar, but turned half towards the bishop. 
At the end of the epistle the subdeacon genuflects to the altar, 
comes before the bishop, genuflects to him, goes up the steps 
of the throne and kneels. The bishop lays his hand on the book, 
the subdeacon kisses it, and the bishop makes the sign of the 
cross over him. The subdeacon comes down the steps, again 
genuflects to the bishop, then in the middle before the altar, 
gives the book of lessons to the server at his side, and goes 
to carry the altar missal to the gospel side. 

The assistant deacons and priest stand as soon as the sub- 
deacon has left the throne; the bearers of the bishop's missal 
and scotula come to him. He reads the epistle, gradual and 
other verses, then, with folded hands, he says the prayers 
Munda cor nieum and luhe Dornine benedicerey and reads the 
gospel. 

While the celebrant reads the gospel the deacon takes the 
book of lessons and puts it on the altar, genuflecting to the 
bishop and altar, and comes to the throne. The celebrant, 
when he has read the gospel, comes to the middle of the 
altar, and stands there between the deacon and subdeacon. 
When the bishop has read the gospel, the bearers of his book 
and scotula stand aside. 

The deacon, at a sign from the M.C., genuflects to the 
bishop, goes up the steps, and kneeling kisses the bishop's 
hand ; coming down the steps he genuflects again to the 
bishop, goes to the lowest altar step in the middle,^ kneels 
there and says the Munda cor meum. The thurifer follows the 
deacon to the throne, so that he is ready there when the deacon 
comes down. As the deacon genuflects after kissing the 
bishop's hand, the thurifer does so too, then he goes up the 
steps. Here he hands the incense boat to the assistant priest, 
who comes to the bishop's right. The bishop puts on incense 
and blesses it. The thurifer takes back the boat, goes and 
stands near the throne, waiting till the others come. When 
the deacon has said Munda cor meum he takes the gospel 

^ According to the Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. ix, § 2, *' super infimo eius 
[sc. altaris] gradu in medio," and Lib. II, cap. viii, § 42, " in eius inferiori 
gradu." So he does not kneel on the foot-pace, though Martinucci(II, i, 
p. 224, no. 63) says he does. 



1 56 XTbe Ibolp Sacrifice 

book, bows to the celebrant, not kneeling for his blessing-, 
and g-oes with the subdeacon and acolytes to the throne. 
Before leaving- the altar they all genuflect to it. The deacon 
goes to the bishop, with the subdeacon at his left, acolytes 
and thurifer behind. All kneel before the bishop; the assist- 
ants at the throne stand. The deacon kneeling before the 
throne says Iiibe Domne benedicere. 

The bishop gives him the blessing with the usual formula, 
but makes the sign of the cross three times. Meanwhile the 
acolytes and the thurifer (now behind them) as well as the 
subdeacon, kneel. All rise, genuflect again to the bishop, and go 
for the gospel to be sung as usual, except that the subdeacon 
must so stand as not to turn his back or shoulder to the 
bishop. As soon as the deacon leaves the throne, the second 
deacon takes off the bishop's mitre. The four chaplains of 
mitre, crozier, book, and candle stand in line facing the deacon 
(on the east side before the throne). The bishop stands at his 
throne, makes the sign of the cross as the deacon sings 
Sequentia sancti evangelii^ etc., takes the crozier and holds it 
with both hands while the gospel is sung. If, during the 
gospel, a genuflection is to be made, a server puts a cushion 
before the bishop, that he may kneel on that. When the gospel 
is finished, the bishop lays aside the crozier; the subdeacon 
comes straight to him, without any genuflection or reverence, 
holding the open book. The bishop lays his hands on it and 
kisses it, saying Per evangelica dicta^ etc. The thurifer follows 
the subdeacon to the throne. The deacon, with the acolytes, 
goes to the altar, genuflecting to the bishop, then to the altar. 
The acolytes put their candles on the credence table and stay 
there. The deacon goes to the celebrant's side. The sub- 
deacon leaves the bishop, with the usual genuflection, hands 
the book to the M.C. or server, and goes to stand by the 
deacon. The A. P. takes the thurible from the thurifer and 
incenses the bishop with the usual reverences. At the end the 
bishop makes the sign of the cross over him. If the creed is 
said, the canons come to make their circle around the bishop 
(including the A. P.), and say it with him. All genuflect at the 
text, Et incarnatus est^ etc. The bishop kneels on a cushion 
put before him by a server. Then the canons go back to their 
stalls, the bishop dismissing them with a blessing. The A. P. 
goes to his place by the throne. The bishop sits, and is 
covered with the golden mitre while the rest of the creed is 
sung. When the words Et incarnatus est, etc., are sung, those 
who are standing kneel; the bishop bows, not taking off" the 
mitre. When the deacon goes to spread the corporal, he bows 
first to the celebrant, then genuflects to the bishop. On going 
back to the altar the celebrant and his ministers make a 
reverence. to the bishop in the usual way. 

Then the second deacon at the throne takes off" the mitre, 



I 



IbiGb ^ass in presence of a Greater prelate 157 

the bishop rises while the celebrant sings Domt'jius vohiscinii 
and Orenius. He sits again, is covered with the golden mitre 
and reads the offertory verse, the servers holding the book 
and candle. The thurifer comes to the throne, genuflecting as 
always to the bishop, and hands the boat to the A. P. The 
bishop puts on and blesses incense. When the water is to be 
blessed the subdeacon, standing at his usual place by the 
altar, turns to the bishop, holds up the cruet, and says Bene- 
dicite reverendissime Pater. The bishop at his throne blesses 
it, saying In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus sancti. The cele- 
brant says the prayer Dens qui humanae substantiae, not bless- 
ing the water. The thurifer brings the incense to the deacon, 
who hands it to the celebrant. The altar is incensed as usual, 
then the deacon incenses the celebrant with two swings only. 
He comes before the throne, where the A. P. awaits him. He 
genuflects to the bishop and hands the thurible to the i\.P. 
The bishop stands, wearing the mitre, and is incensed by the 
A.P. with three double swings. Then he blesses the A. P. and 
the A.P. hands the incense to the deacon, and goes to his seat 
by the throne; the deacon incenses him, then the deacons at 
the throne, genuflecting to the bishop as he turns from one to 
the other. 

The rest of the incensing proceeds as usual. 

As the preface begins the assistants at the throne all stand; 
the second deacon takes off the bishop's mitre, the first his 
skull-cap. The bishop stands. The mitre bearer takes away 
the golden mitre and brings the precious one. The canons 
form their circle around the throne and say the Sanctus with 
the bishop. He dismisses them, as usual, with a blessing. 
The A.P. goes to his stall in choir. 

Meanwhile the faldstool, or kneeling-desk, is brought to 
the middle of the choir before the altar. The first deacon puts 
on the bishop's skull-cap and precious mitre. The bishop 
takes the crozier in his left and comes down from the throne 
to the faldstool, blessing the choir as he passes. The deacons 
hold the ends of his cope, the train-bearer holds the train 
behind. 

Meanwhile the torch-bearers have taken their torches ; they 
come to the sanctuary, genuflecting to the altar, then to 
the bishop. They kneel in two rows, facing each other on 
either side, the faldstool between them (fig. 17, p. 159). 

At the faldstool the bishop hands his crozier to its bearer, 
the second assistant deacon takes off his mitre, the first his 
skull-cap. He kneels at the faldstool, the deacons spread out 
the ends of his cope. They kneel on either side, the train- 
bearer, chaplains or other servers behind. Meanwhile the 
subdeacon, holding the paten at the foot of the altar steps 
stands back towards the epistle side and turns slightly, so as 
not to stand with his back to the bishop. When the elevation 



1 58 XTbe 1boly Sacrifice 

is over the bishop rises and makes a prostration.^ The two 
deacons holding* the ends of his cope also prostrate, as do all 
the servers. The first deacon replaces the bishop's skull-cap 
and precious mitre ; the bishop takes the crozier in his left and 
goes back to the throne; he does not bless the choir as he 
passes. As soon as he has left, the faldstool is removed. At 
the throne the bishop sits for a moment, while he hands the 
crozier to its bearer, the second deacon takes off his mitre, 
the first his skull-cap. Then he stands again, turning towards 
the altar. Towards the end of the Lord's Prayer the canons 
come to form their circle around the bishop. In the middle 
they prostrate before the altar. They say the Agnus Dei with 
the bishop, then go back, prostrating before the altar as 
before.^ 

When the celebrant and his ministers have said Agnus Dei^ 
the deacon goes to stand by the missal, the subdeacon stands 
near the throne. The A. P., as soon as he, with the other 
canons, has said the Agnus Dei, goes to the altar and kneels 
there on the edge of the foot-pace, at the right of the cele- 
brant. He receives the kiss of peace from the celebrant, in- 
stead of the deacon. He then genuflects to the Sanctissimum 
and goes to the throne. Here, making no reverence to the 
bishop, he gives him the pax, placing his arms under those 
of the bishop. Then he steps down, bows low to the bishop 
and goes to his stall in the choir. The first assistant deacon 
turns to the bishop, bows, receives the pax from him, bows 
low and goes back to his place. Then the second assistant 
deacon does the same. The A. P. at his place in the choir 
gives the pax to the subdeacon. After this he has no further 
duty. The subdeacon, accompanied by the M.C. of the Mass, 
gives it to the first dignitary. Then he gives it to the highest 
canon on the other side, returns to the altar, gives the pax to 
the deacon, then to the M.C. The kiss of peace passes through- 
the choir in the usual way. 

After the Communion the bishop sits ; the first assistant 
deacon puts on his skull-cap and the precious mitre. The 
bearers of the book and hand-candle approach, the bishop 
reads the Communion antiphon. Then the second deacon 
takes off" his mitre, he stands while the celebrant sings 
Dominus vobiscum, and the deacon of the Mass sings Ite 
missa est, or Benedicamus Domino. When the celebrant has 
said the prayer Placeat tihi he kisses the altar and go^s to 
stand at the epistle side, facing the bishop. The deacon and 
subdeacon stand on their steps below him, also facing the 
bishop. The first assistant deacon puts on the bishop's 

^ This prostration on both knees is an exception to the usual rule (p. 21). 
It is, however, explicitly demanded by the Caer. Ep.y Lib. I, cap. xxi, 
§ 3. See Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, p. 161 n., who says it is obsolete. 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xxi, § 3. 



IbiQb /iDass in presence ot a Greater ip relate 159 

precious mitre, the bearer of the crozier is at hand, the 
bearers of the book (who now has the Canon episcopalis) and 
of the candle stand before the bishop. He sings the verses 
Sz'f nonien Domini . . . and AdiiUoriuTn 7iostrurn . . . ; then 
Benedicat vos omnipotens Dens, extending" his arms and look- 
ing up. He takes the crozier in his left, makes the sign of the 
cross three times as he continues Pater et Filius et Spiritus 
sancttis. The assistant deacons kneeling hold the ends of the 
cope. All present kneel except the bearers of book and candle, 
and the celebrant and canons who bow low. 













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FIG. 17. HIGH MASS BEFORE A GREATER PRELATE: THE CANON 

The subdeacon may be on the right 



If the pontiff is an archbishop, the cross-bearer brings the 
archiepiscopal cross, while the answer to Ite missa est is sung. 
He carries this before the throne and kneels there, holding 
the cross so that the figure of our Lord faces the archbishop. 
In this case the deacon does not put on the mitre; an arch- 
bishop blesses without it, because of the cross before him. 

After the blessing the bishop sits ; the celebrant, turning to 
the people, reads the form of Indulgence, if this is to be pub- 
lished, and if it has not already been read by the preacher." 

^ If there is a sermon at the Mass, the preacher reads the Indulgence 
after he has preached. 



i6o ube 1bol^ Sacrifice 

The ministers stand on either side of the celebrant while he 
does so. Meanwhile the bishop still stands with mitre and 
crozier. Then he hands back the crozier, sits, and the second 
deacon takes off the mitre. He stands again for the last 
gospel and genuflects, on a cushion put there, at the text Et 
verbum caro factimi est. He sits; the first deacon puts on the 
precious mitre. The celebrant, ministers and their servers now 
^o making the usual reverences, first to the altar, then to the 
bishop (who blesses them), then to the choir. The bishop un- 
vests, assisted by the deacons at the throne. The vestments 
are carried by the M.C. or servers to the altar, laid on it and 
covered with a veil, as before Mass. The attendant brings the 
cappa magna, which the bishop puts on. Meanwhile the fald- 
stool is again put before the altar. The bishop attended by his 
deacons and servers comes to it, covered with his biretta as 
he goes, kneels and says a short prayer, the others kneeling 
at his side and behind as before. He again visits the chapel 
of the Blessed Sacrament, then leaves the church, blessing the 
clergy and people as he passes. 

§ 2. WHEN THE BISHOP ASSISTS IN CAPPA MAGNA 

On less solemn occasions the bishop may assist at High Mass 
wearing not cope and mitre, but cappa and a biretta.^ 

In this case everything is done as above, with the excep- 
tions here noted. No vestments are spread on the altar; the 
bishop does not vest at the throne. Four or six candles burn 
at the sanctuary-rails. The celebrant, ministers and servers 
come to the sanctuary first, and wait there. The bishop enters 
wearing rochet, cappa magna, pectoral cross, skull-cap and 
biretta. He wears these all the time at the throne. 

He kneels at the faldstool, or kneeling-desk, blesses the 
celebrant and ministers, then goes at once to the altar steps 
and says the prayers of the beginning of Mass, as described 
above (p. 152). Then he goes to the throne. All proceeds as 
in the last paragraph; the bishop says the same parts of the 
Mass from a missal, the servers holding the book and hand- 
candle. The canons come to form their circles around the 
throne. The bishop blesses the incense each time, assisted by 
his A. P. He blesses the deacon before the gospel and the 
subdeacon after the epistle. He receives the kiss of peace 
from the A. P. He comes to the faldstool at the middle for 
the consecration and elevation. The Indulgence is published 
as usual; the bishop gives the blessing at the end. 

Meanwhile two deacons at the throne attend him, the 
assistant priest is by them." 

^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. ix; Martlnucci-Menghini, II, i, pp. 217-233; 
Wapelhorst, p. 198; Le Vavasseur, Fonct. Pont.^ i, pp. 236-239. 

'^ These three assistants are in choir dress; the train-bearer has no 
surplice. 



f)iGb /Hbass In presence of a Greater prelate i6i 

The following further differences are to be noted. The chief 
is that the bishop in cappa is incensed only at the offertory, 
not at any other time. Whenever he stands or kneels he 
takes off the biretta, except while the Indulgence is pub- 
lished, and while he gives his blessing. He wears the skull- 
cap all the time, even when he has taken off" his biretta ; except 
while the gospel is sung, during the preface, and all the time 
from the consecration to the Communion. At these times he 
takes off both biretta and skull-cap. The bishop takes them off" 
himself and hands them to the first assistant deacon. When 
both are taken off, the skull-cap is held by the deacon on the 
top of the biretta. 

He puts both on himself, taking them from the deacon. He 
wears the skull-cap and biretta while going to the faldstool 
before the consecration. 

While sitting he always wears the biretta. During the last 
gospel he stands without the biretta, but wearing the skull- 
cap. 

When in cappa the bishop does not use the crozier. 

All genuflections and reverences are made to him as when 
he has the cope and mitre. 

§ 3. HIGH MASS FOR THE DEAD BEFORE A BISHOP 

In this case the following special rules are observed.^ 

The bishop may assist either in a black cope and the simple 
mitre, or in cappa magna. If he wears the cope and mitre, 
the vestments are spread on the altar beforehand, the one 
(simple) mitre stands on the gospel side. The throne, in any 
case, is covered with violet cloth fringed with violet silk. Its 
steps are covered with a violet carpet, as are the altar steps 
and suppedaneum. The cushion on which the bishop kneels 
at the throne is black. The faldstool is covered with violet 
and has violet cushions. The floor of the sanctuary' and the 
sedilia are bare. The candles are of unbleached wax." When 
the bishop arrives, the bells are not rung joyfully ; they may 
be tolled. The organ is silent throughout. 

The ceremony proceeds as usual, with the following ex- 
ceptions: 

The bishop gives no blessing at any time ; he does not 
bless the choir in passing nor the celebrant. According to 
the rule for all Requiem Masses, no blessing is given to the 
ministers after the epistle nor before the gospel. The canons 
do not come to form a circle around the bishop. 

When the celebrant sings Dominus vobiscum before the 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xii; Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, pp. 302-340; 
Le Vavasseur, Foncf. Pont, i, 243-247. 

^ The six altar-candles, two acolytes' candles, torches and candles by 
the hearse. 

M 



1 62 Zbc 1bol^ Sacrifice 

collects, the bishop comes from his throne, wearing the mitre, 
goes to the faldstool before the altar and kneels there without 
mitre during the collects. All kneel except the celebrant and 
ministers. The assistant priest does not go to the throne till 
the bishop has returned to it after the collects. 

The bishop puts on incense and blesses it at the offertory ; 
he is incensed by the A. P. at this point only. 

The bishop kneels at the faldstool from the consecration 
till the Pax Dorniiii has been sung. Everyone in choir kneels 
during this time (p. 85). The bishop comes again to the 
faldstool for the post-communion, as he did at the collect. 
No blessing is given, no indulgence published. 

If there is a sermon after the Mass, the preacher does not 
go to the bishop for his blessing. If the absolutions follow, 
see pp. 425-429. 

If the bishop wears the cappa, the differences noted above 
(pp. i6o-i6i) are observed. 

For all else see the preceding paragraphs (pp. 1 49-1 61). 

§ 4. HIGH MASS BEFORE A BISHOP NOT IN HIS 

DIOCESE 

When a bishop who has no jurisdiction in the place (there- 
fore any bishop except such as those described above, p. 32) 
assists at High Mass, he takes no part in the ceremony. He 
assists in choir dress, that is, in purple cassock, rochet, man- 
tellettum, pectoral cross, purple biretta, and takes the first 
place in the choir. ^ The canons are not to go to meet him at 
the door of the church in full procession, as they meet the 
Ordinary; but some of them may meet him, of whom the 
highest in rank offers holy water. ^ The side on which the 
bishop sits then becomes that of higher dignity. The cele- 
brant and ministers bow to him at the beginning and end of 
the Mass. He is incensed after the celebrant, before anyone 
else, with three double incensings. He receives the kiss of 
peace from the deacon before anyone else. He does not give 
the blessing at the end of Mass, and takes no further part in 
the function than do others in choir. 

^ S. R.C., 7 August 1627, no. 442, ad I ; 11 mart. 1882, no. 3540. A clerk 
should attend at his side. 

^ S.R.C., 7 August 1627, no. 442, ad III. 



CHAPTER XVI 
PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE 

THRONE ^ 

§ I. PREPARATION 

A THRONE is used by a bishop where he has juris- 
diction, therefore by the metropolitan throughout 
his province and the Ordinary, except in the pre- 
sence of a still higher prelate, also by a cardinal 
everywhere outside Rome and in his titular church 
at Rome." 

A chapel should be set apart (called the Secretarium) in 
which terce is sung and the bishop vests. This is not the 
chapel of the Blessed Sacrament. If the Sanctissimum is 
reserved on the High Altar of the church, it should be re- 
moved before the ceremony. 

In the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament a faldstool or 
kneeling-desk (genuflexorium) is placed before the altar. It 
is covered with a cloth of the colour of the Mass and with 
two cushions of the same colour, one for the bishop's arms, 
one on the ground, on which he will kneel. Six candles 
should be lit on this altar during the time the bishop prays 
before the Sanctissimum. 

There is also an altar in the secretarium. On this are six 
candles, lit, and the usual altar cross. The altar is vested in 
the colour of the Mass; on it are laid the bishop's vestments, 
namely thus (inversely to the order in which they are taken) : 
the chasuble, gloves on a plate, dalmatic, tunicle, the formale 
of the cope on a plate, the cope, stole, pectoral cross, ^ girdle, 
alb, amice. All are covered with a veil of the colour of the 
Mass. The gremiale may be used for this purpose. The 
precious mitre stands on the altar at the gospel side, the 
golden mitre at the epistle side. If the prelate is an arch- 
bishop, on the days on which he may use the pallium,* this is 
laid on the altar, on a plate, and covered with a small veil of 
the colour of the day. The three pins to fix it lie on another 
plate near. The crozier stands near the altar, also the pro- 
cessional cross. But if he is an archbishop he will enter with 

^ For this ceremony see Caer. Ep.y Lib. II, cap. viii; Martinucci- 
Menghini, II, i, pp. 8i-iii; Le Vavasseur, Fond. Pont.y i, pp. 69-119; 
Wapelhorst, pp. 184- 191. 

^ The Ordinary may now allow the use of his throne to another bishop, 
provided this is not his own auxiliary, nor vicar general, nor a dignitary 
or canon of his cathedral (S.R.C., 12 iun. 1899, no. 4023) or a bishop of 
less rank than himself. A metropolitan may use a throne throughout his 
province. Cod., c. 274, 337. 

^ Often the bishop will use the cross he wears on entering, taking it 
off and putting it on again over the alb. 

* The rules about the pallium are in the Cod. , c. 275-279. 

163 



1 64 Ube 1bol^ Sacrifice 

his cross. In this case there should be a stand for it near the 
altar. On the epistle side is a bench for the ministers of the 
Mass. A throne is prepared in this chapel with a canopy, and 
two stools at its sides for the assistant deacons. There is a fald- 
stool before the altar covered as above, and places in choir 
for the canons. On the credence table of the chapel the 
bishop's ceremonial shoes and stockings are laid on a plate, 
covered with a cloth. There is another cloth to hold this plate 
when it is brought to the throne. On the same credence table 
are laid a book of gospels or missal.^ In this at the place of 
the gospel of the day the bishop's maniple is placed. Further, 
the maniples of the deacon and subdeacon of the Mass, the 
acolytes' candles, the Canon pontificalis, hand-candle lighted, 
the vessel with water and the dish for the bishop to wash 
his hands, are on the credence table of the secretarium. The 
thurible, incense boat are here, and the fire with charcoal near 
at hand, unless these are prepared in the sacristy. 

In the sanctuary of the church the High Altar is vested for 
Mass. On it are seven candles, the six as usual, and a 
seventh, higher than the others, in the middle. The altar 
cross stands in front of this.^ On the credence table are 
placed the chalice with two purificators, the paten with two 
altar breads, the pall, corporal in the burse and chalice veil, 
as usual. Further, two vessels for the tasting of the bread 
and wine, the book of lessons (which should be covered with 
silk of the colour of the vestments), the stand or cushion 
with the missal of the altar, the Canon pontificalis book, the 
bishop's gremiale of the colour of the vestments, the scotula, 
the subdeacon's humeral veil, the vessel and dish with which 
the bishop will wash his hands, and the two towels, the form 
of the Indulgence to be proclaimed, and the pax-brede, if it 
will be wanted. The torches for the elevation, six or eight, 
are placed near. If there is to be a Communion, the pyx with 
particles to be consecrated^ and the Communion cloth are put 
on the credence table. 

The throne in the sanctuary should be covered with cloths 
of the colour of the Mass; a cushion lies near on which the 
bishop will kneel during the creed. On either side is a bare 
stool for the deacons at the throne; on the bishop's right ^ a 
third bare stool for the assistant priest. 

East of the throne is the place for the bishop's " familiares " 
(p. 150). Opposite the throne, on the epistle side, are the 
seats for the ministers. At the entrance of the sanctuary, 
four, six or eight candlesticks stand, with burning candles. 

^ All the books should have a silk cover of the colour of the day 
(see p 20). 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xii, § 12. The seventh candle is used only at 
Pontifical High Mass at the throne, and not at Requiem Mass. 

^ Or left (see p. 149, n. 3). 



pontifical 1btgb /IDass at tbe Ubrone 165 

In the sacristy the vestments for the deacon and subdeacon 
are laid out, also vestments for the canons, copes for the 
dignitaries, chasubles for the canons who represent priests, 
dalmatics and tunicles for the canons who represent deacons 
and subdeacons, two dalmatics for the deacons at the throne, 
a cope for the A.P.,^ amices for all these vestments, four 
copes for the chaplains or servers who will hold the book, 
scotula, mitre, and crozier, the veils for the crozier and mitre- 
bearers ; ^ an alb, girdle, amice and tunicle for the subdeacon 
who will carry the processional cross. x\ll the vestments 
are of the colour of the Mass. A holy water stoup is pre- 
pared in the sacristy. 

§ 2. THE MINISTERS AND SERVERS 

The following persons take part in the ceremony : 

The deacon and subdeacon of the Mass, who should be 
canons ; two canons who will serve as assistant deacons at 
the throne; the assistant priest,^ also a canon, who should be 
the highest dignitary of the choir, or the canon who will 
preach the sermon ; four chaplains for the mitre, crozier, book 
and hand-candle, a train-bearer. Six other servers are needed 
for the vesting of the bishop ; ^ these may afterwards serve 
as torch-bearers. There are also the (second) M.C. of the 
Mass, and another (first) M.C. at the throne, who regulates 
the whole ceremony. The acolytes and thurifer of the Mass 
attend as usual. The Caerimoniale episcoporum enumerates 
the servers in this way: first, seven, namely, the bearers of 
the mitre, crozier, book and candle (scotula)," then the 
thurifer and two acolytes. Further, it requires six others : one 
to have charge of the gremiale, one of the vessels for washing 
hands, the other four assist, bringing the vestments at the 
vesting and unvesting.*^ This makes eleven servers, besides 
the two masters of ceremonies, cross-bearer, and train-bearer. 
Add to these the deacon and subdeacon of the Mass, the 
assistant priest and two deacons at the throne, and we have 
altogether twenty persons in attendance on the bishop when 
he sings High Mass at the throne. There may be other 
attendants or servants (familiares) who wait east of the throne 

^ The Caer, Ep. describes the dress of the assistant deacons at the 
throne (when they are " parati ") as " a dalmatic over the rochet, if they 
may wear a rochet, otherwise over surphce and amice" (Lib. I, cap. viii, 
§ 2). The A. P. wears " an amice over a rochet or surplice, and over this 
a cope of the colour of the office" (Lib. I, cap. vii, § i). It is not unusual 
for the deacons at least to wear an alb instead of a surplice (Wapelhorst, 
p. 185). None of these ministers wears stole or maniple. 

^ They wear these veils under their copes. 

^ For the dress of these assistants see p. 150. 

* Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, p. 86, § 41. 

* •' These four, if it be the custom, may wear copes " {Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, 
cap. xi, § i). 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xi. 



1 66 ube 1bolp Sacrifice 

when not occupied. The chapter should be present to say 
terce and assist at Mass; other clerg-y and seminarists should, 
if possible, also attend. 

It will be convenient to add at once some g^eneral directions 
about the functions of these persons. 

The ASSISTANT PRIEST has to remove the bishop's ring 
(cum solitis osculis) when the bishop's hands are washed, and 
to replace it in the same way afterwards. Hands are washed 
four times : before Mass, after the offertory, at the LavahOy 
after the ablutions. On these occasions the A. P. has also to 
hand the towel. He holds the boat when the bishop puts on 
incense and moves the missal at the altar. When the bishop 
sings anything at the throne the A. P. holds the book; when 
he recites the book-bearer holds it. 

The first assistant deacon always puts on the bishop's 
mitre and gremiale, the second takes them off. The bishop 
wears the mitre while he walks in procession {e.g.^ from the 
throne to the altar, or back), while he sits, while he is incensed, 
while he washes his hands, if he is vested at the time (there- 
fore not when hands are washed before Mass), while he gives 
his blessing (but not an archbishop when he blesses). He uses 
the precious mitre from the beginning to the introit, golden 
mitre from the introit to the end of the creed, then precious 
mitre to the end of the whole service. 

The gremiale is spread over the bishop's knees while he 
sits during the sung Kyrie eleison, Gloria in excelsis, creed. 
While he washes his hands after the offertory a towel may be 
spread. 

His crozier is handed to him and taken back by the 
crozier-bearer (cum solitis osculis). He holds it in his left 
hand in procession (including from throne to altar and back), 
while the gospel is sung (this time in both hands), while he 
gives his blessing at the end. A bishop never uses a crozier 
unless he is "paratus" (namely, in vestments, cope or chas- 
uble). When the bishop is at the throne, the place of the first 
M.C. is at his left, standing. 

The Congregation of Rites allows, in case of necessity, that 
the deacon and subdeacon of Mass supply for the assistant 
deacons at the throne.^ 

When the bishop himself celebrates, the canons do not 
come to form circles around the throne, except while he vests. 

A special feature of pontifical functions is the assistance 
of four servers (called " capellani " in the Caerimoniale epis- 
coporum), who carry the mitre, crozier, book from which the 
bishop reads, and the hand-candle (scotula, palmatorium, see 
p. 17) held by the book at that time. This is the order of 
their rank: mitre-bearer, crozier-bearer, book-bearer, scotula- 
bearer. When the bishop has no jurisdiction (therefore in the 
^ S.R.C., 22 mart. 1862, no. 31 14, ad III. 



Iponttflcal 1b\Qb /n^ass at tbe Ubrone 167 

case of an auxiliary or stranger bishop) he has no crozier/ so 
the three others only attend. At solemn functions, when the 
bishop is vested, these four chaplains may wear, over their 
surplices, copes of the colour of the office. The mitre-bearer 
and crozier-bearer have scarves (vimpae; seep. lo). If they 
wear a cope, the scarf is under it. They hold the mitre or 
crozier through the scarf. 

The CROZIER-BEARER always hands the crozier to the 
bishop and takes it from him direct, each time with the solita 
oscula. He holds it with the crook towards him. The mitre- 
bearer hands the mitre to the deacon (the first assistant 
deacon or deacon of the Mass) who puts it on the bishop. He 
takes it back from the second assistant deacon or deacon of 
the Mass. In the case of the mitre there are no oscula. 

The book-bearer holds the book open before the bishop 
(except when the A.P. does so, see p. i66). He kneels before 
a greater prelate (p. 32), otherwise he stands. He holds the 
book with both hands, leaning it against his forehead. But 
when the bishop sits and he stands he leans it against the 
breast. When the bishop uses a book on the altar the book- 
bearer has no function and stands away, generally on the 
gospel side, on the ground. 

The candle-bearer holds the candle, lighted, in the 
right hand by the book. Normally he should be at the left of 
the book-bearer; but he may stand at his right, to allow more 
room for the A.P. He and the book-bearer genuflect together 
to a greater prelate, or bow to another bishop, on arriving 
and retiring. When the bishop uses a book on the altar the 
candle-bearer stands at the other side of the A.P., hold- 
ing the candle. When he goes to kneel at the elevation, he 
leaves the candle on the altar. He stands or kneels as does 
the book-bearer. 

Neither the book-bearer nor the candle-bearer genuflects 
while performing their function, even when all others do so. 

These four chaplains follow the bishop in procession. When 
he is at the altar the mitre-bearer and crozier-bearer are to- 
wards the epistle side, for convenience in handing these. The 
candle-bearer and book-bearer are sometimes in the same 
line as the others, on the gospel side (as during the prayers 
at the foot of the altar) ; or, more often, the candle-bearer is 
on the foot-pace on the gospel side, the book-bearer stands 
away on the ground, on that side, not holding a book. 

A greater prelate has a train and train-bearer. Other 
bishops (an auxiliary or visitor) have no train ; ' so this server 

' Xor have the chaplains copes. There are rare occasions (e.£^., at 
ordinations) when a bishop having- no jurisdiction uses a crozier. 

^ Le Vavasseur, Fonct. Pont. , i, p. 273, § 52, allows every bishop to wear 
his train and have it borne at pontifical functions. But the S.R. C, 
23 September 1848, no. 2975, ad X, appears to forbid this. 



1 68 Zbc Ibolp Sactttice 

does not attend them. Whenever the bishop with train goes 
in procession, even from one part of the altar to the other, the 
train-bearer goes behind him holding the train. When the 
bishop does not go in procession, the train-bearer stands or 
kneels aside, but near. His place then is at the east side of 
the throne, or near the credence table, when the bishop is at 
the altar. 

§3. THE VESTING OF THE BISHOP 

The service begins while the canons say terce in the choir of 
the secretarium. First, the bells of the church are rung, the 
organ is played. The canons vest in the sacristy. It is better 
that the ministers of the Mass do so too.^ They all then go 
to their places in the secretarium, or they may go to meet the 
bishop at the door of the church. The four bearers of the 
mitre, crozier, book and candle wait near the credence table 
or throne in the secretarium. The cross-bearer and other 
servers are there too, vested, unless they accompany the pro- 
cession to meet the bishop at the door of the church. 

The bishop arrives in the church in rochet and cappa. Ac- 
companied by his attendants, and by the canons, if they go to 
meet him, he goes first to the chapel of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment, kneels on the faldstool ^ there prepared, and says a short 
prayer. He comes to the secretarium, bows to the altar, 
kneels at the faldstool again for a few moments. Then he 
goes to the throne. Here the deacons assisting and the A. P. 
await him, in choir dress. The canons are now at their stalls 
in the secretarium. The chaplains of the book and candle 
take these from the credence and come before the bishop. 
Standing at the throne the bishop takes off his biretta, hands 
it to the first assistant deacon, turns to the altar and says 
the Pater nosier and Ave Maria silently. He then intones 
Dens in adiutoriuni vieuni intende while the A. P. holds the 
book. The canons answer ; the hymn Nunc Sancte nobis spiritus 
is sung, and the psalms of terce begin. Then the bishop sits, 
puts on his biretta, and begins the prayers before Mass, Ne 
reniiniscaris^ and the psalms. The assistant deacons and priest 
say these with him. The canons sit at their places and con- 
tinue terce. 

The subdeacon goes to the credence table and takes the 
bishop's shoes and stockings, on their plate covered with a > 
veil. He holds the plate by another veil, which covers his 
hands. He comes to the throne and kneels before the bishop ; 
assisted by the bishop's servant he puts on the liturgical 

^ Meng-hini advises this, as being- much more convenient (Martinucci, 
II, i, p. 84, n.), though the Caer. Ep. supposes that they vest in choir 
(Lib. I, cap. ix, §1). 

■^ The M.C. spreads the front of the cappa over the faldstool and sets 
it free when the bishop rises. This is the rule always when the bishop 
kneels at a faldstool. 



pontifical IbiQb /n>a6S at tbe XTbrone 169 

shoes and stockings. The serv-ant first takes off the bishop's 
usual shoes, which are put on a plate, covered with a veil, and 
taken away. The subdeacon then takes the plate he has car- 
ried back to the credence table, and goes to the sedilia, where 
he waits by the deacon. Meanwhile, all the time he vests the 
bishop says the prayers appointed for each vestment in the 
missal. The servers who hold the vestments now take them 
and stand before the altar. The bishop rises, takes off his 
biretta, giving it to the first assistant deacon, as before. 
While he does so the four chaplains go to the sacristy and 
put on their copes. The attendant takes off the cappa, lays it 
aside, and loosens the train of the bishop's cassock. The 
deacon and subdeacon of the Mass come to the throne, the 
assistant deacons retire, put on their dalmatics, return, and 
stand back, so as not to hinder the others. The bishop now 
washes his hands. The A. P. takes off his ring^ and spreads 
one of the towels over the bishop's knees. An attendant, 
kneeling before the bishop, holds the dish and pours the water, 
the A. P. hands the towel.' He then goes to put on his cope, 
and comes back to the throne. 

The servers who hold the vestments now come to the throne; 
the canons may come and form circle outside them.^ The bishop 
signs to them to put on their birettas. Meanwhile the other 
persons in choir, prebendaries or chaplains, continue terce. 
The bishop vests in order, saying each prayer, assisted by 
the ministers of the Mass. He puts on the cope to which the 
formale is added, and lastly the deacon puts on him the 
precious mitre. The ministers of the Mass go to the sedilia, 
the canons retire to their places. When the psalms of terce 
are finished, the subdeacon of the Mass takes a breviary, goes 
to the place where the epistle is read and chants the chapter, 
taking care not to turn his back or shoulder to the bishop, 
As soon as he does so the bishop rises, not taking off the 
mitre ; all rise with him. Cantors sing the versicles of terce. 
The acolytes bring their candles to the throne and stand at 
the bottom of its steps, on either side. The chaplains of the 
book and candle approach. The bishop sits while the second 
assisting deacon takes off his mitre. Then he rises, for the 
Resp. hreve^ sings Doniinus vobiscum and the collect. He 
repeats Domhius vobisciini, the acolytes and chaplains retire ; 
the cantors sing Benedicamus Domino. 

The verse Fideliitni animae is not sung, since Mass will 
follow at once. The servers return to the throne, bringing the 
Mass vestments, the tunicle, dalmatic, gloves and chasuble. 
The deacon and subdeacon of the Mass come to the throne. 

^ Kissing both the hand and the ring-, as always. 

'^ While the bishop washes his hands all kneel, except canons and 
prelates ; but if a prelate of higher rank be present, all stand. 
^ Generally obsolete now. 



1 70 Xlbe Iboli? Sacnfiice 

The deacon takes off the bishop's formale and cope. The 
bishop puts on the tunicle and other vestments in order. 
Meanwhile the thurifer prepares the thurible. If the prelate is 
an archbishop, and if it is a day on which he wears the 
pallium, this is brought by a subdeacon-canon from the altar, 
handed to the deacon of the Mass, who puts it on the bishop 
and fixes the pins, assisted by the subdeacon. The deacon 
puts on the precious mitre. The servers who held the v^est- 
ments now retire. The ministers of the Mass go to their seats 
and the acolytes put on their maniples; the assistant deacons 
take their place. The subdeacon takes the bishop's missal, 
with the maniple, between its leaves. The A. P. puts on the 
bishop's ring^ over the glove. The thurifer comes to the 
throne, the bishop puts on incense and blesses it, the A. P. 
assisting*. Meanwhile the thurifer, as always in such cases, 
kneels. The subdeacon who carries the cross now takes it, 
the chaplain brings the crozier to the bishop. The bishop 
rises and bows to the processional cross; the M.C. forms the 
procession. The thurifer goes first, unless there are servants 
of the bishop in lay dress to go in front of all. Then comes 
the subdeacon with the cross between the acolytes. 

He holds the cross so that the figure of our Lord is turned 
forward, in the direction of the procession. The clergy follow 
in order, two and two, then the canons as they are vested, 
subdeaions, deacons, priests, and dignitaries in copes. The 
subdeacon of the Mass follows, holding the book ; then the 
A. P. with the deacon of the Mass at his left; then the bishop 
between his two assistant deacons, followed by the train- 
bearer who carries his train. As he passes he blesses the 
people, holding the crozier in his left. The four chaplains of 
the mitre, crozier, book and candle follow, lastly, the bishop's 
attendants or servants in livery. 

If the bishop is a Metropolitan, the subdeacon of the cross 
carries it between the acolytes immediately before the canons ;^ 
he holds it so that the figure of our Lord is turned towards 
the Metropolitan. 

When the procession arrives at the sanctuary of the church, 
the attendants or servants remain outside ; the subdeacon 
cross-bearer puts the processional cross in a stand near the 
throne, and stays by it. The canons and other clergy genu- 
flect to the altar, then bow to each other, two and two, and 
go to their places, the subdeacon of the Mass goes to the 
altar steps at the gospel side and hands the book to a server; 
the deacon goes to his side, the A. P. to the epistle side before 
the steps. The bishop comes to the middle between the A. P. 
and the deacon, who stand a little back. His assistant deacons 

^ Whenever the chapter is present the canons go between the archi- 
episcopal cross and the archbishop. Otherwise the cross is carried im- 
mediately before the archbishop. 



pontifical IbiQb /IDass at tbe Zbvonc 171 

stand behind him ; behind these the four chaplains. The first 
M.C. is on the epistle side, the second on the gospel side. 
Those who are to hold the book and hand-candle genuflect to 
the altar, then go to fetch these from the credence table. 
The bishop, arriving before the altar, hands his crozier to its 
bearer; the deacon takes off his mitre and hands it to the 
mitre-bearer. The bishop bows low to the altar, all the others 
genuflect, except canons. So Mass begins. 







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FIG. 18. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE THRONE: "IUDICAME" 



§ 4. FROM THE BEGINNING OF MASS TO THE 

GOSPEL 

In all that follows the usual ceremonies of High Mass are 
supposed,^ except where a difference is noted. 

The bishop says the preparatory prayers at the foot of the 
altar, as usual. When he begins the prayer Indu/^entzam, the 
deacon steps back, the subdeacon takes the bishop's maniple 
and puts it on his left arm, kissing first the maniple (at the 
side), then the bishop's hand. When the bishop goes up to 
the altar the A. P. passes behind him to his left, the deacon 



^ See pp. 90-129. 



172 Zbc fbol^ Sacrtfiice 

goes to his rig-ht. The subdeacon, taking the book of gospels, 
goes up to the altar with the bishop, also at his right. The 
bishop kisses the altar, then the gospel book presented by 
A. P., open at the gospel of the Mass, laying his hands on 
it. The subdeacon hands it to a server; the A. P. goes down 
and stands between the assistant deacons. The thurifer 
comes up and the bishop puts on and blesses incense as usual, 
the deacon handing the spoon, the thurifer kneeling before 
him. The bishop incenses the altar. 

The deacon takes the thurible from the bishop. The first 
deacon of the throne comes and puts on the precious mitre. 
The deacon of the Mass, with the subdeacon at his left, in- 
censes the bishop with three double swings (as always). 
When he has done so the bishop gives him a blessing.^ 

The bishop takes his crozier from its bearer, bows to the 
cross, comes down the altar steps, stands between the two 
assistant deacons, bows again to the cross and goes to the 
throne, with the A. P. before him, blessing the choir as he 
passes. His train-bearer follows holding the train. The 
ministers of the Mass go to their seats. 

At the throne the bishop sits, hands his crozier to its bearer, 
and the second assistant deacon takes off his mitre. The 
train-bearer goes to his place east of the throne. The chap- 
lains of the book and candle come to the throne, genuflect 
to the bishop, and hold the book and candle. The bishop 
rises wearing only the skull-cap,^ makes the sign of the cross, 
and reads the introit. The chaplain of the mitre puts the 
precious mitre on the altar, or on the credence table, and takes 
the golden mitre. The bishop says Kyrie eleison with those 
around him. 

If the s,\xng Kyrie will take a long time, the bishop may now 
sit, as he will at the Gloria. When Kyrie eleison has been 
sung, the A. P. holds the book, the bishop standing intones 
Gloria in excelsis Deo. The chaplain of the book takes it from 
the A. P., who goes back to his stool. When the bishop has 
finished saying the Gloria the bearers of book and hand- 
candle take these to the credence table, leave them there, and 
come back. The bishop sits ; the first assistant deacon puts 
on the golden mitre, then takes the gremiale from the server 
who has brought it, and spreads it on the bishop's knees. 
The assistants at the throne sit on their stools, the four 
chaplains on the steps of the throne ^ (genuflecting first to the 
bishop), the ministers of Mass at the sedilia. The other 
servers may sit on the altar steps on either side ; *' the train- 

^ The bishop ansrwers all incensing- and reverences made by the canons 
or higher ministers by making the sign of the cross to them. 
^ He wears the skull-cap all the time, till the preface. 
^ Having laid aside the candle, book, etc. 
* Martinucci, H, i, p. 97, § 85. 



pontifical 1bigb /IDass at tbe Ubrone 173 

bearer on the step of the throne at the east side. Towards 
the end of the Gloria sung by the choir, all stand, except the 
bishop. 

The chaplains bring the book and candle, the second assist- 
ant deacon removes the gremiale and hands it to the server, 
then he takes off the mitre. ^ The A. P. holds the book, the 
bishop stands, turns towards the people, sings Pax vobis, and 
the collect or collects. He sits again and is covered as usual 
with mitre, and gremiale over his knees. The subdeacon reads 



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FIG. 19. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE THRONE: DURING THE *'GL0RL\' 

AND CREED 



the epistle as usual, making first the reverences to the altar 
and bishop, and standing so that he does not turn his shoulder 
to the bishop. The epistle may be sung from the ambo, if the 
church has one; or a folding lectern may be brought out, 
erected at the place required, then taken away. After the 
epistle all around the bishop stand; the subdeacon comes to 
the throne, bows to the bishop, goes up the steps, kneels, 
lays the book of lessons on the bishop's knees, kisses his hand 
placed on the book, and receives his blessing. He comes away 

^ This is always the order. The mitre is put on before and taken off 
after the gremiale. 



1 74 'C^be Iboli^ Sacriftcc 

with the same reverences, gives the book to the M.C. of the 
Mass, and goes to join the deacon by the altar. 

The chaplain of the book kneels before the bishop, holding 
the missal open; the bishop reads the epistle, gradual. Alleluia 
verse, tract, sequence, or whatever occurs in the Mass be- 
tween the lessons, then Munda cor meum and the gospel of 































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5^ 



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FIG. 20, PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE THRONE: THE GOSPEL 






the day. The hand-candle is held near, all around him stand, 
the assisting deacons answer the verses before the gospel. At 
the gospel the bishop makes the sign of the cross on the book 
and on himself; he reads it with folded hands. 

Towards the end of the gradual sung by the choir, the 
deacon of the Mass lays the gospel book on the altar, comes 
to kiss the bishop's hand, then goes to the lowest altar step, 
kneels and says the prayer Munda cor meum.. 



lC)ontif!cal Ibtgb /IDass at tbe TLbvonc 175 

The thurifer goes to the throne. The bishop puts on and 
blesses incense as usual, the A. P. assisting. The thurifer 
comes to the middle and there joins the deacon, subdeacon 
and acolytes. All come to the throne. All, with the deacon, 
kneel before the steps (if the subdeacon is a canon, he does 
not kneel, but bows low). The deacon kneeling (if he is a 
canon he bows low instead) asks the bishop's blessing with 
the usual form lude domne benedicere. When the bishop has 
given the blessing they ^q to the place where the gospel is 
sung, first the M.C. of the Mass, then the thurifer, the acolytes 
together, subdeacon, deacon holding the gospel book. They 
genuflect to the> altar as they pass (but the ministers, if they 
are canons, only bow). The gospel is sung as usual. The four 
chaplains stand in line before the throne on the east side 
facing the place where the gospel is sung. 

The ambo may be used, or the lectern brought out and set 
up, as at the epistle.^ Before the deacon sings Dominus vobis- 
cuvi the mitre and gremiale are taken from the bishop, he 
stands, makes the sign of the cross as the deacon does so, 
then takes his crozier and stands holding it in both hands 
while the gospel is sung. Then he lays it aside. The sub- 
deacon comes to him with the book open at the page of the 
gospel, makes no reverence, goes straight up to him and 
points the place of the gospel. The bishop says Per evangel- 
ica dicta^ etc., and kisses the book. The subdeacon goes down, 
making the usual reverence to the bishop (genuflecting or, if 
he be a canon, bowing low); the A. P. incenses the bishop. 
The thurifer stands by the A. P. and holds the end of his cope 
meanwhile; when he has been incensed the bishop blesses 
the A. P. 



§ 5. FROM THE GOSPEL TO THE COMMUNION 

If the bishop preaches, he may do so from the throne, or 
from a faldstool placed for him before the altar, facing the 
people, or from the pulpit. The A. P. sits or stands at his 
right meanwhile; behind the A. P. sit or stand the deacon of 
the Mass and first assistant deacon, the subdeacon and second 
assistant deacon at the bishop's left." If the sermon is preached 

^ If there is an ambo, the subdeacon stands at the deacon's left, hands 
him the thurible, turns over the pages. A silk veil of the colour of the 
Mass is spread over the ambo. If there is a portable lectern, the sub- 
deacon stands behind it, resting- his hands on the top of the open book. 

^ If the bishop preaches at the pulpit he is escorted thither by cross- 
bearer, first M.C., and assistant deacons. The train-bearer holds his 
train. The deacons should stand on either side while he preaches. But 
if he is not vested (paratus) the assistant deacons do not accompany 
him. 



176 Ube 1bol^ Sacrifice 

by a priest/ he wears the dress of his order if he be a regular, 
or his choir dress. It is usual that he wear a stole of the 
colour of the Mass. Before the sermon the preacher comes 
to the throne, genuflects before the bishop (a canon bows), 
kisses his hand and says luhe domne hevedicere. The bishop 
answers Dominus sit m corde tuo et in labiis tuis^ ut digue et 
fructuose annunties verba sancta sua. In nomine Pa + tris et 
Fi+lii et Spiritus + sancti. Atnen, making the sign of the 
cross thrice over him. Then the preacher asks for the In- 
dulgence, saying Indulgentias y pater reverendissime.' The 
bishop answers Consuetas^ or he names the number.^ With- 
out again kissing the bishop's hand, the preacher rises and 
goes to the pulpit or place where he will preach, making the 
usual reverence to the altar as he passes it. 

At the end of the sermon the preacher kneels in the pulpit 
(a canon bows) towards the altar. The deacon of the Mass 
comes to the middle before the altar, makes the usual rever- 
ences, turns to the bishop and chants the Confiteor. At the 
words tihi Pater and te Pater he genuflects to the bishop (a 
canon bows). Meanwhile the bishop rises and stands at the 
throne wearing the mitre. The deacon goes back to the 
sedilia. The bishop sits and the preacher reads the form of 
indulgence, as it is in the Caerimoniale episcoporum.' Then 
he comes down from the pulpit. The bearers of the book and 
candle come to the throne; the bishop rises, the mitre having 
been taken off", and says the prayer, Precibus et niej'itis." All 
kneel, except canons and prelates who bow standing. The 
bishop sits for a moment while the mitre is put on ; then he 
stands and gives the blessing, holding the crozier.^ If he is 
an archbishop, the cross-bearer comes and kneels before him, 
holding his cross with the figure towards him. An archbishop 
does not wear the mitre. Then Mass continues. If the 
bishop himself has preached, the form of indulgence is read 
by the A. P. 

The bishop intones the creed, the A. P. holding the book. 
Then the book is handed back to its bearer, who continues to 
hold it before the bishop while he says the creed. The hand- 
candle is held near. When he says the words Et incarnatus 
esty etc., he kneels on the cushion placed before him. All 
kneel with him, except the bearers of book and candle. Then 
the bishop sits, is covered with the gold mitre and gremiale. 

^ The Caer. Ep. (Lib. II, cap. viii, § 48) prefers that the bishop preach 
himself. If not the preacher should be a canon who is the A. P. {Caer, Ep., 
Lib. I, cap. xxii, § i. But this rule is often not observed. 

•^ To a cardinal he says: "pater eminentissime ac reverendissime." 

^ According to the new rule [S. Cong. Indulg., 28 August 1903) a 
cardinal in his diocese or titular church grants 200 days, an archbishop 
throughout his province 100 days, a bishop in his diocese 50 days. 

* Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xxv, §1. ^ /b., % 2 (see p. 379). 

^ The form is given, tb., § 3 (see p. 379). 



Ipontiflcal 1bigb jflDass at the Zbtonc 177 

When the choir sings the verse E^ incarnatus est^ etc., the 
bishop bows, still covered; all the others kneel. 

On Christmas Day and Lady Day the bishop kneels at the 
throne, wearing the mitre. 

When the creed is sung, the bishop's mitre is taken off and 
the gremiale removed. He stands, turns towards the people, 
sings Dominus vohisciim and Oremus. He reads the offertory. 
Meanwhile the A. P. holds the book. The bishop sits and the 
first deacon puts on him the precious mitre. A server comes 
with the plate for the ring and gloves. The A. P. takes off 
the bishop's ring, with the solita oscula, and puts it on the 
plate. The assistant deacons take off the bishop's gloves, 
putting them too on the plate. The servers approach with 
the vessel, dish and towels. The assistant deacons spread 
one towel over the bishop's knees, the A. P. holds the other. 
The servers kneel while the bishop washes his hands. Every- 
one in choir kneels too, except canons, who stand. The 
bishop makes the sign of the cross over the servers ; they go 
away. The A. P. puts the ring on the bishop's bare hand, with 
the solita oscula.^ 

The A. P. takes the missal, goes to the altar, and arranges 
it there on its stand or cushion. The bearers of book and 
candle follow him. The subdeacon goes to the credence 
table ; a server puts on him the humeral veil ; he takes the 
chalice and waits there. 

The bishop rises at the throne, takes his crozier and ^oqs 
to the altar, blessing the choir as he passes. His train is 
carried behind as usual. Here he gives up the crozier; the 
mitre is removed, he bows low to the cross and goes up to 
the foot-pace. The A. P. is on his left," the deacon of the Mass 
on his right. The assistant deacons ^o on either side of the 
bishop towards the altar, they stand on the ground before it, 
at the foot of the steps, the bearers of crozier and mitre stand 
behind them. The candle-bearer goes up to the foot-pace and 
stands there at the left of the A. P. This is now his place while 
the bishop reads. He stands back at the incensing, and stands 
on the step at the gospel side, having placed the candle first 
on the altar. The first M.C. stands on the ground at the epistle 
side, the second on the gospel side, and the book-bearer near 
him. All in choir sit. The bishop kisses the altar. The sub- 
deacon brings up the chalice. The deacon of the Mass takes 
the chalice, uncovers it, takes one of the two altar breads,^ 
breaks it and gives it to the sacristan, who eats it. The other 

^ The gloves are not worn after this, unless the Papal blessing is 
given. 

^ ^'rom the offertory to the *' Agnus Dei" the A.P. is at the bishop's 
left, by the book, and turns the pages, except at the incensing and 
elevation. 

^ First he touches the paten and chalice with it. 

N 



178 Ubc 1bolp SacrifTlce 

altar bread on the paten he gives to the bishop, who makes 
the offertory as usual. The deacon pours a little of the wine 
and water into the vessel prepared and gives it to the sacristan 
to drink. ^ The offertory of the chalice is made as usual. The 
deacon assists at the thurible; the bishop incenses the altar; 
the A. P. removes the missal. The train-bearer comes up and 
holds the train, then goes back to his place on the ground 
near the credence table. When the bishop has incensed the 
altar, the first assistant deacon comes to him, at the epistle 
side, with the bearer of the mitre. He puts on the precious 






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FIG. 21. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE THRONE: THE OFFERTORY 



mitre; the bishop is incensed by the deacon of the Mass, 
blesses him, then washes his hands, the A. P. holding the 
towel and the servers kneeling. The second assisting deacon 
takes off the bishop's mitre before he says Gloria Patri at 
the end of the Lavabo psalm. The deacon of the Mass, when 
he has incensed the bishop, incenses the A. P. and the two 
deacons of the throne, each with a double incensing. Then he 
incenses the choir, according to the usual rule (p. 118). He 

^ This is the "praegustatio " ceremony, a curious relic of early times. 
It is obviously a precaution against poison. The ceremony is now often 
omitted. 



Ipontifiical t>iQb /IDass at tbe Zbvonc 179 

goes up to stand behind the bishop. Meanwhile the bishop 
continues Mass as usual. After the secrets the A. P. changes 
the missal for the Canon episcopalis on the stand or cushion/ 
Before he sings Per omnia saectda saeculoriim the M.C. takes 
off his skull-cap and hands it to the mitre-bearer. The deacon 
of the Mass and A. P. stand on either side of the bishop, to say 
the Sanctus with him. All this time, unless they are otherwise 
occupied, the two assistant deacons stand on the ground 
before the altar steps. 

The torch-bearers '^ come before the altar, genuflect, bow to 
each other and kneel there, holding their torches. All in choir 
and sanctuary kneel, except the A. P., M.C, assistant deacons, 
deacon and subdeacon, thurifer, bearers of book, candle, 
mitre, and crozier. The subdeacon has received the paten 
from the deacon at the offertory ; he stands holding it before 
the altar steps. The deacon is at the bishop's right, the A. P. 
at his left. 

Before the elevation incense is put in the thurible by the 
M.C; he or the thurifer (cfr p. 104) incenses the Sanct- 
issimum. At the Consecration the deacon and A. P. kneel at 
the edge of the foot-pace ; at the elevation they hold the end 
of the chasuble. The deacon uncovers the chalice, as at every 
High Mass. After the elevation the deacon stands behind 
the bishop, the A. P. is at the book, the torch-bearers retire 
(p. 99). The A. P. and deacon genuflect with the bishop 
during the canon. ^ Towards the end of the Pa^er nosier the 
deacon comes to the bishop's right, the subdeacon to the 
deacon's right ; the paten is handed to the bishop as usual, 
the subdeacon has the humeral veil taken off" by a server, 
genuflects to the Sanctissimum and goes to the foot of the 
altar steps. At the Agnus Dei the deacon is at the bishop's 
right ; the subdeacon does not ^o up to the altar. The deacon 
and A. P. say the Agnus Dei with the bishop. They then genu- 
flect and change places ; the deacon goes to the missal and 
assists there; the A. P. to the bishop's right. The bishop gives 
the kiss of peace to the A. P. He genuflects and goes to give 
it to the choir in order (p. 27). The first and second assistant 
deacons, the deacon and subdeacon of the Mass, now come up 
in turn to the bishop's right, each receives the pax from him. 
The subdeacon stands at the bishop's right and uncovers the 
chalice at his communion, the deacon is by the book, till the 

^ He hands the missal to the M.C. who lays it on the credence table 
till it is wanted again after the ablutions. 

^ There should be four, six, or eight torches {Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. 
viii, § 68). 

^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, cap. vii, § 5; Lib. II, cap. viii, § 69. This appears 
to be the plain meaning of the words in both places. Martinucci however 
says that the A. P. does not genuflect with the bishop (2nd edition, 1880, 
vol. vi, p. 446, no. 116; 3rd edition, by Menghini, 1914, pt. II, i, p. 106, 
no. 130; see n. 1). 



i8o XTbe 1bol^ Sacrifice 

A. p. returns from giving the pax. When the A. P. comes back 
to the altar he stands at the bishop^s left and the deacon at 
the bishop's right. The subdeacon now goes down to his 
place in the middle. 

If the ministers receive Holy Communion, they do not take 
the kiss of peace from the bishop before their Communion. 
The Confiteor is not said. They make their Communion kneel- 
ing, then kiss the bishop's hand, rise and kiss his left cheek, 
while he says Pax tecum. They answer Et cum spiritu tuo.^ 



§ 6. FROM AFTER THE COMMUNION TO THE END 

OF MASS 

As soon as the Communion act is over the M.C. replaces the 
bishop's skull-cap. All in choir sit. The deacon performs the 
ablution of the chalice ; ^ the subdeacon comes to the gospel 
side of the altar, wipes the chalice, and takes it to the 
credence table. The A. P. puts the Canon episcopalls in the 
middle of the altar and the missal on its stand, moves it 
across, then stands at the epistle corner ready for the washing 
of hands. The precious mitre is put on the bishop by the fir s t . -< 
-a&sistant^ deacon. The train-bearer comes up. Standing at 
the epistle corner the bishop washes his hands, the A. P. tak- 
ing the ring and holding the towel. All in choir, except 
canons and prelates, kneel meanwhile. The bishop blesses 
the servers, the precious mitre is taken off. The bishop reads 
the Communion antiphon, says Domhius vobiscuni, sings the 
post-communions, as the celebrant at every High Mass. The 
deacon sings Ite missa est, as usual. When the bishop has 
said the prayer Placeat tibi, the first assistant deacon puts on 
his precious mitre. Facing the altar the bishop sings the 
versicles. Sit noinen Domini, etc. As he sings the end of the 
formula of blessing, Pater, he turns, takes the crozier in his 
left, and gives the blessing, making three signs of the cross. 
All kneel except canons and prelates, who bow. If he is an 
archbishop, the subdeacon who carries the cross brings it 
before him, and kneels with the cross facing him. The arch- 
bishop does not wear the mitre when blessing. 

If the Indulgence has not been proclaimed after the sermon 
it is proclaimed now. The A. P. reads the form appointed, 
while the bishop remains standing, facing the people before 
the altar, holding his crozier as before. Then the proces- 
sion is formed. The bishop gives up the crozier, his mitre is 
removed. If it is an archbishop who has worn the pallium, 

^ The Caer. Ep. (Lib. II, cap. xxxi, § 5) says that it is " very suitable " 
that the deacon and subdeacon should make their Communion at the 
bishop's Mass on Sundays. Cfr. Cone. Trid., Sess. XXIII, cap. xiii. For 
the rite see Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxix, § 3. 

^ Not the subdeacon. 



Iponttfical HMgb /IDass at tbe Ubrone iSi 

this is now taken ofif by the deacon and subdeacon, laid on 
the altar on which it was brought at the beginning, covered 
with its veil and placed on the altar. 

The bishop says the last Do7ninus vobiscinn and Initiuvi 
sancti evangelii secundiun loannem. He is then covered with 
the precious mitre, takes the crozier and follows the pro- 
cession out, continuing the last gospel as he goes.^ The 
procession is formed in the same order as at the beginning 
(p. 170). It goes to the secretarium, where the canons and 
others take their places. The bishop, entering the secre- 
tarium, blesses the choir as he passes. He bows to the altar, 
goes to the throne, and the first assistant deacon takes off his 
mitre. Kneeling at the throne on a cushion, towards the altar, 
he says the verse Et Verhmn caro factum est, and so finishes 
the gospel. He then sits and hands his crozier to its bearer. 
The deacon and subdeacon of the Mass take off" their man- 
iples, which are carried away by a server. 

The subdeacon takes off" the bishop's maniple, hands it to 
a server, who lays it on the altar. The rest of the bishop's 
vestments are taken off" in order, as they were put on. They 
are all laid on the altar and covered with a veil. 

Meanwhile the chaplains go to the sacristy, take off" their 
copes, and return. The canons in vestments take these off and 
resume choir dress. The ministers of the Mass go to sit at 
the sedilia. The bishop's attendant brings the cappa and 
puts it on him. The chaplains of the book and candle come 
to the throne. Sitting, the bishop says the prayers after 
Mass. Meanwhile the subdeacon takes off the liturgical 
shoes and stockings, puts them on their plate, covers them 
and takes them to the credence. The servant puts on the 
bishop's ordinary shoes. The bishop goes to the faldstool in 
the middle, says a short prayer there, goes to visit the chapel 
of the Blessed Sacrament, and finally leaves the church with 
his attendants. The canons may accompany him. They 
should then return to sing sext and none. 

§ 7. IF THE BISHOP DOES NOT VEST IN THE 
SECRETARIVM 

If there is no chapel that can be used as a secretarium, or if 
for any reason the bishop does not wish to use it, there are 
two other ways in which he may vest before Mass, at the 
throne in the sanctuary-, or in the sacristy. Neither case pre- 
sents any special difficulty. 

If he vests at the throne in the sanctuary, he will come to 
the church in rochet and cappa, visit the Blessed Sacrament, 
then kneel at a faldstool in the sanctuary, go to the throne 

^ If there is a proper last gospel the bishop reads it all at the altar, an 
archbishop after his pallium has been taken off. 



i82 XTbe Ibolp Saciiflce 

and do everything" as described above. Only when he is 
vested there will not be the great procession from the secre- 
tarium. Instead, the bishop, in precious mitre and holding 
his crozier, goes from the throne to the altar, blessing the 
clergy in choir as he passes. 

If he vests in the sacristy, a faldstool will be prepared in 
the middle for him. The vestments will be laid out on a 
vesting table. At this faldstool the bishop vests in the same 
way as at the throne. Then the procession is formed to the 
church and altar. 

§ 8. IF THE CHAPTER IS NOT PRESENT 

The Caerimoniale episcoporum supposes, as the normal cus- 
tom, that the Ordinary sings High Mass in his cathedral, his 
chapter assisting. 

It may, however, frequently happen that he sings Mass in 
another church of his diocese, where the chapter is not pre- 
sent. In this case a temporary throne is erected beforehand, 
on the gospel side, and is vested in the colour of the Mass. 
Terce is not said beforehand; the secretarium is not used. 
The bishop vests either in the sacristy or at the throne. The 
ministers of Mass and assistants at the throne need not be 
canons. All else proceeds as described above, except, of 
course, that there are no canons to be incensed or to receive 
the kiss of peace. 



CHAPTER XVII 

PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT 

THE FALDSTOOL 

§ I. PREPARATION 

EXCEPT a " Greater Prelate " (see p. 32), every other 
bishop (a foreign bishop or auxiliary) uses, not the 
throne, but a faldstool in front of the altar.^ It may 
also happen that the Ordinary uses this faldstool, in- 
stead of his throne, as when a cardinal or higher 
prelate is present.* In this case the following alterations are 
made in the ceremony.^ 

The bishop may begin his preparation for Mass in the 
sacristy. If he does so, the usual vestments for the deacon 
and subdeacon are laid out here, but not their maniples, 
which are put on the credence table in the church. A carpet 
is laid in the middle of the sacristy with a chair on it. The 
bishop makes his preparation here. The Canon episcopalis, 
hand-candle and the bishop's liturgical shoes and stockings 
are laid out in the sacristy near the chair. 

At the High Altar of the church the Sanctissimum should 
be removed, if it is reserved there. Six candles are lighted, 
not a seventh. There are no altar-cards. The bishop's vest- 
ments are laid on the altar as described above (p. 163). His 
gloves lie on a plate. All are covered with .a veil, which may 
be the gremiale. The precious mitre stands on the gospel 
side, by it the mitre-bearer's veil. The golden mitre is on the 
epistle side ; their infulae hang over the frontal.* 

On the credence table two candles burn. Between them the 
following are placed : the chalice and paten, prepared as usual 
for Mass. The missal, with the bishop's maniple between the 
leaves at the place of the gospel of the day, the book of les- 
sons,'' the missal stand or cushion, the cruets, amice, and 
cope for the A. P., maniples for the two ministers, the vessel 
and basin for washing the bishop's hands. If there is not 
room for all this on the credence table, another should stand 
by its side. 

The Roman books suppose that the thurible, incense boat, 
the fire and charcoal and the torches for the elevation all 

1 See p. 8. 

^ This case lies outside the scope of the book. 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xix, §§ 4-5; Martinucci-Menghini, II, ii, pp. 
566-597; Le Vavasseur, Fond. Pont., i, pp. 123-148; \Vapelhorst, pp. 
192.194. 

* If the bishop uses the g-olden mitre only, this stands on the gospel 
side. 

^ The books should be covered with silk of the colour of the day (see 
p. 20). 

183 



i84 XTbe 1bol^ Sacrifice 

stand in the sanctuary near the credence table. It may, how- 
ever, be more convenient to prepare these in the sacristy. 

In the sanctuary before the altar, on the ground and at 
about the place where the epistle is read, a small platform is 
erected, about six inches hig"h.^ This is covered with a 
carpet; on it stands the faldstool. The faldstool is covered 
with hangings of the colour of the Mass. 

On the epistle side are the seats for the ministers and a 
cushion on which the bishop will kneel at the creed. 

In the centre of the sanctuary is a cushion on which the 
bishop will kneel to say prayers before Mass. 

§ 2. MINISTERS AND SERVERS 

The following persons assist the bishop: the deacon and 
subdeacon of the Mass, an assistant priest, who will wear a 
cope, two Masters of Ceremonies, the three servers who carry 
the mitre, book and hand-candle,^ the thurifer and acolytes, 
six torch-bearers, who will also assist at the vesting. The 
bearers of mitre, book, and candle do not wear copes. There 
are no assistant deacons. 



§ 3. THE BEGINNING AND VESTING OF THE 

BISHOP 

The bishop arrives in the sacristy and sits on the chair pre- 
pared. The book-bearer stands before him, holding the 
Canon episcopalis open at the preparation for Mass. The 
bearer of the candle stands by holding it lighted. The bishop 
begins to say the psalms appointed for the preparation. 
Meanwhile a servant takes off his usual shoes and puts on 
the liturgical shoes and stockings, kneeling before him to 
do so. 

Meanwhile the deacon and subdeacon vest, assisted by the 
acolytes. The Canon episcopalis and hand-candle are then 
taken to the credence table. The deacon and subdeacon, vested, 
but without maniples, bow to the cross in the sacristy and to 
the bishop. They go to the church, the second M.C. before 
them, followed by the acolytes and other servers. In church 
they all genuflect to the altar, the acolytes and servers stand 
aside near the credence table, the ministers stand behind the 

' The platform is sometimes omitted. 

' There is no crozier-bearer, since no crozier. In certain (rare) cases 
the Ordinary may allow the use of the crozier to another bishop (Caer. 
£p., Lib. I, cap. xi, § 12). But the crozier is the chief symbol of jurisdic- 
tion. Its indiscriminate use by bishops anywhere (as often, in France 
especially) is to be deprecated. If the bishop has a train he will have a 
train-bearer who carries it whenever he walks, at other times stands 
aside among- the "familiares." But a bishop who is not a "Greater 
Prelate " should not let down his train. 



I 



Iponttfical IbiQb /IDass at tbe jfal^stool 185 

faldstool, the deacon on the gospel side, the subdeacon on 
the epistle side. 

Then the bishop comes from the sacristy. He wears the 
rochet and mantellettum, and holds his biretta in his hand. 
The first M.C. goes in front of him, the A. P. at his left. They 
come before the altar, the deacon and subdeacon bow to the 
bishop; he bows to the altar. Then he kneels for a short 
prayer on the cushion. When he rises, this cushion is taken 
away. 

The bishop, rising, again bows to the altar and goes to the 
faldstool. Here he sits. The deacon takes off the pectoral 
cross, then holds it to the bishop, that he should kiss it, and 
hands it to the M.C. ; he removes the mantellettum and gives 
this, too, to the M.C. The bishop covers himself. A server 
comes with the vessel, basin and towel. The ministers take 
the towel. Standing before the bishop the server pours water 
over his hands. The ministers assist him to dry them. 

All this supposes that the bishop begins the preparation in 
the sacristy. If he does so in the church, the liturgical shoes 
and stockings are put first on the credence table. The bishop 
enters the church, says his prayer at the kneeling-desk, then 
goes to the faldstool and there begins the psalm, while his 
servant puts on the shoes and stockings. 

The vesting now begins. The second M.C. goes to the 
altar and there hands each vestment to the server, who will 
bring it to the bishop. If there are not enough servers, they 
may, after having handed the vestment to the ministers, 
return to the altar to bring another. The bishop stands and 
the book-bearer stands before him, still holding the book. 
The bishop takes off his biretta before rising and hands it to 
the M.C, who puts it away with the mantellettum. The deacon 
vests the bishop, the subdeacon assisting. When the bishop 
has put on the dalmatic he sits, the deacon takes the ring, 
the ministers put on his gloves, each one glove, kissing first 
his hand, then the glove. The deacon puts on him the precious 
mitre, bowing before and after. The ministers then go to put 
on their maniples. The A. P. meanwhile goes to the credence 
table and puts on amice and cope; he comes to the bishop, 
carrying the ring on a plate, and puts it on the bishop's 
finger, kissing first the ring, then the hand. He bows before 
and after doing this, then stands at the bishop's right. When 
all the vestments are taken from the altar the M.C. there 
removes the golden mitre and veil, which he puts on the 
credence table. 

The bishop rises and goes to the altar; the A. P. is at his 
right, the deacon at his left; the subdeacon, who now carries 
the missal with the maniple in it, at the deacon's left. The 
other servers and Masters of Ceremonies follow. When the 
bishop is vested, the second M.C. puts the Canon episcopalis 



i86 XTbe Ibol^ Sacrifice 

on the altar in the middle, opens it at the prayer Atifer a 
7iobiSy and stands the hand-candle near it. 



§4. THE MASS 

At the altar the deacon takes off the mitre and hands it to the 
mitre-bearer; the bishop bows low, the others genuflect. 
Mass begins as usual. The A.P. is at the bishop's right, the 
ministers at his left. After the prayer Indulgentiam^ the sub- 
deacon puts the maniple on the bishop's arm, as described 
above (p. 171). Before doing so he hands the missal to the 
M.C. When they ^o up to the altar,^ the subdeacon holds 
the missal open at the gospel of the day; the bishop kisses 
the page. The second M.C. takes the missal and removes 
the Canon episcopalis and hand-candle from the altar. The 
altar and bishop are incensed as usual, except that the deacon 
says Benedicite pater revereiidissime. The bishop gives the 
thurible to the deacon, the M.C. puts on his precious mitre. 

The deacon, with the subdeacon at his left, goes down the 
altar steps and incenses the bishop. The bishop goes to the 
faldstool, bowing first to the cross. The A.P. goes with him 
on his right, the ministers at his left. He sits ow the faldstool 
and the deacon removes the mitre. The bishop rises and turns 
to the altar by his left. The book-bearer, standing before the 
bishop, holds up the missal, the candle-bearer is at the book- 
bearer's left ; ^ the A.P. at the bishop's right points to the 
places. The deacon is at the bishop's right, the subdeacon at 
his left, but a little back. The bishop reads the Introit, then 
says the Kyrie eleison with the ministers. If the sung Kyrie 
takes much time he may now sit, as he will at the Gloria. 

The bishop facing the altar intones the Gloria in excelsis^ 
the A.P. at his right, ^ the book-bearer and candle-bearer 
before him. While he does so the ministers stand behind him 
in line ; then they come one on either side and say the Gloria 
with him. When he has said the Gloria^ the bishop sits on 
the faldstool ; the deacon puts on the golden mitre and spreads 
the gremiale over his knees. All then bow to him and ^o to 
sit at the sedilia in this order: the deacon is in the middle, 
the A.P. at his right, the subdeacon at his left. They receive 
their birettas from the second M.C. and cover themselves. 
The second M.C. stands near the seat at the usual place, as 
at every High Mass. The first M.C. stands behind the bishop 
at his left. 

^ The A.P. goes to the faldstool, deacon to the bishop's right. 

■^ Or he may stand at the book-bearer's right, to allow more room for 
the A.P. (Martinucci, II, ii, p. 553, n. i). 

' Baldeschi makes the A.P. hold the scotula throughout. This is an 
error. He never does so {e.g.^ Martinucci, II, ii, p. 575, §61; Le 
V^avasseur, Fond. Pont., i, p. 135, § 152). 







'^ Oi '^ 

►f« * ►i^ 






















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M 



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FIG. 22. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE FALDSTOOL: " IVDICA ME" 









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FIG. 23. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE FALDSTOOL: INTROIT 









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FIG. 24. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE FALDSTOOL : 
DURING THE "GLORIA" AND CREED 



187 



^ 



ri| 



^ 



i88 Uhc 1boli^ Sacrifice 

Towards the end of the Gloria in excelsis the ministers rise, 
come before the bishop, stand in line, and bow to him. The 
deacon ^ removes the gremiale, and hands it to a server, who 
puts it on the credence table. He then removes the mitre. 
The bishop stands facing- the people and sings Pax vobis\ 
the deacon and subdeacon stand between him and the people in 
line, the A. P. is at his side (on the epistle side) facing the altar. 

Then the bishop turns to the altar and sings the collects, 
the book-bearer holding- the book, with the candle-bearer at 
his right." The first M.C. stands by the A. P., the second is 
at the credence table by the acolytes. During the last collect 
the subdeacon receives the book of lessons from the second 
M.C, goes to the centre, genuflects to the altar, then comes 



* 

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* 



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FIG. 25. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE FALDSTOOL : THE COLLECTS 



to his place behind the bishop holding- the book closed. When 
the collects are finished, the bishop sits again, and receives 
the mitre and gremiale from the deacon, as before. The A. P. 
and deacon bow to him and go to sit. The subdeacon bows 
to the bishop, and standing at the usual place, reads the 
epistle. Then he goes to the middle, genuflects to the altar, 
comes to the bishop, bows, kneels,^ kisses his hand and re- 
ceives his blessing. He then rises and opens the missal, that the 

^ Martinucci, II, ii, p. 576, § 68. Le Vavasseur (/^o«c^. Pont.^ i, p. 134, 
§ 151 ; p. 135, § 152) makes the subdeacon place and remove the gremiale 
throug-hout. 

^ The candle had better be held at the right of the book, so as to leave 
room on the other side for the first M.C. and A. P. 

^ Obviously the usual rule, not to kneel except to a Greater Prelate, 
does not apply to the blessing at epistle and gospel, when the ministers 
would kneel to a priest. 



Ipontttical Ibigb /IDa95 at tbe ifalOstool 189 

bishop may read the epistle, gradual, Alleluia verse, or other 
texts which occur between the lessons, sitting on the fald- 
stool. Before the gospel the bishop reads the Munda cor meiini 
prayer, for w^hich the M.C. brings the Canon episcopalis from 
the altar. Meanwhile the bearer holds the hand-candle, at the 
bishop's left. When the bishop has read the gospel, the A. P. 
hands the candle to the M.C. and stays where he is. The 
subdeacon hands the missal to a server and stands opposite 
the bishop, at a little distance from him. 

Towards the end of the sung Alleluia verse (or whatever 
text may take its place) the deacon, who has been sitting at 
the seat, rises, takes the book of lessons from the M.C. 



>i^ 



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E 
H 



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mi 



FIG. 



26. PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS AT THE FALDSTOOL 
THE GOSPEL 



BEFORE 



and carries it to the altar, closed. He bows to the bishop in 
passing, genuflects to the altar before and after laying the 
book on it ; then comes straight to the bishop's side, where 
he assists at the imposition and blessing of incense. For this 
the thurifer approaches, bows and stands before the bishop. 
Meanwhile the acolytes take their candles from the credence 
table and stand, at some distance, before the bishop. 

When the incense is blessed the deacon goes to the foot- 
pace, to say the prayer Munda cor 7neum\ the thurifer stands 
between the acolytes. The deacon then takes the missal from 
the altar, genuflects, comes to the bishop, bows, kneels and 
says lube domne henedicere. The bishop blesses him, and he 
kisses the bishop's hand in the usual way. Then he stands 
before the bishop, in front of the thurifer and acolytes; the 
subdeacon is at his left, the second M.C. behind him. The 



I90 Ube 1bol^ Sacrifice 

first M.C. stands near the A. P. All bow to the bishop, go to 
the centre, genuflect and go to the place where the gospel is 
sung". As soon as they have gone, the first M.C. removes the 
bishop's gremiale, mitre; the A. P. stands a little behind the 
bishop at his left. The bishop stands and turns towards the 
deacon. The deacon should be careful not to begin to sing 
the gospel till the bishop is thus ready. 

If a genuflection is to be made at any text in the gospel, 
the M.C. places a cushion, on which the bishop genuflects, 
towards the gospel book. 

After the gospel the subdeacon comes up immediately and 
brings the book to the bishop, making no genuflection nor 
inclination to him. He points to the beginning of the gospel 
text, which the bishop kisses. He then shuts the book, bows 
to the bishop, hands the book to the first M.C. and stands 
at the left of the A. P. As soon as the gospel is finished the 
acolytes take their candles to the credence table, genuflecting 
to the altar and bowing to the bishop as they pass. The 
deacon takes the thurible and incenses the bishop ; he, the 
thurifer at his side, and the second M.C. bow before and 
after. The thurifer takes the thurible to the sacristy or other 
place where it is kept. 

If there is a sermon at this point, the ministers form in line 
before the bishop, bow to him, and go to sit at the seat. The 
bishop sits at the faldstool. If he preaches himself, he may do 
so standing before the faldstool, or sitting on it, or he may go 
to the pulpit, accompanied by the first M.C. The ministers do 
not sit nor cover themselves till the bishop is ready to begin 
the sermon. 

When the creed is intoned the deacon and subdeacon stand 
in line behind the bishop. He stands facing the altar; the 
Canon episcopalis is held by the book-bearer, with the candle 
at his right. The A. P. stands at the bishop's left. The deacon 
and subdeacon come to the bishop's side and say the creed 
with him, as at the Gloria. 

The bishop then sits, the deacon puts on the gremiale and 
golden mitre; the ministers bow to the bishop and go to sit, 
as at the Gloria. At the words Et hicarnatus est^ etc., the 
bishop bows, wearing the mitre, the ministers uncover and 
bow, all the others kneel. 

On Christmas Day and Lady Day the bishop kneels at these 
words before the faldstool, not uncovering; the ministers kneel 
at the seat. 

After this text the deacon rises, takes the burse from the 
second M.C, and spreads the corporal on the altar, making 
the usual inclination to the bishop and genuflection to the 
altar. He goes back to his place by the shortest way, bowing 
to the other ministers before he sits again. 

Towards the end of the sung creed the ministers come 



pontifical fbigb /IDass at tbe ffalbstool 191 

before the bishop, stand in line and bow to him, the deacon 
takes oif the gremiale and mitre ; the deacon and subdeacon 
form in line between the faldstool and the people, the A. P. 
stands at the side on the epistle side. The bishop rises, sings 
Dominus vobiscurn facing* the people, then turns to the altar, 
sing"s Oremus and reads the offertory. The book-bearer and 
candle-bearer stand before him, as usual. 

The bishop sits again, the deacon puts on his precious 
mitre, the three ministers bow to the bishop, the deacon goes 
to his right, the subdeacon to his left, the A. P. to the cred- 
ence table. Servers bring a plate to hold the ring and gloves, 
and the vessels and towel to wash the hands. The deacon 
takes off the ring and right glove, the subdeacon the left 
glove, with the usual oscula. The ring and gloves are put on 
the plate. The servers who hold the vessel and dish kneel 
before the bishop, the ministers take the towel. He washes his 
hands, the ministers assist him to dry them. Then the deacon 
puts the ring on the bishop's bare hand, again with the solita 
oscula. The subdeacon brings the chalice from the credence. 
While the bishop washes his hands, the A. P. takes the 
missal on its stand from the credence table, and the Canon 
episcopalis, and carries them to the altar. The second M.C. 
goes with him, and the server bearing the candle. They bow 
to the bishop in passing, genuflect before the altar steps and 
arrange the missal and Canon episcopalis on the altar. The 
A. P. stays by the book. The bishop, having washed his 
hands and received back the ring, rises and goes to the altar 
between the deacon and the M.C. mitre-bearer and book- 
bearer following. Before the altar the deacon takes off the 
mitre, the bishop bows low, the others genuflect. The A. P. 
comes down to meet the bishop at the lowest step ; the sub- 
deacon has gone to the credence table to bring the chalice. 
His place at the bishop's side is taken by the A. P. So the 
bishop between the deacon and the A. P. goes up to the altar. 
From now to the end of Mass everything continues as in 
the case of Pontifical High Mass at the throne (see above, 
pp. 177-180), except that, in the case of a bishop not in his 
own diocese, no Indulgence is published. The candle-bearer 
holds the candle at the left of the A. P. 

At the end of Mass the bishop may go with the ministers 
and servers in procession to the sacristy and there unvest. Or 
he may ^q to the faldstool and unvest there. In this case, 
when he arrives at the faldstool, he sits and the three minis- 
ters bow to him, ^o to the credence table, where the A. P. 
takes off the cope, the others their maniples. They come back 
to the bishop; the subdeacon takes off the bishop's maniple, 
the deacon his mitre. Then they assist him to unvest, hand- 
ing each vestment to a server who carries it to the altar. The 
bishop, having taken off the amice, puts on his biretta, sits 



192 XTbe Ibolp Sacrifice 

and washes his hands. The mantellettum Is put on, the 
deacon hands him the pectoral cross to kiss, and puts it on 
him. The deacon and subdeacon now bow to the bishop and 
retire to the sacristy. The bishop sits again at the faldstool 
and says the prayers after Mass, the book-bearer holding- the 
book standing before him, the candle by the book. Mean- 
while an attendant takes off the ceremonial shoes and stock- 
ings. The bishop uncovers, goes to the kneeling desk, which 
has been again set up before the altar, kneels and says a short 
prayer, the A. P. and first M.C. on either side. Finally he 
retires, accompanied by the A. P. and M.C. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

PONTIFICAL HIGH MASS FOR 

THE DEAD 

§ I. PREPARATION 

WHEN a bishop sings Mass for the dead, whether 
he do so at the throne or at a faldstool, the fol- 
lowing changes must be made.^ 
The bishop uses neither crozier, gloves, nor 
ceremonial shoes and stockings. He has the 
gremiale, of black silk. He wears only the simple mitre, of 
white linen, with ruddy fringes to its infulae. 

The solita oscula occur during the vesting and unvesting; 
they are all omitted during the Mass. The bishop gives no 
blessing to anyone. The Sanctissimum should not be at the 
High Altar, according to the general rule for Pontifical Mass 
(p. 163). 

In the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament a kneeling-desk or 
faldstool is prepared, as usual. For the colour of its cover- 
ings and cushion see p. 8. 

On the altar of the Blessed Sacrament six candles are lit, 
at least during the time the bishop kneels there, before and 
after the ceremony. On the High Altar are six candles (never 
seven) of unbleached wax, and the altar cross. The candle- 
sticks should be of bronze or brass, not silver. No other 
ornament should stand on the altar or retable. The frontal 
is black. The foot-pace and altar steps are covered with a 
purple carpet, the rest of the sanctuary is bare. The bishop's 
vestments, black, are laid out on the altar as usual (p. 163). 
The simple mitre, only, stands on the gospel side. Before 
the altar is the faldstool or kneeling-desk on a small carpet. 
It is covered with purple. The usual vessels are put on the 
credence table, namely, the acolytes' candles, the chalice pre- 
pared, the vessel and dish for washing hands, two missals 
and the Canon episcopalis, which should be covered with 
black, the cruets, amice and black cope for the assistant 
priest, the maniples for the ministers, a black cope with 
simple formale for the bishop, if he will make the absolutions. 
Candles to be distributed to the clergy. In this case the 
Pontifical will also be wanted. 

The sedilia are covered with purple. If there is a throne it 
will be covered in the same way with purple ; the stools for 
the assistants will be bare. If the absolution is to be made 
at the catafalque, this will stand before the sanctuary. At its 
head is another faldstool. 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. ii; Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, pp. 265-278; 
II, ii, pp. 598-613; Le Vavasseur, Fonct. Pont., i, pp. 148-157, 157-160. 

O 



194 ^t)^ t)olp Sacrifice 

§ 2. MASS AT THE THRONE 

The same ministers, assistants, and servers attend as at all 
such Pontifical Masses (p. 165), except that there is no crozier, 
and so no crozier-bearer. The Mass is sung- after none. 
When the bishop enters the church the bells are not rung 
joyfully. They may be tolled. The organ is not used at all.^ 

All proceeds as in the usual Mass of this kind, except the 
following points : 

The bishop vests at the throne. The maniple is put on him 
after the girdle, before the pectoral cross. ^ An archbishop 
does not wear the pallium at Requiem Masses. When the 
bishop is vested, the A. P. puts on his ring; the deacon and 
subdeacon put on their maniples. 

All then go to the altar, the bishop with folded hands, 
since he does not use the crozier. The subdeacon does not 
bring the gospel book with him. After the prayers at the 
foot of the steps the bishop kisses the altar, not the gospel 
book. The altar is not incensed; they go back to the throne 
at once, the bishop wearing, according to the usual rule, the 
simple mitre. After the sung Kyrie eleisoji the bishop says 
Dominus vobisciim, not Pax vobis. During the collects all in 
choir kneel, except the ministers and the candle-bearer, 
before the bishop. After the epistle the subdeacon comes to 
the throne, bows to the bishop, but is neither blessed nor 
kisses the bishop's hand. During the sequence candles are 
g^iven to all in choir. They hold these burnings during the 
g"ospel, and then again from the Sanctus to the ablutions. 
At the gospel there is no incense, nor do the acolytes hold 
their candles. They stand on either side of the subdeacon 
with folded hands. The deacon does not ask the bishop's 
blessing, nor does he kiss his hand. The procession for the 
g^ospel comes before the bishop in the usual way (see p. 175), 
all genuflect before him (except canons), then go to sing the 
gospel. 

After it the subdeacon does not take the book to be kissed 
by the bishop, but hands it at once to the second M.C. The 
bishop goes to the altar after his hands are washed. The sub- 
deacon brings the oblata, not wearing the humeral veil. The 
water is not blessed. The bishop incenses the altar as usual; 
then he alone, wearing the mitre, is incensed. The torch- 
bearers kneel before the altar till the ablutions, and all in 
choir kneel, holding lighted candles from the Sanctus to the 
ablutions. The subdeacon does not hold the paten. He in- 
censes the Sanctissimum at the elevation, kneeling* on the 

^ Caer. Ep.., Lib. I, cap. xxviii, § 13; S.R.C., no. 4265, ad II (in case 
of necessity, the org-an may be used, only to sustain the singling). 

^ Because of the practical difficulty it may be put on immediately after 
the dalmatic (Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, p. 269, n. 2). 



Ipontttical Ibtgb /IDass tor tbc S)ea5 195 

epistle side. The kiss of peace is not given. When the deacon 
sing"s the verse Requiescant in pace the bishop says it to him- 
self.^ There is no blessing at the end of Mass. The bishop 
begins the last gospel at the altar, continues it as he goes 
back to the throne, and ends it there, genuflecting at the 
throne at the words Et Verhum caro factum est. He then sits, 
and the ministers take off the maniples; the A. P. takes off 
his cope. 

The bishop is unvested by the assistant deacons at the 
throne. If the absolutions follow at once," they then vest him 
in cope and mitre. 

For the absolutions see pp. 425-429. 

§ 3. MASS AT A FALDSTOOL 

No special directions for this are necessary. All is done 
according to the normal rules for Pontifical High Mass at the 
faldstool (for which see pp. 183-192), with the exceptions and 
particular rules for Requiems in general and those noted in 
the last paragraph for Pontifical Requiems. In this case, too, 
the bishop wears only the simple mitre ; he gives no blessing, 
the altar is incensed only at the offertory, and so on, as already 
explained. 

^ S. R.C., 7 September 1816, no. 2572, ad XXII. 

■^ The absolution should always follow (Martinucci-Meng-hini, II, 
p. 277, § 141). 



PART III 
EVENING SERVICES 



CHAPTER XIX 
VESPERS 

§ I. GENERAL DIRECTIONS 

ALTHOUGH the Caerlmoniale episcoporum is in- 
tended primarily for pontifical functions, its direc- 
tions and rubrics apply, with the necessary modi- 
fications, for all celebrations of the services it 
contains. For vespers, therefore, the Caerimoniale, 
Lib. II, cap. i-iii, and the other places at which vespers are 
described, form the final standard, as far as its directions go. 

Vespers may be solemn or not solemn. On week days 
which are not great feasts the celebrant uses no cope, the 
altar is not incensed, there are practically no ceremonies. 
On Sundays and feasts the vespers should be solemn, that 
is, with cope, incense, acolytes. There should further be 
assistants to the celebrant who wear copes. On ordinary 
Sundays there should be two such assistants, in some sort 
corresponding to the deacon and subdeacon at Mass. On 
greater feasts there may be four or six. Since they wear the 
cope, according to the usual rule these assistants should have 
at least minor orders.^ The celebrant must always be a priest. 
It is supposed, normally, that where vespers are sung there 
is a liturgical choir placed in seats or stalls on either side of 
the altar, though it is possible to celebrate vespers without 
such a choir. 

For vespers little preparation is needed. In the sacristy 
the surplices are made ready for the servers and choir. The 
acolytes' candles are lit, the thurible waits at its usual place 
till the thurifer shall come to prepare the incense. For the 
celebrant a surplice is prepared at the vesting table, or a 
rochet and amice if he have the right to use them, also a cope 
of the colour of vespers.' This colour is the same as that 
for a corresponding Mass, with this exception: if the vespers 
are **a capitulo de sequenti," the colour from the beginning 
is that of the last part. If there are assistants in copes the 
required number of surplices and copes (of the same colour) 
are prepared for them. 

In the sanctuary the sedile or bench, on the epistle side, is 
ready for the celebrant, as at Mass.^ In front of it there 

^ They need not be in Holy Orders. 

^ The celebrant at Vespers (or at any part of the divine office, except 
funeral offices, p. 419) is not to wear a stole. See p. 201, n. 7. 

^ The Caer. Ep. says it should be covered with a cloth. The celebrant 
may, however, have his place in the first stall of the choir, on either side, 
according to custom (Lib. II, cap. iii, § 4; cfr. Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, 
p. 14, § 3). If he has, it makes practically no difference to the ceremony. 
The acolytes, assistants, and so on go to him here, as they would to the 
sedile. 

199 



200 lEvcninQ Semces 

should be a carpet with a lectern, covered with a silk cloth of 
the colour of the office ; ^ on this lectern a vesperal or breviary 
may be placed. This should also have a covering of the 
liturgical colour. Near the sedile a stool is placed for the 
M.C., unless he will have a place somewhere else near.^ If 
benches or stools are prepared in the middle of the choir facing 
the altar, one on either side,^ these should be covered with 
green cloths. Or, instead of benches, rows of stools may stand 
here, one for each assistant. It is usual, though the Cere- 
monial does not prescribe it, to place another lectern in the 
middle of the choir, at which the cantors will intone the 
psalms.'* On it a vesperal should lie. 

The cover which protects the altar cloths is removed before 
vespers begin. The frontal and tabernacle veil (if there is one) 
are of the colour of the office. The six large altar candles are 
lighted. If other altars are to be incensed (p. 206), they are 
prepared in the same way, with candles lighted. 

The persons who take part in the service are the celebrant, 
always a priest, two, four, or six assistants in copes, if pos- 
sible, according to the solemnity of the day, two cantors, a 
Master of Ceremonies, thurifer, two acolytes, and members ot 
the choir. When there are many assistants in copes a second 
M.C. directs them; at other times he sits in choir. Except 
the celebrant and assistant in copes, all wear choir dress. 



§2. RULES FOR THE CHOIR 

In whichever of the manners to be described vespers are 
celebrated, the rules for the liturgical choir are the same. Its 
members generally enter the church in procession following 
the acolytes, unless they are already in their places for some 
preceding service. They come in pairs, genuflect to the altar, 
bow to each other, and go to their places in the stalls, as in 
the case of High Mass (p. 28). Here they stand till the cele- 
brant and his assistants come before the altar. All kneel then 
to say the silent prayer Aperi Doniine, They stand to say 
silently the Lord's Prayer and Ave Maria. When the first 
psalm has been intoned they sit. 

^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. iii, § 4. It is not uncommon to dispense with 
the lectern. 

^ The Caer. Ep. does not determine any special seat for the M.C. to 
occupy when he is not engaged. He may sit in any convenient place 
near the celebrant. Cfr. Le Vavasseur, i, p. 537. 

^ If there are only two assistants they often sit on either side of the 
celebrant. See below, p. 203, n. 2. 

* Cfr. Le Vavasseur, i, p. 538. The Caer. Ep. (Lib. II, cap. vi, § 7) 
supposes this lectern at matins. 



Despers 201 

They bow and uncover (if they wear the biretta) at the verse 
Gloria Patri at the end of each psalm, at the holy Name, 
the name of Mary, of the Saint of the office or commemora- 
tion, the word Trinitas^ or the three divine Persons, at the 
last verse (Doxology) of all hymns, at verse 2 {^Sit nomen 
Domini benedicturn) of Psalm 112 [Laiidate pueri). As each 
antiphon is intoned all stand meanwhile/ All stand during" 
the chapter, hymn and so the end of Vespers, except that they 
sit again while the antiphon of the Magnificat is sung before 
and after. ^ They kneel if the Preces feriales are said. They 
kneel during the anthem of the Blessed Virgin, at the end, 
except on Saturdays, Sundays, and during all Paschal time. 
They kneel during the first verse of the hymns Ave maris 
Stella and Veni creator^ during the verse Tantiun ergo of the 
Pange lingua^ if the Sanctissimum is present on the altar, ^ 
during the whole verse O cmx ave spes unica in the hymn 
Vexilla regis .^ At the Magnificat^ when they are incensed, 
they bow as at Mass (p. 27). 



§ 3. VESPERS WITH ASSISTANTS 

It will be convenient first to describe what should be the 
normal ceremonies on Sunday, when clerks in copes assist 
the celebrant, then to add how the modifications should be 
made, when it is impossible to carry out the whole of this 
rite.' 

In the sacristy the celebrant ® vests in a surplice or rochet,"' 
and over it a cope of the colour of the day. On Sundays he 

^ Caer. Ep.y Lib. II, cap. iii, § 8. But the S.R.C., 12 iul. 1892, no. 3781, 
ad II allows the custom that only those on. the side where it is intoned 
stand. 

^ If it is doubled {Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. iii, § 10). If it is not doubled, 
they sit only while it is sung- at the end. 

^ Certainly if the Sanctissimum is exposed (S.R.C., 14 November 1676, 
no. 1583, ad VII); if it is in the tabernacle the custom, either way, may 
be observed (S.R.C., 4 August 1663, no. 1280, ad II). 

* According- to the rubric in the new psalter of 191 1. 

" There are considerable differences in the details of \'espers as de- 
scribed by modern authors (Van der Stappen, De Herdt, Le Vavasseur, 
Wapelhorst, Baldeschi). There is much more variety of local custom 
here than at Mass. Martinucci, admitting- this, claims that his statement 
of the ceremonies corresponds exactly with the rules of the Caer, Ep.^ 
which is the only authentic standard (3rd ed., I, ii, p. 14, n.). On com- 
paring- his text I find that this is so. The account here g-iven follows 
Martinucci and the Caer. Ep. I add in notes the local differences common 
in England. 

® See Preface, p. x. 

"^ If he have the rig-ht to wear a rochet. The S.R.C. formally forbids 
the use of a stole at Vespers (no. 2956, ad \^), except in the one case 
when the Sanctissimum is exposed immediately before, and Benediction 
follows immediately after (19 September 1883, no. 3593, ad II). 



202 lEventno Services 

should have two assistants who wear exactly the same dress/ 
The first assistant vests the celebrant. They, and the cele- 
brant, wear the biretta. The procession is formed and goes 
to the church, all bowing first to the cross in the sacristy. 
The thurifer goes first with hands joined, not carrying the 
thurible; then the two acolytes holding their candles burning, 
the choir (if there is a liturgical choir), the M.C., the two 
cantors, lastly the celebrant between his assistants, who hold 
the ends of his cope. The acolytes come to the altar and stand 
on either side, the members of the choir go to their places, 
the cantors with them to places generally at the ends of the 
stalls nearest the people. The M.C. stands aside on the epistle 
side; the celebrant and assistants come before the altar. 
These three bow to the altar (or genuflect if the Sanctissimum 
is reserved there), the servers genuflect. The celebrant and 
assistants kneel on the lowest altar step and say the prayer 
Apert Domine silently. Meanwhile the acolytes go to the 
epistle side, and set their candles on the lowest step. Or they 
may place them one on either side of the altar. They extin- 
guish them,' then go^ with the thurifer, to their places.^ 

When the celebrant has finished the prayer, he rises, again 
bows or genuflects to the altar with the assistants ; they bow 
to the choir on either side, first to the side opposite the 
place to which they will now go. They go to the sedile. The 
assistants stand here, facing each other, on the floor of the 
sanctuary; the M.C. is at his right. The Caerimoniale says 
that he sits and rests a moment.* Then he rises and says 
silently the Pater noster a.nd Ave Maria. The M.C. lifts the 
right end of the celebrant's cope; he makes the sign of the cross, 
singing Deus in adiutorium inetivi intende. The others make 
the sign of the cross with him.' The choir continues, answer- 
ing the verse. At the words Gloria Patri^ etc., all bow 
towards the altar. 

While the verse Sictit erat is sung, the first assistant goes 
to genuflect to the altar, accompanied by the M.C. ; ^ he comes 
before the celebrant, bows low, and pre-intones the first anti- 
phon to him. This means that he sings its first words, as far 

' They are not to wear dalmatic and tunicle. 

^ Martinucci says *' where it is the custom" (I, ii, p. i6, § 12). Le 
Vavasseur (i, p. 548, § 35) says the candles are extingfuished. 

" This is the plain direction of the Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. iii, § 2. In 
many churches, however, it is the custom that the acolytes do not now 
extinguish their candles, but come with them to stand before the cele- 
brant while he intones " Deus in adiutorium intende," then g-o back to 
the altar and put out their candles. Though there is no justification for 
this in the Caer. Ep., it may perhaps be tolerated as a local custom. It 
agrees with the general practice that the acolytes hold their candles 
before the celebrant whenever he sings alone, and it adds some solemnity 
to the beginning of Vespers. 

* Caer. Ep.y Lib. II, cap. iii, § 5: " sedet ibi paululum." 

' S. R.C., no. 3156. '^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. iii, § 6. 



20' 



IDespers 

as the asterisk, in a low voice, before him. Then the celebrant 
repeats the same words to the same notes ; ^ the choir takes 
up the antiphon and continues, if it is a double. As soon as 
the celebrant has intoned the antiphon, the assistants bow to 
him, go before the altar, genuflect, and go to the bench or 
stools prepared for them in the middle of the choir.' As the 







^ ^ ^ 





















w 



AAA 



,&AA 



W 



FIG. 27- VESPERS WITH SIX ASSISTANTS : DURIN"G THE PSALMS 



antiphon is sung, or, if it is not a double, while the celebrant 
intones its first words the two cantors come out from their 



^ This curious ceremony of " pre-intoning" " is obviously a remnant of 
the days when it was necessary. The cantor or assistant was the expert 
who showed the other man what to sing-. It cannot be said to be beauti- 
ful. It is not an improvement to the music to hear one man almost hum 
a few notes to another who then repeats them louder; nor does it make 
sense of the words to repeat a phrase, meaning^less of itself, twice over. 
It would seem more reasonable that those who are to intone should learn 
the notes at home before the service begins. However, the pre-intoning- 
is formally prescribed in the Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. iii, §§ 6, 8. In small 
churches, where this rule cannot be obeyed, the dignity of the office 
gains considerably thereby. 

- In some churches the two assistants sit on either side of the celebrant. 
See Van der Stappen, i, p. 416. 



204 Bventno Services 

places in the choir, genuflect to the altar, stand in the middle 
(before the lectern, if there is one), and in due time intone the 
first psalm, singing the whole first verse. As soon as they 
begin all sit, the celebrant, assistants and members of the 
choir put on the biretta, the M.C. handing his to the celebrant 
with the solita oscula. The cantors, having sung the first 
verse, bow to that side of the choir which, by arrangement, 
should sing the second. They then go back to their places. 
The choir continues the psalm ; all uncover and bow at the 
Gloria Patri\ then, when the psalm is ended, sing the anti- 
phon. While the antiphon is sung at the end of the psalm the 
cantors again come to the middle, genuflect, and ^o to stand 
before the person of highest rank in the choir, to pre-intone 
the next antiphon to him. If there is no person of higher 
rank, they ^q to him whose place is nearest the altar, in the 
farthest row, on the gospel side. They pre-intone the anti- 
phon to him as before, singing its first words in a low voice. 
He repeats what they have sung, the choir continues. The 
cantors ^o back to their places, again genuflecting before 
the altar. The same process is repeated at the antiphon ot 
each psalm ; the cantors ^o next to the person of next highest 
rank, or to the one nearest the altar on the epistle side, then 
to the second on the gospel side, and so on. When they 
come before him who is to intone, and bow to him he rises, 
and all the choir with him,^ not the celebrant nor the assist- 
ants in copes. 

Towards the end of the fifth psalm the acolytes ^o to the 
altar and light their candles. It is better for one of them, the 
first, to do this. The assistants in copes rise with them; then 
they and the acolytes come before the celebrant. They all 
genuflect to the altar and bow to the celebrant when they 
come before him. The acolytes stand, one on either side, 
facing each other, the assistants on the ground facing each 
other. When the last antiphon is finished, the celebrant 
rises, and all the choir with him. He first hands his biretta to 
the M.C, who receives it, as always, with the solita oscula. 
Standing he sings the chapter ; the choir answer Deo gratias. 
The first assistant then pre-intones the hymn to him, singing 
its first line not loud. The celebrant repeats this. Then the 
acolytes and assistants bow to him, and ^o before the altar. 
All genuflect, the assistants go back to their place, the 
acolytes set down their candles on the altar step, not ex- 
tinguishing them, and stand before them. The choir con- 
tinues the hymn. Towards the end of the hymn the thurifer 
goes to the sacristy and prepares the incense, comes out with 
the thurible and incense boat, genuflects to the altar, and 
waits standing in the sanctuary. While the last verse of the 
hymn is sung the cantors come to the middle, genuflect and 

^ See p. 201, n. j. 



Despers 205 

then, when the hymn Is finished, sing* the versicle ot the 
office, the choir answering. They go back to their places, the 
first assistant comes to the celebrant, genuflecting to the altar 
and bowing to him, and pre-intones the antiphon of the 
Magnificat. The celebrant intones the same words, then, if 
the antiphon is doubled, sits and puts on his biretta. All sit 
with him; the choir continues the antiphon. The cantors come 
to the middle and sing the first verse of the Magnificat. As 
soon as they begin, the celebrant and all in choir rise, and 
make the sign of the cross. ^ The celebrant goes to the altar, 
accompanied by the M.C. (if other altars are to be incensed, 
the M.C. brings the celebrant's biretta) ; they bow to the choir 
on either side, the assistants join them before the altar. The 
celebrant and assistants bow to the altar (or genuflect if the 
Sanctissimum is reserved there) ; the thurifer also comes up, 
he and the M.C. genuflect in any case. The assistants on 
either side of the celebrant hold the ends of his cope ; between 
them he goes up to the altar, kisses it, turns to the epistle 
side, puts on and blesses incense. The first assistant holds 
the incense boat, and says Benedicite Pater reverende, minis- 
tering the spoon, as the deacon at Mass. The second holds 
aside the right end of the cope. The celebrant blesses the in- 
cense with the usual form Ab illo benedicaris^ etc. He incenses 
the altar as at Mass (p. 121), the assistants on either side 
holding up the cope. At the epistle corner he hands the thur- 
ible to the first assistant, who receives it with the solita oscula, 
and hands it to the thurifer. The celebrant comes to the 
middle before the altar, between the assistants, there bows, 
or genuflects with them and goes back to his seat, bowing to 
the choir first. The assistants remain in the middle of the 
sanctuary facing the celebrant, the first takes the thurible and 
incenses him with three double swings, bowing before and 
after. He gives the thurible back to the thurifer; both assist- 
ants gQ to their benches. The thurifer incenses the choir as 
at Mass (p. 118), then the assistants, giving- one double swing 
to each, the acolytes, and lastly the people, as at Mass (p. 93). 
The singers must take care not to end the Magnificat too soon. 
For this reason, if the incensing takes long (and especially if 
other altars are incensed), the organ should play between the 
verses, or at the end of the last verse, before the Gloria Patri. 
The Gloria Patri of the Magnificat should not begin till the 
thurifer has incensed the people. While it is sung, unless he 
has already finished and has gone back to the sacristy, he will 
stand facing the altar and bowing, at the place where he has 
last incensed. Then he genuflects and goes to put away the 
thurible in the sacristy. He comes back to his place, and has 

^ The sig-n of the cross is not prescribed in the Caer. Ep. The S.R.C. 
declares it a praiseworthy custom, observed at Rome (20 December 
1864, no. 3127). 



2o6 JEvcnirxQ Services 

no further duty. After the verse Sz'cu^ erat has been sung, all 
sit during the antiphon at the end. Meanwhile the acolytes 
take up their candles and ^q to the altar, the assistants in 
copes also rise and ^q \.o the place just behind the acolytes. 
All genuflect, come to the celebrant and bow to him. The 
acolytes ag-ain stand one on either side as before, the assist- 
ants face each other. When the antiphon is ended the cele- 
brant uncovers, rises and all rise with him. He sings Doniinus 
vobiscu77iy and the collect of the office. If there are commemora- 
tions, the cantors go to the middle (at the lectern). The choir 
sing the antiphon of each commemoration, the cantors the 
versicle, the celebrant the collect. Then the celebrant sings 
Domimis vohisciun^ and the cantors Benedicamus Domino. 
While they sing this the acolytes bow to the celebrant, go to 
the altar, do not this time genuflect, but stand there on either 
side. When the choir has answered Deo gratias to the verse 
Be7iedicar)ius Domino^ the celebrant in a lower voice says 
FideliuTU afiitnaey etc. He says silently the Lord's Prayer, 
then aloud, Dominus det nobis suam pacem. He says, in a 
low voice, the anthem of the Blessed Virgin for the season; 
the choir continues in the same way.^ The celebrant says the 
versicle and collect of that anthem, then Divinuvi auxilium 
nianeat semper nobiscum. The choir answers Anien^ and 
vespers are ended. 

Unless another service follows, all form in procession before 
the altar, make the usual reverence to it, and go out, as they 
came. 



§ 4. ON INCENSING OTHER ALTARS AT VESPERS 

If the Sanctissimum is exposed on the altar of the choir where 
vespers are sung, no other altar may be incensed, under any 
circumstances. Otherwise, if the Sanctissimum is reserved at 
another altar, this altar must be incensed first, before that of 
the choir. The altar in the choir will be incensed next. If it is 
the custom, other altars in the church may then be incensed 
also. Candles (six, or at least two) should be lit on each, at 
least for the time when they are incensed. The celebrant puts 
on and blesses the incense once only, at the first altar in- 
censed. The thurifer may add more incense himself, if this is 
necessary. 

^ This is the rule of the Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. iii, § 15. It is, however, 
lawful to sing the anthem (Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, ii, p. 21, n. i). The 
liturgical books say nothing about the celebrant, assistants and servers 
going to stand (or kneel) before the altar during the anthem of our Lady 
at the end. Clearly, they do not contemplate this, but suppose that all 
remain in their places. To go before the altar is, however, a common 
custom in many churches in England (and elsewhere also). Allowed by 
the bishops, it may be considered lawful. 



IDespers 207 

In going to incense other altars the celebrant may be ac- 
companied by some canons or members of the choir. In this 
case the M.C. must give them a sign in time, so that they 
come out from their places and form in the procession. In 
going to the other altars the thurifer leads; the acolytes follow 
the M.C, celebrant between the assistants, who hold the 
ends of his cope. The others follow him. The celebrant and 
assistants wear their birettas while going from one altar to 
the other. At each altar they make the usual reverences ; the 
celebrant incenses it, as already described, in the case of the 
High Altar. When all have been incensed the procession 
comes back to the choir, all go to their places, and the cele- 
brant is incensed. 



§ 5. VESPERS WITH MORE THAN TWO ASSISTANTS 

IN COPES 

The Caerimonlale episcoporum orders that Vespers should 
be celebrated with two assistants, as described above, on Sun- 
days and feasts observed by the people ; it then adds that on 
certain greater days there should be four or six assistants. 

The rule is that there be two assistants on ordinary Sun- 
days and on feasts of the second class in the week, with the 
exceptions noted in the Caerimoniale. On the following 
feasts six assistants are required : Christmas, Epiphany, 
Easter, Ascension Day, Whitsunday, Corpus Christi, St. Peter 
and St. Paul, the Assumption, All Saints, the patron of the 
church, patron of the city, dedication of the church. 

There should be four assistants in copes on the days fol- 
lowing Christmas, Easter, Whitsunday, on the Circumcision, 
Candlemas, Lady Day, Our Lady's Birthday, the feast of the 
Holy Trinity and St. John the Baptist. These are the days 
prescribed in the Caerimoniale.^ It is, however, a question 
whether the lists should not be modified in view of the new 
classification of feasts in the decree " Divino afilatu " (i Nov. 
1911).^ 

This rule supposes the power to carry it out. In churches 
where so many clerks in minor orders are not available the 
number must be reduced according to the capacity of the 
clergy. 

The changes in the ceremony when there are more than 
two assistants are these : 

When there are four, the first two do all that has been 
described above, the other two take the part of cantors ; so 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. iii, §§ 16-17. 

^ The doubt occurs because the S. C. Cone, has explained that nothing- 
is to be changed as to the solemnity of Mass and Vespers. It is not clear 
whether this is a case in point. Cfr. Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, ii, p. 23, 
n. I. 



2o8 iSvcninQ Services 

that in this case it would perhaps be simpler to say that the 
cantors wear copes. However, these cantors in copes come 
to stand before the celebrant with the others ; they come to 
the altar when it is incensed and stay before its lowest step. 
The last of them incenses the choir instead of the thurifer; 
he is then incensed by the thurifer at his place ; the thurifer 
incenses the people. 

If there are six assistants in copes, the first two perform 
all their office described above, as if there were but two, the 
next two accompany them, and one of them incenses the 
choir ; the last two are the cantors. But however many there 



M 



^ 






^ ^ iS. 

MAM 



m 



k 



a. First Position. b. Position after Bowing. 

FIG. 28. VESPERS WITH SIX ASSISTANTS : THE CHAPTER 



are, all stand before the celebrant and before the altar when 
it is incensed. When they stand before the celebrant at the 
chapter, and again when they stand before the altar while it 
is incensed, they first form in straight line and bow; then the 
others go to stand behind the first two, making lines, one 
behind the other, as at processions. This position is called 
" bini et bini." All go with the celebrant to incense other 
altars, all wear the biretta. In the processions coming in, 
going out, and to other altars, the first two walk on either 
side of the celebrant holding the cope, the others go immedi- 
ately before him. 

The benches or stools in the middle of the choir are prepared 
for the number of assistants; all sit here in line, half their 
number on either side. 



IDespers 



209 



§ 6. VESPERS WITHOUT CEREMONIES 

During the week, on ferias and lesser feasts, there are no 
assistants ; the celebrant sits at the first place in the choir, 
he wears no cope ; there are neither acolytes nor thurifer, the 
altar is not incensed. There are no ceremonies at all, except 
observance of the rules for the choir as to rising, bowing*, and 
so on. There may be cantors or precentors. The office is 
sung straight through, as, for instance, compline. 







* ^ * 






&%& 















4> 



A A i 



FIG. 29. VESPERS WITH SIX ASSISTANTS : INCENSING THE ALTAR 

After genuflecting- the fifth and sixth Assistants go to stand behind 

the third and fourth 



§ 7. BEFORE THE BLESSED SACRAMENT EXPOSED^ 

If the Sanctissimum is exposed immediately before vespers, 
the celebrant comes to the church wearing a stole under the 
cope. If Benediction is to follow immediately after vespers 
he may wear this stole during vespers." If another priest 
exposes the Sanctissimum he wears a stole only while so 
doing. 

In the case in which the Sanctissimum is exposed immedi- 
ately before vespers, two torch-bearers at least will come 
out in the procession. They kneel behind the acolytes. The 
thurifer carries the thurible with lighted charcoal. 

^ This case will occur especially on Corpus Christi and during- the 
forty hours' adoration. 
2 S.R.C., no. 3593, ad II. 



^ 



2IO iBvcninQ Services 

The Blessed Sacrament is exposed on the throne and in- 
censed as usual (pp. 247-248). Then, kneeling before the altar, 
the celebrant says the prayer Aperi Domine. He genuflects 
on both knees ^ at the lowest altar step and goes to his seat. 
The acolytes leave their candles burning before the altar. The 
thurifer and torch-bearers ^o back to the sacristy. 

If the Sanctissimum is already exposed, the procession 
comes out without incense or torches. As soon as they are 
in sight of the throne of exposition all uncover. All make a 
prostration on both knees on the ground before the altar.""^ 
Vespers proceed as usual. But the acolytes leave their candles 
burning before the altar ; all kisses and reverences to persons 
are omitted, even to a bishop if he be present. All should 
stand the whole time. If this is found too fatiguing, at least 
no one covers the head during any part of the service.^ At 
the Magnificat the celebrant puts on incense and blesses it 
at the gospel side. Then he comes down to the second altar 
step and incenses the Sanctissimum with three double swings, 
bowing low before and after. He incenses the altar, but not 
the cross. He and others are incensed as usual; but no one 
should turn his back to the altar. No other altar may be in- 
censed.* 

§ 8. VESPERS FOR THE DEAD 

Vespers for the dead may be sung the evening before any 
day on which a Requiem Mass is allowed, under the same 
conditions. 

The altar is covered in black (or violet if the Sanctissimum 
is there reserved) ; the celebrant's cope is black. There are 
no assistants in copes and no use of incense. The antiphons 
are not pre-intoned by the celebrant or members of the choir. 
Two cantors intone the psalms. The antiphons are doubled ; 
they should be sung straight through by the choir ; in case of 
necessity the cantors may begin them. After the intonation 
of the first psalm all sit, and remain seated till the Magnificat. 
Then they rise and stand. The altar is not incensed. AH sit 
again while the antiphon is repeated at the end of the Mag- 
nificat. Then they kneel and remain kneeling during the 
Pater noster and prayers that follow. The celebrant alone 
stands as he says the collect and during the versicles. 

The acolytes do not come before the celebrant with candles ; 
they have no office at vespers for the Dead.* 

^ Against the general rule, p. 21. ^ lb. 

^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. xxxiii, § 33. 
*■ S.R.C. , no. 2390, ad V'l. 

* As far as the ceremonies are concerned, vespers of All Souls follow 
these same rules. 



IDespers 211 



§9. VESPERS IN SMALL CHURCHES 

In many churches it is not possible to provide a liturgical 
choir on either side of the altar, nor assistants in copes. In 
this case vespers should be celebrated with as much of the 
ceremonies of the Caerimoniale episcoporum as possible. 
Van der Stappen draws up the following- form, corresponding, 
more or less, to that of a Missa cantata, when it is not pos- 
sible to celebrate High Mass.^ 

Van der Stappen supposes the presence of two acolytes and 
a thurifer only, with the celebrant. It should, however, gener- 
ally be possible to add to these a Master of Ceremonies, per- 
haps, in some cases, two cantors. In front of the sedile a 
lectern may stand; but this is not necessary. The celebrant 
may, and often does, hold his book in his own hand when he 
stands to read. 

The procession described by Van der Stappen consists of 
the two acolytes and celebrant. The thurifer may, however, 
go first, without the thurible, the M.C. before the celebrant, 
the cantors holding the ends of his cope. If there are no 
cantors the M.C. may go at his right and hold the cope there. ^ 
Before the altar, when the usual genuflection has been made 
(the celebrant bowing or genuflecting according to the rule), 
the acolytes take their candles to the epistle side, put them 
there and extinguish them.^ The M.C. will take the celebrant's 
biretta and go with him to the sedile. The celebrant intones 
the first versicle Deus in adiutoriiim meum inteiide^ the choir 
continues. The antiphons of each psalm are sung by the 
singers, wherever they may be. It will be convenient for one 
or two leaders to begin them, as far as the asterisk. If there 
are cantors with the celebrant they will sit on either side of 
the sanctuary, come together at the middle, genuflect, then 
stand to intone each psalm, genuflect again, and go back to 
their places. Otherwise the psalms, too, may be begun in the 
gallery, or wherever the singers are. It will be of advantage 
if they are begun by one or two competent leaders, then taken 
up by all. A good arrangement is that the special singers 
chant alternately with the whole congregation. 

The celebrant uncovers and bows at the verse Gloria Patri 
each time, also at the verse Sit 7iomen Doniine benedictum in 
the psalm Laudate pueri^ at the holy Name, the name of 
Mary and of the saint of the office or commemoration. 

^ Van der Stappen, Sacra Liturgia^ i, pp. 411-415. 

•^ It does not look very well for one person on one side only to hold the 
end of the cope. This is, however, often done. The liturg-ical books 
always suppose two, one on either side. If two cannot be had, it is a 
question whether it would not be better to leave the cope unheld. 

^ But see p. 202, n. 3. 



2 1 2 iBvcnim Services 

Towards the end of the fifth psalm the first acolyte ligfhts 
the candles ; during the last antiphon the acolytes come to the 
middle, take their candles, genuflect together before the altar, 
come to the celebrant, bow to him, then stand one on either 
side, facing one another. The celebrant uncovers, gives his 
biretta to the M.C., who lays it on the sedile, then rises and 
standing at his place chants the chapter. The acolytes then 
bow to him, go to the altar, genuflect and set down their 
candles on the lowest altar step, one on either side, not extin- 
guishing them. They stand before the candles. 

At the first verses of the hymns Veni creator and Ave maris 
Stella the celebrant, M.C., and servers in the sanctuary kneel. 
In this case the acolytes do not kneel, but stay standing on 
either side of the celebrant till the verse is ended. All kneel 
also during the verse Tantum ergo in the hymn Pange lingiia, 
if the Sanctissimum is exposed, or if it be reserved in the 
tabernacle ; ^ also during the verse O crux ave spes unica in 
the Vexilla regis. In these two cases, since the acolytes are 
before the altar, they kneel there. The cantors, or the cele- 
brant, sing the versicle after the hymn. The altar must be 
incensed when the celebrant wears the cope, even if there be 
no assistants in copes. ^ 

The thurifer goes out towards the end of the hymn and 
prepares the thurible. He comes back with it, genuflects and 
stands waiting, in the sanctuary towards the gospel side. If 
the antiphons are doubled the celebrant sits while the antiphon 
of the Magnificat is sung first. Then he rises and makes the 
sign of the cross (all in the sanctuary doing the same) as the 
first words of the canticle are sung. He goes to the altar, 
genuflects or bows (according to the usual rule), goes up and 
kisses the altar. The thurifer and M.C. join him here. He 
puts on and blesses incense as usual. 

While he incenses the altar the M.C. may hold the end of 
the cope on his right and the thurifer on his left. He hands 
the thurible to the M.C, genuflects in the middle, and goes 
to the sedile. The M. C. incenses him with three double swings, 
bowing before and after. The thurifer incenses the M.C. (who 
has gone to his place by the celebrant's side), the acolytes, 
and people. The M.C. and acolytes receive each one double 
swing; in incensing the people he bows, incenses with one 
double swing straight down the church, then with one swing- 
to the gospel side, one to the epistle side, then again bows, 
turns round, genuflects to the altar, and goes out. He comes 
back without the thurible and takes his place in the sanctuary. 

When the Magnificat is finished, the celebrant sits and puts 

on his biretta. The acolytes again come to him and stand on 

either side as before ; he sings Dominus vobisc^nn and the 

collect. If there are commemorations, the cantors may sing 

^ See p. 20 1, n. 3. ^ S.R.C., no. 3844, ad II. 



Despers 213 

the verslcle for each, or the celebrant may do so himself. 
The cantors may sing- the verse Benedicavius Domino (or the 
celebrant) ; the acolytes go back to the altar and set down 
their candles. The celebrant, still standing-, says silently the 
Lord's Prayer, then in a low voice Dominus det nobis suam 
pacem and the Anthem of the Blessed Virgin,^ during which 
he kneels, except on Saturdays and Sundays and during all 
Eastertide. The celebrant then takes his biretta, goes to the 
altar, bows or genuflects, and all ^q out as they came in, 
unless Benediction or some other service follow immediately. 

^ See p. 206, n. i. 



CHAPTER XX 
PONTIFICAL VESPERS 

§ I. VESPERS IN THE PRESENCE OF A BISHOP 
AT THE THRONE 

THERE is a difference between vespers celebrated 
by a bishop and vespers celebrated by a priest 
when a bishop is present. 
The first case is when a bishop assists at ves- 
pers celebrated byapriest, himself using* the throne/ 
It is supposed in this case, first that the bishop is the Ordin- 
ary or other gfreater prelate, as described at p. 32, since these 
alone have, normally, the right to use a throne;^ secondly, 
that the bishop will the next morning, in the same way, assist 
at High Mass. 

The church and altar are prepared as usual for vespers, 
except that no lectern is placed before the seat of the cele- 
brant. Further the throne is covered with a canopy and cloths 
of the colour of the office. A faldstool or kneeling-desk is pre- 
pared in the middle of the sanctuary, and another in the chapel 
of the Blessed Sacrament.^ These are adorned as always in 
such cases (see p. 149, n. 2). Near the throne are the three 
stools for the assistant deacons and priest. Four or six candles 
stand at the entrance of the sanctuary, and are lighted. It is 
supposed in the liturgical books that the chapter is present, as 
when the Ordinary assists at High Mass (p. 151). 

The celebrant (supposed to be a canon) vests in the sacristy, 
wearing on this occasion an amice under his cope; "* his assist- 
ants wear only surplice and cope. The servers are those for 
solemn Vespers. All go in procession to the sanctuary, say 
the prayer Aperi Domme before the altar, and go to their 
places to await the bishop. The celebrant goes to the sedile. 
His assistants in copes stand on either side of him, not facing 
him, lest they turn their back to the throne, but looking in the 
same direction as he does. 

Meanwhile the canons go to the door of the church to re- 
ceive the bishop. The bishop wears cappa magna and biretta. 
They offer him holy water, and he sprinkles them. He goes 
to the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament and there prays for a 
short time. He comes to the sanctuary and kneels again at 
the faldstool or kneeling-desk. Two canons in choir dress 
serve as his assistant deacons. They kneel on either side of 
him, rather behind the faldstool. 

^ Martinucci-Meng-hini (3rd ed., 1914), Pars II, vol. i, cap. viii, art. iii 
(pp. 197-206); Le Vavasseur, Fonct. Pont.^ i, pp. 247-253. 

^ But the Ordinary may allow the use of his throne to certain other 
bishops (see p. 163, n. 2). 

^ The Sanctissimum should not be reserved at the Higfh Altar during 
pontifical functions. 

* Martinucci, /.c, p. 198, § 6. 

ai4 



pontifical IDeepers 



21 



:> 



As the bishop enters the sanctuary the celebrant and his 
assistants stand. He blesses them ; according to the general 
rule the assistants kneel, the celebrant bows low. While 
the bishop kneels at the faldstool all in choir and sanctuary 
kneel too. 

The bishop rises, bows to the altar, blesses the celebrant 
and his assistants, and goes to the throne. Here he sits for a 
moment and puts on his biretta. All in choir sit at the same 
time, the assistant deacons on either side of the throne on 
the stools prepared for them. Then the bishop rises and all 
with him. He hands his biretta to the first assistant deacon, 
who receives it with the solita oscula; all say silently the 
Lord's Prayer and Ave Maria. Vespers then proceed as 
usual. The celebrant bows to the bishop, and intones Deus 
in adiutorium tneuTti intende. All the pre-intonation of antiphons 
and so on is as usual (p. 203). The bishop takes no part in this. 
The first and second assistant in copes sit one on either side 
of the celebrant, the others (if there are others) at the bench 
in the middle of the sanctuary. In going to and fro in the 
sanctuary everyone genuflects to the altar, then to the bishop, 
except the celebrant and canons, who bow to him. As soon as 
the first psalm is intoned the canon who is to be A. P. comes 
to his place by the bishop. The chapter is not read by the 
celebrant, but by a member of the choir invited for that pur- 
pose by the M.C. He comes out, makes the usual reverence 
to altar and bishop and reads the chapter, at the place where 
the subdeacon at Mass reads the epistle. Meanwhile the 
bishop and all others uncover and stand. During the an- 
tiphon before the Magnificat the thurifer brings the thurible 
to the throne, genuflecting as usual first to the altar then to 
the bishop, then kneeling. The bishop puts on and blesses 
the incense, the A. P. holds the boat. The celebrant with the 
first two assistants in copes goes to the altar, making the 
usual reverence to the bishop on the way. The thurifer brings 
him the incense here ; he incenses the altar as usual, first kiss- 
ing it as soon as he comes up to it. He is then incensed by 
the first assistant in cope, while he stands, not at the sedile 
but at the epistle corner of the altar. The thurifer takes the 
thurible to the A. P., who incenses the bishop with three double 
swings. All proceeds as usual to the versicle Be7iedicamiis 
Domino. The verse Fideliiini animae is not sung. The chap- 
lains with book and hand-candle come to the throne, the 
bishop wearing his biretta gives his blessing in the episcopal 
form, singing first the verses Sit nomen Do^nini^ etc. If he is 
an archbishop, his cross is held before him and he is un- 
covered. The faldstool is brought again to the middle. The 
bishop goes to it and prays there for a little time, all in choir 
kneeling too, except the celebrant and his assistants, who 
stand and bow. The bishop, accompanied by canons, goes 



2i6 iBvcnxm Services 

to the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament and then leaves the 
church. As soon as he has left the sanctuary, the celebrant 
and the rest go to the sacristy. The anthem of the Blessed 
Virg-in is not said. 



§ 2. VESPERS IN PRESENCE OF A BISHOP WHO IS 
NOT THE ORDINARY 

Except in the case of the Ordinary or a greater prelate, there 
is no special ceremony when a bishop assists at vespers. A 
bishop other than the Ordinary, dressed in rochet and mantel- 
lettum, has the first place in choir. He is treated as the 
person of greatest dignity, incensed first, and so on. 



§ 3. VESPERS BY THE ORDINARY, WHO WILL SING 
MASS THE NEXT DAY 

This is the case of gfreatest solemnity.^ It is supposed that 
the whole celebration of a feast is one thing", begfinning at 
the first vespers the evening before. If then the bishop of 
the diocese, or other greater prelate, intends to celebrate all 
the feast himself, there are special ceremonies at the first 
vespers. There is another rite, slightly modified, if the 
bishop celebrates vespers on other occasions, not as the first 
part of a solemnity to be continued by his High Mass the 
next morning.^ This will be described below (§ 4, p. 225). 
The Caerimoniale episcoporum says: " If the bishop will 
solemnly celebrate Mass the following day, vespers are 
carried out with more solemnity than if he were not to do 
so."^ There follows a list of feasts on which day this con- 
nected celebration of vespers and Mass should especially be 
carried out.* But the bishop may use the same solemnity at 
the second vespers, if he has sung the High Mass in the 
morning, at least on certain greatest days of all." 

The things to prepare beforehand are much the same as 
those for Pontifical High Mass at the throne, except that the 
secretarium is not needed, and the vestments are diff"erent. It 
is supposed that the Sanctissimum is not reserved at the time 
on the high altar. 

In the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament the frontal and 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. i; Martinucci-Menghini, II, i, pp. 65-81; 
Le Vavasseur, Fonct. Pont.., i, pp. 176-187. 

■^ Namely in the same church and at the same altar. 

•'' Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. i, § 2. 

* Christmas, Epiphany (not Easter, because its first vespers are part 
of the morning- service on Holy Saturday), Ascension, Pentecost, SS. 
Peter and Paul, Assumption, All Saints, Dedication, and Patron of the 
church. Patron of the city (ib.). 

' Easter, Christmas, Patron of the church or city. 



pontifical IDespers 2 1 7 

tabernacle veil are of the colour of the office ; before its altar 
a kneeling-desk or faldstool is prepared, arranged as for 
Pontifical High Mass (p. 163), six candles on the altar are lit, 
at least for the occasions when the bishop comes here, before 
and after the ceremony. 

The High Altar has a frontal of the colour of the office, and 
six (not seven) candles are lit on it. The bishop's vestments 
are laid out on the altar. They may lie on a veil spread over 
the altar cloth. ^ The vestments in order are: a cope and stole 
of the colour of the office, the pectoral cross,' girdle, alb, 
amice, and near by the bishop's morse (formale) on a plate. 
All are covered with a veil of the colour of the office. The 
precious mitre stands on the gospel side, the golden mitre 
on the epistle side. The crozier stands near the altar; if 
the prelate is an archbishop his cross is placed finally on a 
stand near the crozier. The veils for the mitre-bearer and 
crozier-bearer are on the altar near the precious mitre. 
On the credence table are placed the acolytes' candles, the 
scotula, a vesper book (Antiphonarium) for the bishop's 
use, which is covered with silk of the liturgical colour, 
the Canon pontificalis, if it will be needed for the bless- 
ing, another antiphonary or Directorium chori for the sub- 
deacon who pre-intones the antiphons, the thurible and incense 
boat.' 

In middle of the sanctuary a faldstool stands with cushions, 
as for Mass (p. 163). The throne is covered with hangings of 
the liturgical colour; if the bishop will kneel at the throne* 
there must be a cushion there for him to kneel on. On either 
side of the throne is a stool, of plain wood, for the assistant 
deacons, on the bishop's right a third stool for the Assistant 
priest. On the opposite side of the sanctuary is a stool for the 
subdeacon who will pre-intone and sing the chapter (p. 218). 
On the canons' stalls their vestments are laid ; namely, copes 
for the dignitaries, chasubles for the canon priests, dalmatics 
for the deacons, tunicles for the subdeacons. Near at hand 
are two dalmatics for the deacons at the throne, and a cope for 
the A. P. On each vestment an amice is laid. 

At the entrance of the choir are large candles burning, either 
four, six or eight, according to the feast. 

In the sacristy are prepared four copes, less adorned than 
the others, for the chaplains who will bear the mitre, crozier, 
book and hand-candle. 

^ It is best to remove the usual covering- over the altar cloths before 
vespers begin (see p. 222, n. i). 

^ Martinucci-Meng-hini, II, i, p. 66, § 5. But generally the bishop will 
use over the alb the same pectoral cross that he wears over the cappa on 
arriving. In this case it is taken off before he vests and put on again 
after the alb. 

■"' Unless (as is more convenient) these are in the sacristy. 

* In the case of verses in certain hymns (see p. 201). 



2i8 JSvcnirxQ Services 

If the prelate is an archbishop, the amice, alb, girdle and 
tunicle for the subdeacon who will bear his cross are laid out 
in the sacristy, or behind the choir. 

The persons who assist at this ceremony are (besides the 
bishop himself) the chapter, arranged in orders as dignitaries, 
priests, deacons and subdeacons, two assistant deacons at the 
throne, who on this occasion wear dalmatics, an assistant 
priest, who should be the canon first in rank; he wears a 
cope. Further, the four chaplains or servers who carry the 
mitre, crozier, book and candle ; they may w^ear copes. A canon 
subdeacon who will pre-intone. It is supposed that this is the 
subdeacon of the Mass on the following day. There are two 
masters of ceremonies, two acolytes, a thurifer, two cantors 
and other servers to bring the vestments to the throne. There 
are no other assistants in copes (pluvialistae). 

Before going through the ceremony in detail it may be use- 
ful to note in general the office of each assistant and server. 

The function of the A. P. is to hold the book whenever the 
bishop sings from it, to offer the incense boat and spoon, 
incense the bishop, and present or remove the ring. He in- 
tones the third antiphon. 

The assistant deacons vest and unvest the bishop ; the first 
puts on the bishop's mitre, the second takes it off. They walk 
on either side of the bishop, holding the ends of his cope, 
when he incenses the altar, and every time he goes from one 
place to another ; they hold back the cope when he blesses, 
puts on incense, or performs any other action at which it 
would otherwise be inconvenient. 

When they are not occupied these three have their places 
on the stools by the throne. 

The subdeacon pre-intones the antiphons and reads the 
chapter. He should be one of the canons of that order, vested 
in tunicle. However, the Caerimoniale episcoporum does 
not require absolutely that this function be performed by the 
subdeacon of the Mass on the following day. It says, " the 
subdeacon, or other person, according to the custom of the 
church,"^ from which it appears that he maybe another canon 
or dignitary. 

The first M.C. stands near the throne at the bishop's left, 
and sees that all is done rightly; the second accompanies the 
subdeacon at the pre-intoning, and stands by his stool, at his 
right, when he sits there opposite the bishop. 

The four servers of the mitre, crozier, book and hand- 
candle have much the same functions as at Pontifical High 
Mass. The book-bearer will bring the Antiphonary to the 
throne when it is wanted, and hand it to the A. P. Afterwards 
he takes it away and holds it till it is wanted again, or he 
puts it on the credence table, if there is a long interval. The 
^ Caer. Ep.y Lib. II, cap. i, § 7. 



pontifical IDespers 219 

bearer of the candle attends and holds it by the bishop, at 
his left, when he sings or reads. The bearers of mitre and 
crozier come to the throne and hand these when they are 
wanted. These four sit on the bottom step of the throne, 
without their burdens, while the psalms are sung. 

The acolytes and thurifer have the same office as always at 
vespers, with the changes that follow from the special cere- 
monies of a pontifical of^ce. The acolytes stand on either 
side of the throne before the bishop at the collect and com- 
memorations only. They do not put their candles on the altar 
step nor extinguish them. The candles are left alight on the 
credence table when they are not in use. While the psalms 
are sung they, and all other servers, sit on the altar steps at 
the epistle side. 

The bishop wears the golden mitre only while he sits dur- 
ing the five psalms. At all other times the precious mitre is 
used. 

Once for all — every time that anyone goes from one part of 
the choir or sanctuary to another, he genuflects first to the 
altar, then to the bishop. Everyone who comes up to the 
throne for any purpose genuflects to the bishop, at the foot 
of its steps, before going up. The exception is that canons 
bow, instead of genuflecting, to the bishop. The assistant 
deacons and priests are canons, according to the Caerimoniale 
episcoporum. 

The bishop (in rochet and cappa) is received at the door of 
the church by the canons in their robes (not vestments). He 
takes holy water here and sprinkles those around, comes to 
the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament and says a prayer, then 
to the faldstool in the middle of the choir, all as in the secre- 
tarium before his Mass (p. 168). While the bishop is received 
by the canons the four servers of book, hand-candle, mitre 
and crozier put on their surplices and copes in the sacristy; 
so does the subdeacon who will carry the archbishop's cross, 
if there is one. These then come and wait at the credence 
table. 

While the bishop prays at the faldstool in the sanctuary, 
the canons go to their stalls and put on the vestments, each 
according to his order. The assistant deacons and priests 
also vest at the stalls, then go to wait by the throne. The 
assistant priest at first waits at the stall nearest to the throne 
on that side. The M.C. frees the bishop's cappa from the 
faldstool ; ^ he bows to the altar, goes to the throne and sits 
there, blessing the choir as he passes. The faldstool is then 
put aside till it is wanted again at the end. 

The precious mitre and crozier are taken by their bearers, 
with the veils. They come and stand by the throne. The 

^ Namely, while the bishop kneels before the faldstool his cappa is 
spread over it (p, 168, n. 2). 



220 lEvemnG Services 

bishop takes off his biretta, handing- it to the first assistant 
deacon, and stands. The deacons take off his pectoral cross 
and cappa. They hand the cappa to the servant, who lays it 
aside, and also loosens the train of the bishop's cassock. 

The A. P. at vespers does not remove the bishop's ring. 
The servers bring each vestment to the deacons. They put 
on the amice, alb, girdle, pectoral cross (handed, first, to 
kiss by the first deacon), stole, cope, formale. The bishop 
sits and the first deacon puts on the precious mitre. ^ The 
bishop then sits and rests a little." The A. P. now goes to 
his stool by the throne. 

The second assistant deacon takes off the mitre, hands it 
to the bearer, who carries it to the altar, here changes it for 
the golden mitre, and comes back to the throne. During all 
this time, since the bishop entered the church, the organ is 
played. The bishop rises, and the organ is silent. He says 
silently Pater nosier and Ave Maria. The A. P. takes the 
Antiphonary from its bearer, the candle-bearer is at hand, 
the bishop intones Deus in adiutorium nieum intende^ all 
making the sign of the cross. While the choir answers this, 
the subdeacon who is to pre-intone comes from his stall, ac- 
companied by the second M.C., who hands him an Antiphonary 
or Directorium chori, and goes to the middle of the sanc- 
tuary. He comes to the bishop with the usual reverences and 
pre-intones to him the first antiphon, singing its text, as far 
as the asterisk, in a low voice. The A. P. holds the book and 
the bishop intones this antiphon. The subdeacon and second 
M.C. now go to their place opposite the bishop. He sits, the 
first deacon puts on the golden mitre. He remains seated 
during the five psalms. All sit in their places after the bishop. 
The cantors come to the middle and intone the first psalm, 
singing its first verse. They then bow to that side of the choir 
which will sing the second verse. Vespers proceed as usual. 
The subdeacon pre-intones the antiphons. The first is pre- 
intoned to the bishop, as already said, the second to the first 
assistant deacon, the third to the assistant priest, fourth to 
the first canon in choir, fifth to the second assistant deacon. 
When one of the assistants intones an antiphon the others rise 
with him : when the canon in choir does so the members of 
the choir rise.^ At the verse Gloria Patri the bishop bows, 
wearing the mitre; all others uncover and bow. The same 
rule applies to the verse Sit novien Domini benedictum in the 
psalm Laudate puei'i. During the last antiphon, after the fifth 
psalm, the bearers of book, candle, mitre and crozier rise 
and genuflect to the bishop. Those of the book and candle 

^ The bishop does not wash his hands at vespers. 
^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. i, § 5- 

^ All the choir, according to Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. i, § lo. But see 
p. 20I, n. I. 



221 



pontifical IDespers 

go to fetch these from the credence table ; the mitre-bearer 
bringfs the precious mitre from the altar, the crozier-bearer 
stands by the crozier. The servers who sat on the altar steps 
also rise and go to the credence table. The bishop rises, and 



* ^ * 






^ 



fs 



stool roi 
subdeacon 



ctz 



C±I 



FIG. 30. PONTIFICAL VESPERS AT THE THRONE : PRE-INTONING THE 

FIRST ANTIPHON 



all with him. He stands wearing the mitre, the others un- 
cover before standing. The subdeacon, at the place where the 
epistle is read, chants the chapter; the second M.C. stands at 
his side and hands him the book. 

Then the bishop sits. The subdeacon comes to him and pre- 



222 iBvcning Set\?icc6 

intones the hymn. The second assistant deacon takes off the 
mitre. The bishop rises; the A. P. holds the book, he intones, 
that is, sings the first Hne of the hymn. At the first verse of 
the hymns Vem creator and Ave maris stella he kneels, after 
he has sung the first line. For this a cushion is placed before 
the throne, and the first deacon takes off the skull-cap. The 
mitre-bearer takes the golden mitre to the altar and brings 
back the precious mitre. If the covering of the altar cloth has 
been over the altar till now, the acolytes go to uncover it,' 




^ 



y 



■ ■ 








¥ 



FIG. 31. 



PONTIFICAL VESPERS AT THE THRONE : TO INCENSE 
THE ALTAR 



and they replace it after the incensing. During the doxology 
verse of the hymn all bow to the altar. 

The cantors come out and sing the versicle. The subdeacon 
pre-intones the antiphon of the Magnificat to the bishop. The 
bishop intones it, then sits and is covered with the precious 
mitre. Meanwhile the thurifer has come with the thurible and 
the crozier-bearer with the crozier; they stand near. Sitting, 
the bishop puts on and blesses incense, the A. P. assisting, 
the thurifer kneeling. The cantors intone the Magnificat. At 

^ This is supposed by the Caer. Ep.y Lib. II, cap. i, § 13. It is the 
silk veil that covered the vestments at the beginning. 



Ipontltical IDespers 223 

once the bishop rises and makes the sign of the cross (all do 
so too) ; he takes the crozier from its bearer (solita oscula) 
and goes to the altar. He is preceded by the A. P., the assist- 
ant deacons go on either side holding the ends of his cope; 
the train-bearer follows holding the train, lastly, the bearers 
of mitre, crozier, book and candle. The first M.C. goes by 
the A. P. and signs to the choir to kneel. As the bishop passes 
he blesses the clergy. Before the altar the mitre and crozier 
are given to their bearers, who stay there. The bishop and 



1 — 


















L 








FIG. 32, PONTIFICAL VESPERS AT THE THRONE : THE COLLECT 



assistants bow low to the altar, they go up to it ; he takes 
the thurible from the A. P. and incenses the altar in the usual 
way (p. 121). The assistant deacons hold the cope on either 
side, the A. P. goes to stand at the epistle end, on the ground. 
Then the bishop gives the thurible back to the A. P. , again takes 
mitre and crozier, and goes back to the throne, blessing the 
clergy as before. At the throne he is incensed by the A. P., 
having first given up the crozier, not the mitre. The assistant 
deacons hold the cope. The bishop blesses the A. P. and sits. 
The second deacon takes off his mitre ; he rises, takes the 
crozier, and so stands, holding it with both hands, as at the 
gospel of Mass, while the rest of the Magnificat is sung. The 
subdeacon has come to the side of the A. P. He now takes 



224 iBvcnim Services 

the thurible and incenses the assistant priest and deacons at 
their place by the throne, bowing and making- two double 
swings to each. He then incenses the canons, each in order, 
bowing to each separately before and after. He hands the 
thurible to the thurifer, who incenses him, the rest of the 
choir and the people. The singers should not begin the Gloria 
Patri till this is ended. The organ may be played between the 
verses of the Magnificat^ or at the end of the verse Sicut 
locutus est^ etc. While the antiphon is sung after the canticle 
the bishop hands the crozier to its bearer, and sits wearing 
the mitre. All sit with him. 

The acolytes now bring their candles to the throne; the 
A. P. takes the Antiphonary from its bearer. The second 
deacon takes off the mitre. The bishop rises, turns towards 
the altar, sings Dortiinus vohiscum and the collect, while the 
A. P. holds the book and the candle-bearer the candle. If 
there are commemorations, the A. P. hands the book to its 
bearer till the time comes for the bishop to sing each collect. 
The cantors in the middle sing the versicles. Then they sing 
Benedicamus Domino. The acolytes ^o back to the credence 
table. 

The pontifical blessing follows. The bishop sits and is 
covered with the precious mitre. The book-bearer brings 
the Canon episcopalis (or the Antiphonary, if it contains the 
form) to the A. P.; the crozier-bearer is at hand. The A. P. 
holds the book before the bishop ; he rises and the assistant 
deacons hold the ends of his cope. He sings the verses Sit 
nmiien Domini^ etc., then lifts his hands and eyes, joins the 
hands, takes the crozier in his left and makes the sign of the 
cross thrice over the people, singing the form Be^iedictio Dei 
omnipotentis ^ etc.^ All kneel, except the canons in their places, 
the assistant deacons and priest. If he is an archbishop, the 
subdeacon of the cross brings this and holds it, kneeling 
before him, so that the figure of our Lord is turned towards 
the archbishop. The archbishop does not wear the mitre when 
blessing. 

The verse Fidelium animae and the anthem of the Blessed 
Virgin are not said. After the blessing the bishop unvests at 
the throne, assisted by the deacons. Servers take each vest- 
ment and put it back on the altar, as at the beginning. The 
A. P. goes back to his place in choir. The canons unvest and 
put on their robes again. Meanwhile the organ is played. 
The four bearers of mitre, crozier, book and candle ^o to 
the sacristy and there take off their copes. The faldstool is 
brought back to the middle of the sanctuary. The cappa is 
put on the bishop. He goes to the faldstool and says a prayer 
there. Meanwhile the assistant deacons take off their dal- 

^ If the bishop cannot well be seen at the throne, he may g'O to the 
altar to g-ive the blessing {Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. i, § i8). 



Ipontitical Despers 225 

matics at the stalls. The bishop goes to the chapel of the 
Blessed Sacrament, kneels there, then leaves the church ac- 
companied by the canons. 

§4. WHEN THE BISHOP DOES NOT SING MASS 

THE NEXT DAY 

In this case the following changes are made in the 
ceremony: ^ 

The assistant priest and deacons wear their usual choir 
dress. Only four or six canons in choir will wear copes, the 
others have choir dress. 

The antiphons are not pre-intoned by a subdeacon, but by 
a canon or other person, according to the custom of the 
church. The first is pre-intoned to the bishop and intoned by 
him, the others to canons in order of dignity. 

The chapter is read by one of the cantors, at his place in 
choir, or at the usual place, according to custom. The A. P. 
does not hold the book, but its bearer does so. All the rest 
is as above. 

§ 5. PONTIFICAL VESPERS AT THE FALDSTOOL 

As in the case of Mass, a bishop who is not the ordinary of 
the diocese, that is, an auxiliary or stranger bishop, does not 
use the throne.' If he celebrates vespers, he does so at a 
faldstool in the middle of the sanctuary, and the whole cere- 
mony is considerably modified.^ 

The preparations to be made in this case are the following: 

The altar is arranged as for vespers at the throne. It has 
a frontal of the colour of the office ; the Sanctissimum should 
not be reserved here. 

On the altar the bishop's vestments are laid out in the 
middle, namely, the cope, stole, pectoral cross, ^ girdle, alb, 
amice. These are covered with a veil of the liturgical colour. 
The precious mitre stands on the gospel side, the golden 
mitre on the epistle side. The six candles are lit. 

On the credence table the acolytes' candles stand, burning, 
also the scotula, an Antiphonary, which should be covered 
with silk of the liturgical colour, and the Canon pontificalis 
for the blessing at the end. 

In the sanctuary, before the altar, there is a cushion, on 
which the bishop will kneel before vespers begin ; this should 
be violet. On the epistle side of the sanctuary the faldstool is 

^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. ii ; Martinucci, II, i, pp. 134-145; Le Vavas- 
seur, Fond. Pont.., i, pp. 188-189. 

^ But see p. 162, n. 2. 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, II, ii, pp. 547-565; Le Vavasseur, Fonct. Ponty 
i, pp. 191-205. 

* Unless the same cross will be used that the bishop wears on arriving-. 





226 JBvcninQ Services 

placed. It should be covered with the colour of the office,^ 
and may stand on a low platform. At the end of the choir 
nearest the altar ^ are two benches covered with green for the 
assistants in copes, one on either side, so that they sit facing* 
the altar ; or they may have two rows of stools. There must be 
benches or seats for the other servers, either on each side after 
the manner of choir stalls, or in some other convenient place. 

In the sacristy the copes for the assistants are laid out; a 
chair is prepared in the middle, on which the bishop will sit 
on arriving. 

The following persons assist at the ceremony, besides the 
bishop himself. There are always two assistants in copes, 
who attend the bishop, one on either side, as do the deacons 
when vespers are sung at the throne. Besides these there 
may be two or four others, according to the feast. ^ If there 
are two others these act as cantors ; if there are four others, 
the last two are the cantors. The other two have no special 
function, except to accompany these on the occasions to be 
noted. There is no assistant priest. 

If there are only two assistants in copes, the cantors will 
wear the surplice. There are, further, two masters of cere- 
monies, two acolytes, a thurifer, three servers who bear the 
book, hand-candle, and mitre,* a train-bearer and, if possible, 
other servers, who assist at the vesting of the bishop. All 
the copes are of the colour of the office. Those who wear 
copes also have the biretta. 

It may be that the bishop vests in the sacristy. In this case 
his vestments are laid out there, and he comes into the church 
between the first two assistants, wearing the precious mitre, 
at the end of the procession, the train-bearer holding his train 
behind. In this case the golden mitre alone stands on the 
altar. The acolytes' candles are prepared in the sacristy ; they 
come at the head of the procession, following the thurifer. 
The bishop is uncovered before the altar, kneels there to say 
the prayer Aperi Do?fiine, then goes to the faldstool. If he 
vest at the faldstool, the following order is observed : 

The assistants put on their surplices and copes in the 
sacristy; all the others vest in surplice. The bishop comes to 
the sacristy, bows to the cross there and sits on the chair pre- 
pared, till the procession is ready. He wears rochet and man- 
tellettum. When the assistants are vested they come before 
the bishop, form in a straight line and bow to him. The first 
and second stand at his side, right and left. The procession 
comes to the sanctuary, first the thurifer, with hands joined, 
then the acolytes, also with joined hands, the choir, the first 

^ For the arrangement of the faldstool see above, p. 184. 
* These benches are sometimes some distance back. Separate stools 
are more convenient (see fig". 2, p. 5). 

' See p. 207. * There is no crozier. 



Ipontttical IDespers 227 

M.C, assistants in copes, if there are more than two, the 
bishop between the first and second assistants/ All these 
wear birettas ; then follow the three bearers of book, hand- 
candle and mitre. The second M.C. walks at the side of, or 
before, the first assistant. Before leaving the sacristy all bow 
to the cross there. At the door all take holy water, uncover- 
ing- at the time; the first assistant offers it to the bishop. In 
the sanctuary all take off the biretta again, the assistants 
form one line, with the bishop in the middle. Before the altar 
the bishop bows, ^ all the rest genuflect. The bishop kneels on 
the cushion prepared, and says the prayer Aperi Domine\ the 
assistants kneel on either side, on the ground. They rise, bow 
or genuflect, as before, bow to the choir, first to the gospel 
side, and go to the faldstool. The bishop sits covered, facing 
the people ; the assistants stand before him and bow. The 
first two ^Q» at his sides, facing the people, the others to the 
bench near the entrance of the sanctuary. Meanwhile the 
cushion is taken away from before the altar and put behind 
the faldstool. The M.C. takes the assistants' birettas. The 
bishop uncovers and hands his to the first assistant, who re- 
ceives it with the solita oscula, and gives it to the first M.C. 
The birettas are put aside, on the credence table or other 
convenient place. The bishop takes off his mantellettum, 
helped by the first assistant, and the pectoral cross. Now the 
first assistant vests the bishop in amice, alb, girdle, pectoral 
cross, stole and cope, the other helping. Each vestment is 
brought from the altar, where the second M.C. hands them to 
servers. The mitre-bearer receives the veil, through which he 
holds it, and the precious mitre. The first assistant puts the 
mitre on the bishop. The assistants bow to him, and now 
stand so that the first is on his right, the second on his left. 
The other assistants (if there are others) come to the bishop, 
genuflecting first to the altar; they stand in line before the 
faldstool and bow, then form in two lines before him as at a 
procession. 

The bearers of book and candle must now be at hand. 
The first assistant ^ takes off the bishop's mitre and gives it 
to its bearer. The bearer takes it to the altar and changes it 
for the golden one. The bishop turns to the altar (by the left) 
and says silently the Pater 7ioster and Ave Maria. As soon as 
he stands, all in choir uncover and stand too. The first two 
assistants are at the bishop's side, the others behind him (he 
has turned his back to them). The bishop makes the sign of 

^ Meng-hini thinks it unsuitable that the bishop in mantellettum should 
come in procession with assistants in copes. He notes that at Rome the 
assistants and acolytes come first to the sanctuary and await the bishop 
there (Martinucci, II, ii, p. 548, n. i). 

* If the Sanctissimum is there reserved he g'enuflects. 

^ From Martinucci it appears that, in this ceremony, the first assistant, 
not the second, always puts on and takes off the mitre. 



228 iSvcnim Sevvices 

the cross as he sings Detis in adiutoriuni nieiwt inte7ide ; the 
assistants holding the ends of the cope. The candle and book 
are held before him by their bearers, on the other side of the 
faldstool. When the choir has ended the response to this, the 
first cantor comes to the bishop, bows, and pre-intones the 
antiphon of the first psalm. ^ The bishop then intones it; the 
cantor bows again, and goes to join the other cantor in the 
middle of the choir. The first two assistants alone stay by 
the bishop ; the others ^o to their seats near the end of the 
choir. The cantors stand in the middle and intone the first 
psalm. If they are in copes they then ^o to the same bench 
as the other assistants; if not, they take their place in the 
choir stalls at the end near the people, so that they can easily 




A A 



mb 



FIG. 33. PONTIFICAL VESPERS AT THE FALDSTOOL: "DEVS IN 

ADIVTORIVM " 



come forward each time to intone the psalms. The bearers of 
book and candle retire, and put these on the credence table. 
As soon as the psalm is intoned the bishop turns towards the 
people by the right side and sits on the faldstool ; the first 
assistant puts on the golden mitre. The first two assistants 
should now sit on the altar steps, in the middle, with their 
back to the altar. The first sits nearer the bishop. If it is the 
custom (and particularly if the Sanctissimum is reserved on 
the altar) they may %o to the bench instead. They and all 
who wear the biretta sit and cover themselves. At the Gloria 
Patri 2\\y except the bishop, uncover and bow; he bows wear- 
ing the mitre. The cantors %o to each member of the choir, 

^ The bishop is standing facing- the altar across the faldstool. The 
cantor comes before him, on the other side of the faldstool, a little to his 
left, and faces him. 



pontifical IDespers 229 

In order of rank, and the first pre-intones to him the next 
antiphon, which he then intones. The cantors intone the first 
verse of each psalm. In going to and fro they genuflect each 
time before the altar and bow to the bishop. At the end of the 
fifth psalm all the assistants in copes come to the bishop (genu- 
flecting to the altar), bow to him, and stand before him in 
line, except the first two at his sides. The bishop rises and 






>¥ 






T 



T 



(r 

B 



14 



R 



m. 



1' 



FIG. 34. PONTIFICAL VESPERS AT THE FALDSTOOL: DURING 

THE PSALMS 



all in choir rise with him. He turns to the altar, still wearing 
the mitre. The first cantor reads the chapter, at his place, 
now behind the bishop. The bishop sits and the first assistant 
takes off the mitre. The mitre-bearer takes this to the cred- 
ence and exchanges it for the precious mitre. The golden 
mitre will not again be used. The bishop stands, turns to the 
altar, and the first cantor pre-intones to him the first line of 
the hymn. The book and candle are held by their bearers 



230 JBvcning Services 

before him. He intones the first Hne. While the hymn is sung" 
the bishop stands towards the altar, the first two assistants 
are at his sides, the others go to stand before their benches. 
If a verse occurs at which all kneel (see p. 201) a cushion is 
placed for the bishop to kneel on, before the faldstool; the 
first assistant removes his skull-cap and replaces it after- 
wards. 

During* the hymn the thurifer prepares the incense, comes 
back with it and waits in the sanctuary. After the hymn the 
cantors sing the versicle in the middle of the choir. They then 
g-o to the bishop, bow, the first pre-intones the antiphon of 
the Magnificat^ which he intones, still standing towards the 
altar. He sits while the antiphon is continued by the choir; 
the first assistant puts on the precious mitre. The other 
assistants go to their place, except the cantors, who intone the 
first verse of the Magnificat in the middle. While the antiphon 
is sung all sit.^ Before the Mag7iificat is begun the thurifer 
comes to the bishop, bows, and stands before him. Sitting, 
the bishop puts on and blesses the incense, while the first 
assistant holds the boat, asks the blessing, and hands him the 
spoon, with the solita oscula. Meanwhile the acolytes take 
their candles from the credence table and go to stand before 
the altar, bowing- to the bishop as they pass. If the first altar 
to be incensed is not the High Altar the acolytes stand near the 
entrance of the sanctuary. As soon as the cantors begin the 
Magnificat the bishop rises and makes the sign of the cross. 
All in choir do so with him. The cantors, when they have 
intoned, genuflect and go to their place. The bishop comes 
to the altar between the first assistants. The others join the 
first two on either side, making one long line with them and 
the bishop, then form, two and two, as in processions. 

If the Sanctissimum is reserved at the High Altar this alone 
is incensed. The bishop's mitre is taken off, he genuflects 
with all the others, goes up, kisses the altar, takes the thurible 
from the first assistant and incenses it as usual. But if, as 
should be, the Sanctissimum is reserved at another altar, that 
altar is incensed first. In this case the bishop bows to the 
Hig"h Altar, the others genuflecting ; all then go in procession 
to the altar of the Blessed Sacrament. If it is the custom, 
some of the principal members of the choir may accompany 
this procession. The thurifer g"oes first with the incense, then 
the acolytes, first M.C., assistants in copes, except the first 
two, the bishop between the first assistants, train-bearer with 
the mitre-bearer at his right, the members of the choir who 
accompany the bishop. The bishop wears the mitre, those 
who have birettas wear them on leaving the sanctuary. 

At the altar of the Blessed Sacrament six candles burn, at 

^ Martinucci, II, ii, p. 557, § 63. This supposes, of course, that the 
antiphon is doubled. 



pontifical IDespers 23 1 

least for this time of incensing; the altar is uncovered. On 
arriving* before the altar all take off the biretta. The acolytes 
stand right and left, the assistants part on either side to 
allow the bishop, with the first two, to come before the altar. 
The first of these takes off the mitre and skull-cap. The bishop 
genuflects, goes up to the altar between the assistants, kisses 
it, then incenses it as at Mass. The procession is formed 
again; all genuflect, the mitre is put on the bishop, and the 
procession returns to the High Altar. On the way the biretta 
is worn. 

If other altars are to be incensed this is done, in the same 
way, before they come back to the High Altar. The bishop 
always incenses without the mitre. While the altar of the 
Blessed Sacrament is incensed he and his assistants say the 
Magnificat in a low voice. When they come back to the High 
Altar the acolytes ^o to put their candles on the credence 
table. ^ The bishop kisses and incenses the altar as before. He 
gives the thurible to the first assistant, who hands it to the 
thurifer. At the epistle corner the mitre is put on the bishop. 
He comes with the assistants to the middle, bows to the altar, 
to the choir on either side, and goes to the faldstool. He 
stands here looking across the sanctuary, the right shoulder 
towards the altar. All the assistants stand before him facing 
him; the first takes the thurible and incenses him with three 
double incensings. The thurifer holds back the right end of this 
assistant's cope meanwhile. The bishop then sits, the first 
two assistants come to his sides, the first takes off his mitre; 
he stands, again facing the altar ; they hold the ends of his cope. 

The other assistants return to their bench, except the first 
cantor, who now incenses the assistants by the bishop, then 
the others, with a double swing for each, bowing before and 
after. He gives the thurible to the thurifer, who incenses 
him, the servers at the credence table and the people. The 
choir must take care that they do not come to the Gloria Patri 
verse of the Magnificat till the incensing is finished. The organ 
may be played between the verses, or after the verse Siciit 
locutus est ad patres yiostros. As soon as the verse Sicut erat 
in principio is finished the bishop sits and is covered with the 
mitre. AH in choir sit with him. But the first two assistants 
stand, one on either side of the faldstool. Towards the end of 
the antiphon after the Magnificat the other assistants rise, 
come to the middle, genuflect, then ^o to stand in line behind 
the bishop. 

The acolytes, at the same time, take their candles from the 
credence table and come to stand before the faldstool, on the 
side of the altar. The bearers of book and candle also come 
to the bishop. Then the first assistant takes off the mitre, the 
bishop rises and faces the altar. 

^ Martinucci, /.r., p. 560, § 82. 



232 lEvcrxinQ Services 

The first assistants should now change places behind the 
bishop, so that the first is on his right. The others are in two 
lines behind him. The book-bearer holds the Antiphonary 
before him ; the other holds the candle at his left. Both are 
on the other side of the faldstool, between the acolytes. The 
bishop, standing and facing the altar, with joined hands, sings 
Dominus vobiscum and the collect. If there are commemora- 
tions the choir sings the antiphon of each; meanwhile the 
two cantors go to the middle, genuflect, and standing there 
sing each versicle.^ The bishop then sings the collect. When 
the commemorations are finished he again sings Dominus 
'vobiscum; the cantors in the rn\dd\e s\r\g Be?iedicamus Domi7io. 
The acolytes go back to the credence table and put down 







* ^ * 
















^n 


L 



t@»>M-=iBI 



}^ A A n^ 



FIG. 35. PONTIFICAL VESPERS AT THE FALDSTOOL : THE COLLECT 



their candles; the bearers of book and candle go with them. 
A server takes the Canon episcopalis and puts it in the middle 
of the altar, with the scotula by it, for the blessing which will 
now follow. The verse Fidelium animae is not sung. The 
bishop sits and the first assistant puts on his mitre. The first 
two assistants again change places; the others go to their 
bench. If the cantors are not in copes they go to their place 
in choir. The bishop goes to the altar, bowing to the choir 
on the way. 

The assistants at his sides hold the ends of his cope. In 
front of the altar he bows,^ the others genuflect. The bishop 
goes up to the altar, kisses it, and sings the verses Sit nomen 

^ The other assistants may join the cantors, standing by their sides 
(Martinucci, /.c, p. 562, § 92). 

^ Supposing the Sanctissimum not to be reserved there. 



pontifical IDcspers 233 

Dominiy etc. He turns to the people and blesses them with 
the form Benedicat vos ovmipotens Deiis. The assistants stand 
at his sides holding the cope while he sings the verses, then 
kneel in front of him, on the edge of the foot-pace, as he 
gives the blessing. All in choir kneel too, except canons, who 
bow low. Then the bishop comes from the altar between his 
assistants, turns at the foot of the steps, bows to it, while 
the assistants genuflect, bows again to the choir in passing, 
and goes back to the faldstool. A server takes the book 
and scotula to the credence table. 

The bishop sits and bows to the assistants at his sides. 
He now unvests, the first assistant taking off his mitre and 
the other vestments in order, while the second helps. The 
cushion is placed in the middle of the lowest altar step. An 
attendant brings the mantellettum ; it is put on the bishop 
and his pectoral cross over it. His train is fastened so that 
it does not hang down. He goes before the altar, bowing to 
the choir, here bows to the altar, while the others genuflect 
and kneel ; he kneels there on a cushion for a short time. 
The first two assistants kneel at his sides, on the ground 
behind him. All the servers kneel behind the bishop. 

The bishop rises, all make the usual reverence to the altar, 
and the procession goes out in the order in which they came. 
The bishop and assistants wear the biretta. 

If the bishop unvests in the sacristy, the procession is 
formed as soon as he has given his blessing. In this case the 
acolytes ^o first with lighted candles. 

The anthem of the Blessed Virgin is not sung when a 
bishop celebrates vespers. 

In the sacristy the bishop (all having, as usual, bowed to 
the cross) either sits for a moment while the assistants bow 
to him, or he unvests at the chair there prepared. 



CHAPTER XXI 
OTHER EVENING SERVICES 

§ I. COMPLINE 

COMPLINE is the simplest and, therefore, in many- 
ways, the best liturg-ical evening- service for a small 
church having but one priest. While the prayers 
of compline are most suitable for evening devotion, 
and the chants are both beautiful and easy to sing, 
it has hardly any ceremonies. 

The rules for compline are simply one particular case of 
the Divine office sung- in choir without solemnity. However 
g-reat the feast, there are never solemnities at compline, as 
at vespers. It is one of the lesser hours, of the same rank as 
prime, terce, sext and none.' 

Some authors say that not so many candles should be 
lit on the altar as for vespers.^ However, there seems no 
reason against lighting- the six lit for most public services. 
The covering over the altar cloths may remain.^ 

The persons who take part in the office are the celebrant 
(called hebdomadarius),* a lector, two cantors and a choir. 
But it is possible to reduce the number if necessary. The 
lector may be one of the cantors ; if there is no liturgical choir 
(in surplices, before the altar), compline may be sung- by 
singers in other parts of the church, or the verses of the 
psalms may be sung- alternately by trained singers and the 
congregation. If there are no cantors before the altar, the 
responsory, versicle and so on may be sung by one or two 
singers away from the sanctuary. Incense is not used.® 

The only vestments worn are cassock and surplice, except 
that the celebrant and clergy present wear the biretta when 
seated. The celebrant is not to wear a cope.^ He comes to 
the altar, following the others who take part, in cassock and 
surplice. All genuflect before the altar if the Sanctissimum 
is there reserved, otherwise the celebrant bows low. All kneel 
to say the prayer Aperi Domine silently."^ They rise, make 
the same reverence to the altar as before, and ^o to their 

^ For this paragraph cfr. Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. iv; Van der Stappen, 
torn, i, pp. 96-97, 108-109; ^® Vavasseur, i, pp. 566-568; De Herdt, ii, 
PP- 527-528. 

^ So De Herdt, ii, p. 527, § 384. There does not seem to be any rule 
of theS.R.C. 

^ The altar is not incensed nor otherwise used. It may, however, be 
uncovered, especially if Benediction follows at once. 

* This is the special name for the officiating- priest at the Divine office. 
It is, however, convenient to use the general name celebrant for all func- 
tions (see p. x). 

° Caer. Ep.y Lib. II, cap. iv, § 3. 

« 76., §§4-5. 

' Unless compline follows vespers immediately. 

»34 



Otbct JBvcnim Services 235 

places, the lector to the middle of the choir. The celebrant 
will go to the first place In the choir, or to the sedile. If there 
is no liturgical choir and no stalls, benches are prepared for 
the lector and cantors on either side. 

All stand at their place. The lector stands in the middle 
before the altar. He turns to the celebrant, bows to him, and 
sings Itibe dovine benedicere. He stays In the same position 
while the celebrant gives the blessing, Noctein quietam etfinem 
perfectuniy etc. The choir answers Amen ; ^ then the lector 
reads the short lesson, Fratres, sohriiestote^ etc. As he chants 
the last words of this, Tu autem Donii7ie, viiserere nohis^ he 
genuflects, bows to the celebrant, and goes to his place. The 
celebrant sings the verse Adiiitorium nostj'um in no^nine 
Domini; as he does so, all make the sign of the cross. All 
say the Lord's Prayer silently. The celebrant, bowing slightly 
straight before him, says the Confiteor^ not singing it, but re- 
citing on one note. He strikes his breast thrice at the words 
mea culpa^ mea culpa^ mea Tnaxima culpa. The choir answer 
Misereatuvy while the celebrant still bows. Then he stands 
erect ; the choir together say the Confiteor^ they turn to the 
celebrant and bow as they say tibi pater and te pater; they 
strike the breast at m.ea cnlpa^ etc. The celebrant answers 
Misereatur vestri^ etc. The choir do not stand erect till he 
has finished this. Then he says Indiilgentiam^ etc., all making 
the sign of the cross. If there is no choir before the altar, the 
part of the choir may be taken by the cantors or by the lector. 
If the lector takes this part he should stay at the middle till 
the end of the prayer Misereatur. The celebrant sings the 
verse Converte 7ios Deus salutaris noster^ he and all making 
the sign of the cross with the thumb on the breast. Then, 
making the sign of the cross in the usual way, he sings Detis 
in adiutori2i7n ineum intende. The choir or singers answer. 

The cantors sing the fragment of the antlphon Miserere 
and the first verse of the psalm Cum invocarem. If there are 
no cantors this may be sung by the lector or by one or two 
persons among the singers. At the end of the first half of 
this first verse all sit; those who wear the biretta cover them- 
selves. They remain seated till the antlphon after the three 
psalms. At the verses Gloria Patri, all uncover and bow. 

After the antiphon Misereatjir, all uncover and rise. They 
now stand to the end, except while the antlphon of the Nmic 
dimittis is sung after this canticle. The hymn Is sung. All 
bow to the altar at its last verse. The celebrant sings the 
chapter, and the choir answers Deo gratias. The cantors come 
to the middle and sing the verses of the short responsory In 

^ The Caer. Ep. (Lib. II, cap. iv, § 3) says that the organ is not played, 
"unless in some churches it is the custom to celebrate this office more 
solemnly, in which case the organ may be used." This will generally be 
the case in England. 



236 iSvenino Services 

mantis tuas^ the choir or people answering'. The lector may 
take the part of cantor, or the verses may be sung by one or 
two among the singers. The versicle Custodi nos Domine ut 
pupillam ociili is sung by those who sang In manus tuas. The 
cantors (or other persons, as before) sing the part of the 
antiphon Salva 7ios, and the first verse. Nunc diniittis, etc. It 
is usual to make the sign of the cross as Nunc dimittis is 
sung. During the antiphon that follows all sit. They rise 
again as soon as it is finished. 

If the ''Preces" follow, all stand while they are sung, ex- 
cept on ferias, when ferial preces have been said at vespers. 
In this case all kneel during the preces. The celebrant sings 
Dominus vobiscum and the collect. He sings again Dominus 
vohiscum^ the cantors sing the verse Benedicamus Domino^ the 
celebrant gives the blessing Benedicat et custodial nos. He 
makes the sign of the cross on himself as he sings the names 
of the Divine Persons: all do so with him. He begins the 
anthem of the Blessed Virgin. This is said standing on 
Saturdays and Sundays, and during Paschal time; otherwise 
kneeling. According to the Caerimoniale episcoporum the 
anthem should be recited in a low voice ;^ it is, however, 
generally sung, and this practice is allowed. There is no rule 
that the celebrant should stand before the altar during the 
anthem, but it is a common and lawful custom. The cele- 
brant says the versicle and collect of this anthem (he says the 
collect standing, in any case). Then he says, or sings, the 
verse Divinuni auxilium^ lastly Pater noster^ Ave Maria, and 
the Apostles' creed, silently. The prayer Sacrosanctae et in- 
dividuae Trinitati may be said, kneeling, at the end. 

§ 2. MATINS AND LAUDS 

Except in Holy Week (for which see pp. 285-288), probably 
the only occasion on which matins will be sung in smaller 
churches is on Christmas night before midnight Mass. Lauds 
will hardly ever occur. 

The general rules for matins sung in choir are these. ^ The 
persons who take part are the celebrant, two cantors, lectors 
for the nine lessons. There may be a M.C. to supervise the 
whole ceremony. All wear only cassock and surplice (with 
biretta) during the first part of matins. The celebrant puts 
on a cope of the colour of the office before the ninth lesson. 
This cope should therefore be laid out beforehand on the 
credence table or other suitable place. 

The ceremonies are those of every part of the Divine office 
sung in choir, adapted to the special form of matins. The 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. iii, § 15. 

* Cfr. Caer.Ep.y Lib. II, cap. vi; Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 24-30; 
Van der Stappen, i, pp. 77-86; Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 568-575. 



Otbct lEvcninQ Semces 237 

procession should come in this order: M.C., cantors, cele- 
brant, clergy; those of higher rank before the others.^ 

All kneel while the prayer Aperi Domini is said silently 
before the altar at the beginning, during the verse Venite 
adoremus et procidamus ante Deum in the Invitatorium psalm, 
during the verse Te ergo quaesicmus^ etc., in the Te Deum. 
All stand while the Pater, Ave, and creed are said at the 
beginning, during the Invitatorium and hymn till the end of 
the first half of the first verse of the first psalm ; also during 
the Lord's Prayer and absolution in each nocturn after the 
psalms. The choir should also stand during the blessing 
given before the first lesson of each nocturn ; during the 
others they sit.^ They stand while the fragment of the gospel 
is read at the beginning of the seventh lesson (on Christmas 
night also before the eighth), during the whole ninth lesson 
read by the celebrant, and during the Te Deum. All the rest 
of the time the choir sit. The rules for bowing and uncover- 
ing are those of every hour of the Divine office, namely, at 
the Gloria Patri, the last verse of the hymn (Doxology), the 
holy Name, and so on (see pp. 29-30). 

The celebrant has his place at the chief place in choir, or 
at the sedile. He stands always to bless, even w^hen the others 
sit. The sign of the cross is not made at the blessings before 
the lesson. 

There should be a lectern in the middle of the choir, at 
which the lessons are chanted. The first eight are chanted 
by eight members of the choir. If there are not eight the 
same person may chant several. The cantors sing the versicles 
after the psalms of each nocturn. During the eighth re- 
sponsory the celebrant puts on the cope. The cantors may 
also put on copes with him.^ The acolytes should light their 
candles before the ninth lesson. They come and stand on 
either side of the celebrant, facing one another. He chants 
this lesson at his place. If other priests are present, before 
the ninth lesson the celebrant turns and bows to one of them 
(the first in rank) and asks him for the blessing. Otherwise 
he says Itibe Dominie beiiedicere, and gives the blessing him- 
self. No one who is not a deacon may read the gospel at the 
beginning of a lesson. If the lector is not ordained deacon 
the celebrant supplies this part. The celebrant intones the 
first words Te Deum laudanius, pre-intoned to him by the first 
cantor. 

At lauds the ceremonies are the same as at vespers. There 
are the same distinctions as to assistants in copes and so on. 
The altar is incensed during the Benedictus. But at lauds 
only the altar of the choir is incensed. 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. vi, § 2; Le Vavasseur, i, p. 570. 

^ Le Vavasseur, i, p. 569. 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. vi, § 15. 



23S Evening Bcvmccs 



§ 3. NON-LITURGICAL SERVICES 

In many churches in England it is the custom to form the 
service on Sunday evening- of EngHsh prayers, or the rosary, 
and English hymns, followed by a sermon, and then Benedic- 
tion. Since such prayers and hymns are not liturgical services,^ 
but private devotions, it is obvious that there are no liturgical 
rules for them, except negative ones. The priest who con- 
ducts such services is free to arrange them in any way he 
likes, as long as he violates no general rule. He will, natur- 
ally, continue the custom of the church, unless he has good 
reason to change it. 

He must, however, observe the rules which forbid certain 
ceremonies used only at liturgical functions. There are other 
points that may be noticed, since they make for reverence and 
decorum. 

At non-liturgical services the priest who conducts them 
does not wear a stole or other vestment, except cassock and 
surplice, with the biretta under the usual conditions. He 
may light some candles on the altar, though there should not 
be as many as at Benediction or during Exposition of the 
Blessed Sacrament. Two are generally sufficient. 

He may conduct the prayers from a stall in the choir or 
kneeling before the altar. He may kneel at a desk here. The 
rosary and prayers in general are said kneeling; hymns are 
usually sung standing.^ 

In the case of vernacular devotions only approved forms 
may be used.^ 

Nor may hymns be sung except those approved by the 
Ordinary.' 

§ 4. SERMONS 

In preaching members of religious orders which have a distinct 
dress wear their habit. Other priests wear a surplice. It is 
the common custom in England to preach in a stole of the 
colour of the day.^ If the sermon comes betw^een vernacular 

^ Nothing' in the vulgar tongue is liturgical, except the questions, 
creed and Lord's Prayer at baptism, the questions at marriage, the 
penitent's part of confession, and sometimes {reductive) a sermon or 
publication of indulgence. 

^ The people are more likely to join in the hymns if all stand. 

^ In the diocese of Westminster the Manual of Prayers (new edition, 
Burns and Oates, 1886) is approved. The prayers in the various editions 
of the Garden of the Soul are also approved by the bishops. 

* The Hymn Book compiled and prescribed by the Catholic Hierarchy 
(Burns and Oates, 191 1) is now the only prescribed book of hymns. 

^ There is no authority for the stole, except recognized custom. 



Qtbct iSvcnim Services 239 

prayers or hymns the stole should be put on immediately 
before it begins and taken off again as soon as the sermon is 
finished. The preacher may wear a biretta, which he will take 
off if he mentions the holy Name and under the usual other 
conditions (for which see p. 23). In quoting- the Bible he 
should use an approved text.^ 

^ Cod., c. 1 327- 1 348, contains important new rules as to the duty of, 
and faculties for preaching. 



CHAPTER XXII 

BENEDICTION AND EXPOSITION 

OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT 

§ I. GENERAL RULES 

BENEDICTION is not, strictly, a liturgical service. 
It does not occur in any of the official liturgical books 
of the Roman rite.^ It is a comparatively modern 
devotion, which has become exceedingly popular. 
It is entirely authorized by ecclesiastical authority 
throughout the Roman rite. In England it has become the 
almost invariable conclusion of evening services on Sunday. 

Permission must be obtained of the Ordinary for Benedic- 
tion. It is not lawful to celebrate it on any day, at the dis- 
cretion of the rector of the church. When leave is given the 
days on which this service may be held are specified. They 
always include Sundays and holidays of obligation. 

Since Benediction is not a liturgical service, there are, 
naturally, considerable local differences in its forms in differ- 
ent countries. For England we have now authoritative rules 
made by the Hierarchy," which rules must be observed ex- 
actly, as far as they go. They still allow some latitude as to 
the details of what is sung, and in the ceremonies. 

The first preparation is that a throne, with a canopy over 
it, must be placed on or near the altar ; on which throne the 
monstrance will stand. This throne may not be so fixed as to 
remain always in its place. It is forbidden to erect a permanent 
throne of this kind on the tabernacle, used both for Benedic- 
tion, and at other times holding the altar cross. The throne 
must be movable, placed there for Benediction only, taken 
away afterwards. The throne need not necessarily be on the 
tabernacle ; but it must not be distant from the altar. If it is 
placed behind the altar, it must nevertheless appear to be 
joined to it, so as to form one whole with the altar. If there 
is a permanent ciborium or canopy over the altar, then there 
is not to be a throne.^ 

At least twelve candles must burn on the altar during Bene- 
diction. More are allowed.* The veil which covers the altar 
cloths during the day should be remov^ed. The Paschal candle 
is not to be lighted.' The altar cross is taken away for this 
service and replaced afterwards. "^ It is not allowed to place a 
cushion on the lowest altar step, unless a bishop or prelate 
gives Benediction.'' Still less is a kneeling-desk allowed. The 

' For these see pp. 18-19. 

^ These rules are contained in the Ritus servandus in solemni expositione 
et henedictione SS. Sacramenti (Burns and Oates, 19 15), pp. 9-15. 
3 Ritus serv., p. 13, §§ 1-2. * lb,, § 3. ^ lb. 

« Jb. "" lb. 

240 



BeneMction of tbe Blessed Sacrament 241 

monstrance may stand on the altar before Benediction begins. 
It should be covered with a white veil while not in use.^ 

On the throne a corporal is placed, on which the mon- 
strance will stand. The burse and tabernacle key are on the 
altar. 

In the sacristy cassocks and surplices must be ready for the 
servers ; the charcoal is lighted before Benediction and the 
thurible prepared. 

The torches are lit, according to the number used, as indi- 
cated below. Further, the vestments are laid out for the cele- 
brant and his ministers (if he has any), as below. 

The persons who take part in Benediction are the follow- 
ing: the celebrant, who must be a priest; a server who will 
bring the humeral-veil, ring the bell, etc. (M.C.),^ at least 
two torch-bearers and a thurifer. 

It is well, if possible, that another priest or deacon expose 
the Blessed Sacrament. The celebrant maybe further assisted 
by a deacon and subdeacon. Various combinations are pos- 
sible. There may be one priest who will give Benediction, and 
one priest or deacon to expose the Sanctissimum. There may 
be a priest, deacon and subdeacon. In this case the deacon 
exposes the Sanctissimum. Or there may be a celebrant, 
deacon, subdeacon and a priest to expose. 

On more solemn occasions the number of torch-bearers may 
be increased. There may be four, six or eight. ^ Nothing is 
said in any document about acolytes with their candles ; it is 
supposed that only torch-bearers attend. However, the assist- 
ance of acolytes is not forbidden. It does not seem unlawful 
that, besides the torch-bearers behind the celebrant, also the 
acolytes should kneel, with their candles, at his side, par- 
ticularly if the number of torches possessed by the church is 
limited. 

The colour of the vestments for Benediction is white. But 
if it follows a liturgical office immediately, so that the cele- 
brant does not leave the altar, supposing that he already 
wears a cope of the colour of the office, he may give Benedic- 
tion in this.^ But he must put on a stole under the cope, 
which will be of the same colour. In any case the humeral 
veil is white. The celebrant at Benediction, then, wears a sur- 
plice, stole and cope. He may wear amice, alb, girdle, stole 
and cope ; this should always be his dress, if there are assist- 
ants in dalmatic and tunicle.' These assistants wear amice, 
alb, girdle and dalmatic or tunicle. If the deacon will expose 

^ Ritus serv.y p. 13, § 3. 

- It is difficult to dispense with this server (here called M.C.), since 
neither a torch-bearer can leave his torch, nor the thurifer his incense to 
bring the humeral veil to the celebrant, ring the bell, or take the biretta. 
If there are acolytes, the first of these may leave his candle standing 
before the altar, while he performs these duties. 

•' I^ttus serv., p. 13, § 4. ^ lb., § 5. * lb. 

R 



242 jEvcnirxQ Services 

the Sanctlssimum, he wears the stole diaconally, from the left 
shoulder to under the right arm. The priest or deacon who 
exposes the Blessed Sacrament, if he is not one of the two 
assistants, wears surplice, and, at the moment of opening* the 
tabernacle and exposing, as also when he replaces the Sanc- 
tissimum, a stole. This stole will be of the colour worn by 
the celebrant. 

§ 2. THE RITE OF BENEDICTION 

The servers come to the sanctuary holding their torches, 
preceded by the thurifer with burning charcoal, but without 
incense in the thurible. They are followed by the M.C., the 
priest who exposes (if he assists) then the celebrant, who, if 
he has two assistants, walks between them, while they hold 
the ends of his cope. 

Before the altar the torch-bearers part on either side to 
allow the celebrant to pass them, the thurifer goes over to the 
epistle side of the sanctuary. The celebrant with his assist- 
ants (if he has any) comes before the altar. On entering the 
sanctuary all take off the biretta. The M.C. takes the birettas 
and hands them back at the end. The deacon, if there is one, 
takes the celebrant's biretta (with the solita oscula) and then 
hands it to the M.C. The birettas are put aside till the end. 
Before the altar all genuflect on the ground, then kneel in 
silent prayer for a moment.^ The priest who exposes the 
Sanctissimum now does so. This may be the celebrant him- 
self. He goes up to the altar, spreads the corporal, taking it 
from the burse, puts the burse on the epistle side of the altar, 
laying it flat on the mensa. He takes the tabernacle key, 
which should be on the altar, opens the tabernacle and 
genuflects on one knee. If the celebrant himself does so, he 
genuflects straight in front of the tabernacle door. If it is 
another priest or deacon, he should stand back a step 
towards the epistle side, so as not to turn his back to the 
celebrant; then he genuflects towards the tabernacle. No 
one else makes any reverence at this moment, since they all 
already kneel. ^ The priest who exposes takes the little vessel 
which contains the Sanctissimum (the lunula, p. i6) from the 
tabernacle, places it on the corporal, takes the veil from the 
monstrance, puts the monstrance on the corporal and places 
the Sanctissimum in the monstrance. He genuflects again to 
the Sanctissimum, as before. If a stand or small ladder is 
necessary, it is brought forward by a server (the M.C.) and 
put in position. The priest then mounts and places the mon- 
strance on the corporal which lies on the throne. 

In some churches he may have to go behind the altar and 

^ Ritus serv., p. 14, § 6. 

^ lb., p. 14, note; S.R.C., 16 February 1906. 



BeneMction of tbe :fiSle55e^ Sacrament 243 

mount some steps there. When he has done this he genu- 
flects again/ and comes back to his place. An assistant 
priest in stole and surplice now takes off the stole and puts 
it somewhere near, till he uses it again later. 

As soon as the Sanctissimum is exposed, it is incensed, not 
necessarily when the singers begin the second verse of the 
hymn O salutaris.'^ The celebrant and his assistants bow, not 
low,^ rise, the thurifer comes forward and hands the incense 
boat to the deacon, or to the M.C. The celebrant puts on 
incense as usual, but nothing is kissed, nor does he bless it, 
because the Blessed Sacrament is now exposed. The cele- 
brant kneels, takes the thurible from the deacon or M.C. and 
incenses the Sanctissimum with a triple "ductus duplex" 
(for the manner of doing this, see p. 26). He hands the thurible 
back to him from whom he received it. All remain on their 
knees. 

When the tabernacle is opened the hymn O saliitaris is sung. 
This custom, not usual in Rome, is to be maintained in Eng- 
land.* When that hymn is finished, any approved hymn, 
litany or antiphon may be sung. It is not allowed to sing at 
this moment litanies or other liturgical chants in the vulgar 
tongue.' The English hymns JesiiSy my Lord^ my God,, my 
all,, or Sweet Sacrament Divine may be sung.^ Prayers may 
be recited aloud ; these may be in the vulgar tongue. This 
is the moment at which special prayers ordered by the bishop 
of the diocese to be said at Benediction occur. Through- 
out England, on Sundays and holidays of obligation the 
prayer O blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God,' composed by 
Pope Leo XIII, is to be said after the O salutaris, or at latest 
before the Tantum ergoJ^ But on the second Sunday of each 
month, instead of this, the Hail Mary, Cardinal Wiseman's 
prayer O merciful God,, let the glorious intercession of thy 
saints assist tcSy and O most loving Lordjesus,^ are said here. 
On the feast and during the octave of Corpus Christi no 
prayer is to be said before the Blessed Sacrament exposed, 
except the prayer of the feast, which occurs after the Tantum 
ergo.^^ Then follows the hymn Tantum ergo. This may be 
intoned by the celebrant. As the words of the second line, 
Veneremnr cernui, are sung, all bow slightly.^^ At the begin- 
ning of the second verse, Genitori Genitoque, the Sanctissimum 
is incensed, as before. After this hymn the versicle Panem. de 

^ Ritus serv.y p. 14, § 6. It is impossible to g-enuflect on the top of a 
ladder. If a ladder is used, he must first come down, then genuflect 
on the ground. 

^ lb. ' li., "praemissa inclinatione mediocri." 

* lb., Tp. II. They are nos. 72 and 78 in the approved hymn book. 
' lb., p. 42. ^ lb., p. 42, rubric. ^ lb., pp. 43-44. 

^° lb., p. 14, §7. '' /J., §8. 



244 iBvcninQ Services 

caelo praestitisti eis is sung by one or two cantors, or by the 
celebrant. The choir answers.^ The celebrant stands, not 
bowing first. "^ With joined hands he sings the collect of Cor- 
pus Christi, Oremiis. Dens qui nobis sub sacraniento inirabiliy 
etc. Meanwhile the assistants hold the book before him. If 
there are no assistants, and no one to hold the book, he must 
do so himself. No other prayer may be added after the Tanhini 
ergo. 

When the collect is finished, the priest or deacon who ex- 
posed the Sanctissimum puts on the stole again, if he has 
taken it off. He goes to the throne, genuflects,^ takes the 
monstrance, and puts it on the corporal on the altar. The 
celebrant receives the humeral veil frorn a server (the M.C.). 
He goes up to the altar, making no reverence first. Here he, 
with the priest who exposes, genuflects on one knee. Then 
the priest who exposes hands the monstrance to him, both 
standing, or the celebrant may take the monstrance from the 
altar.* The other priest or deacon then goes back to kneel at 
his place. 

If there is no second priest or deacon, the celebrant himself 
goes to the throne and takes the monstrance, putting it on 
the altar. Then he kneels and so receives the humeral veil. 

In giving Benediction the celebrant holds the monstrance 
through the ends of the humeral veil, turns by his right to the 
people, and makes the sign of the cross once over them, not 
lifting the Host above the level of his own eyes.^ Meanwhile 
he neither sings nor says any words aloud.® He then turns 
back to the altar by his left so as to complete the circle. 
Either the assistant priest or deacon now comes to him, re- 
ceives the monstrance, both standing, and then genuflecting, 
or the celebrant himself places it on the altar, then genuflects. 

While the celebrant gives Benediction the organ may be 
played gravely and reverently." The Sanctus bell is rung. It 
is usual to ring the bell three times, once as the celebrant 
turns to the people, once in the middle of the blessing, once 
as he turns back to the altar. It is not necessary to ring the 
bell if the organ is played meanwhile, though this may be 
done. Instead of the Sanctus bell, or together with it, the bell 
of the church outside may be rung in the same way. In Eng- 
land it is usual that the thurifer, kneeling, incense the Sanct- 
issimum thrice during the blessing with double swings, as at 

^ In Eastertide and during- the octave of Corpus Christi " Alleluia " is 
added to this versicle and response. It should never be added to other 
versicles sung at Benediction. S.R.C., 12 February 1892, no. 3764, ad 
XVIII. 

^ Ritus serv.^ p. 14, § 8; S.R.C., 16 February 1906, ad III. 

^ Before he stands on the ladder, if a ladder is used. 

* Ritus serv., p. 14, § 9. 

* 76., p. 15, §9. 'lb. 

'' lb. Or the more reverent custom of perfect silence may be observed. 



:!Benebictlon of tbe 3Blesse^ Sacrament 245 

the elevation in Mass.^ If deacon and subdeacon assist at 
Benediction they should go up to the footpace with the cele- 
brant, kneel, bowing on either side before him, and hold the 
ends of his cope while he gives the blessing.^ If the deacon 
has exposed the Sanctissimum he will rise from this place to 
hand the monstrance to the celebrant and to take it back. 
The ministers rise and genuflect with the celebrant when the 
monstrance is replaced on the altar. All then come down to 
kneel again on the lowest step. The prayers Blessed he God 
may then be said in English.^ 

Then the priest who has exposed, or the deacon, or the 
celebrant himself, goes to the altar, genuflects, takes the 
Sanctissimum from the monstrance, replaces it in the taber- 
nacle, genuflects, shuts and locks the tabernacle, removes the 
monstrance from the corporal, covers it with its veil, folds 
the corporal and comes back to his place. When he genuflects 
the others, who are kneeling, make no other reverence than 
is already contained in their position.^ While the Sanctissimum 
is put back in the tabernacle and during the procession from 
the church it is usual to sing the antiphon Adorenius in 
aeternum sanctissirmun SacramentiLm^ with the psalm Laudate 
Do^ninuni OTunes gejites (Ps. ii6).^ The antiphon is sung before 
and after the psalm. But any other text, a hymn, or suitable 
anthem may take the place of this. Since the Sanctissimum 
is no longer exposed, an English hymn may be sung. 

When the tabernacle is closed and the' priest or deacon has 
come to his place, all genuflect on one knee, on the ground, 
and go back to the sacristy as they came. 

In Rome it is the custom that a priest in surplice and stole 
should come first, carrying with him the burse and tabernacle 
key, preceded by thurifer and two torch-bearers. He opens 
the tabernacle, exposes the Sanctissimum on the throne and 
incenses it. Hymns and litanies or such chants are sung. 

^ Our Ritus serv. says nothing" about this incensing-. The Congrega- 
tion of Rites has been asked on two occasions whether this practice is 
lawful. The first time it answered: "It is not commanded" (" Non 
praescribi," ii September 1847, no. 2956, ad IX); the second time it 
repeated: "Non praescribi," and added, "Let the local custom be ob- 
served " (7 September 1861, no. 3108, ad VI). It is certainly the local 
custom in England. 

^ Ritus serv.t p. 15, § 9. 

' These invocations (composed in Italian by Pope Pius IX) have long- 
been the invariable custom in England. In the new edition of the Ritus 
serv. a further clause is added to the original form: "Blessed be his 
most sacred Heart " (p. 20). The Ritus is careful not to order them ab- 
solutely ("dicere licet," p. 15, § 10). It would be possible to conceive 
a better arranged formula. For instance, it is strange, after blessing- 
persons, to bless an abstract concept, the Immaculate Conception. A 
blessing of the Holy Ghost, of the Holy Trinity, perhaps of the Apostles 
and of the Church might be added. 

^ Ritus serv., p. 15, § 10. 



* There is nothing about this in the Rittis serv. 



246 JBvcninQ Services 

Then, at the end, the celebrant in a cope with assistants and 
torch-bearers comes from the sacristy, the Tantani ergo is 
sung*, and all proceeds as above. 

This method will hardly occur in England, except in the 
case of exposition of the Sanctissimum lasting* some time. 



§ 3. BENEDICTION BY A BISHOP 

In this case there should always be deacon and subdeacon, 
also, if possible, a priest or other deacon to expose and re- 
place the Sanctissimum. 

The bishop's mitre is taken off before the altar,^ his skull- 
cap as soon as the tabernacle is opened. He gives the bless- 
ing, making- the sign of the cross thrice, in the same way as 
when he blesses with his hand. There is no other difference. 
The skull-cap is replaced when the tabernacle is shut at the 
end, the mitre after the final genuflection. 



§ 4. BENEDICTION WITH THE CIBORIUM 

This is a little ceremony which may be held any day.^ 

The priest who celebrates it wears only surplice and stole. 
But he may do so immediately after Mass, wearing the Mass 
vestments except the maniple, which he takes off first. At 
least six candles should be lit on the altar. There is no 
throne; the altar cross remains. A thurifer may attend (see 
below). If possible, there should be two torch-bearers. If not, 
two candles should be lighted in the sanctuary before the altar 
at about the place where the torch-bearers would kneel. ^ Oi\ 
arriving at the altar, after the usual genuflection, the priest 
spreads the corporal, opens the tabernacle, genuflects again 
and leaves it open, so that the people may see the ciborium. 
He may bring this forward in the tabernacle, that it may be 
better seen. He does not place it on the altar. 

The usual hymns are sung. If incense is used,'' the priest 

^ If the Sanctissimum is already exposed, mitre and skull-cap are re- 
moved at the entrance of the sanctuary. All make a prostration before 
the altar. 

^ Permission of the Ordinary is not required for this simplest form of 
Benediction. Cod.^ c. 1274, § i. 

' Le Vavasseur, i, p. 600, § 83. 

* The Blessed Sacrament may be incensed ; but this is not necessary, 
nor does the S.R.C. appear to desire it. In its decree of 11 September 
1847 the Congregation says: " The omission of incensing is more con- 
formable to the practice of the Church in Benediction with the sacred 
pyx ( = ciborium)." No. 2957. 



lErpositioit ot tbe Blessed Sacrament 247 

incenses as soon as he has come back to his place after having* 
opened the tabernacle ; and again at the verse Geiiitori Genito- 
que. For the blessing the priest receives the humeral veil, 
goes up to the altar, takes the ciborium and places it on the 
corporal before the tabernacle. He holds it with the right 
hand ^ covered by the veil, and arranges the other end of the 
veil over it. He turns and gives the blessing with one sign of 
the cross, saying nothing. He replaces the ciborium on the 
corporal or directly in the tabernacle. He comes down to say 
the prayers Blessed be God. Then he goes up to the altar, 
arranges everything, and closes the tabernacle. 

§ 5. EXPOSITION OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT 

The best known case of exposition is that of the Forty 
Hours, for which see pp. 361-371. But it may happen, on 
other occasions, that the Ordinary allows or commands ex- 
position for some space of time, that the people may have this 
special opportunity of saying prayers." 

The ceremonies are the same as those of Benediction. In- 
deed this exposition may be considered as one long Benediction 
service, with an interval between the exposing of the Sanct- 
issimum and the blessing and reposition at the end. During 
this interval the priest who has exposed and his servers may 
go away. 

The Blessed Sacrament is exposed by a priest or deacon in 
surplice and white stole. If the exposition begins immediately 
after Mass the celebrant of Mass may place the Sanctissimum 
on the throne. In this case he wears the Mass vestments, ex- 
cept the maniple, which should be taken off first. The colour 
of the frontal and tabernacle veil should be white. But if ex- 
position follows immediately after Mass, the colour of the 
Mass may remain. If vespers are sung during the time of 
exposition the altar will, at least then, be vested in the colour 
of the office.^ At least twelve candles must burn on the altar 
all the time of exposition. More candles and flowers * are 
allowed. If possible, two priests or clerks in surplices should 
watch kneeling in the sanctuary all the time of exposition. 
Priests and deacons should wear a white stole.' In England 
it will not always be possible to observe this. But someone 

^ Le Vavasseur says the left hand (i, p. 601, § 93). 

^ Cod.^ c. 1274. 

^ The S.R.C. on 19 July 1678 ordered that after the Mass or office of 
another colour, this should be changed to white (no. 1615, ad VII, VIII, 
IX). See also no. 2673 (19 December 1829), and no. 2562 (20 September 
1806). 

■* Flowers as a decoration of the altar are expressly allowed by the 
Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, cap. xii, § 12. See also below, p. 363, n. 12. 

'' S.R.C, 10 September 1701, no. 2079, § 18; 17 Aug-ust 1833, no. 
2709, § 2. 



2^s iBvcninQ Sctviccs 

must be in the church, kneeling before the Blessed Sacrament 
all the time. People may relieve one another at intervals. 

While the Blessed Sacrament is exposed the O salutaris 
may be sung.^ As soon as it is placed on the throne it is 
incensed. The exposition begins. The priest who exposed 
will now generally retire, making a prostration on both knees. 
This rule is observed by everyone who comes to the church, 
passes before the altar, or rises to leave. But, according to 
the general principle, if someone is occupied in the sanctuary 
he will make the prostration only on entering and leaving. 
While passing, during the time he is there, he genuflects on 
one knee only (see p. 21). No one should enter the sanctuary 
unless vested in surplice. 

During all the time of exposition the Sanctus bell may not 
be rung at Mass, even at a side altar. Holy Communion 
should not be given from the altar of exposition, unless there 
is no other way.^ No one may wear a biretta or skull-cap 
(with the one exception of the canonical hours). No one bows 
to the choir, no one is incensed in choir. 

All the solita oscula are omitted, except in Mass at the 
epistle, gospel and for the paten and chalice. The hours of 
the Divine office may be said or sung, but not the office for 
the dead. If, during the office, a veil is placed in front of 
the Sanctissimum,^ the members of the choir may wear the 
biretta when seated; but, even then, it is better not to do so.^ 
Sermons may be preached, but only on the subject of the 
Holy Eucharist. During the sermon a veil must be placed 
before the Sanctissimum; the preacher may not cover his 
head." No one should sit with his back to the altar. 

During the time that no liturgical function is celebrated 
private prayers may be said aloud and hymns may be sung. 
Either may be in Latin or in the vulgar tongue. The texts 
must be approved. Translations of liturgical texts are not 
allowed, since these must be sung in Latin.® 

While the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, even more than 
at any other time, reverence must be shown by everyone in 
church. 

Relics may not be placed on the altar of exposition. If 

^ This does not seem of obligation. Neither the decrees of the S. R.C. 
nor Roman books on Ceremonies {e.g.^ Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, 
pp. 106-112) say anything about a hymn or prayer at the time of exposi- 
tion, though they require the " Tantum ergo" at the end. The rule of 
our Ritus serv. (p. 14, § 6) is for Benediction. Therefore, at the beginning 
.of exposition any approved Latin hymn may be sung; or it may be 
begun in silence. 

^ S.R.C., II mai 1878, no. 3448, ad I ; 8 February 1879, no. 3482. 

^ This is generally a little banner of white silk on a staff. 

* S.R.C., 10 September 1796, no. 2552, ad I. 

* S.R.C., 2 April 1667, no. 1352. He should wear a surplice, even if a 
regular (see below, p. 364). 

^ S.R.C., 27 February 1882, no. 3537, ad III. 



iBjpositlon of tbe Blesscb Sacrament 249 

Mass is said at this altar an altar-cross is not necessary, but 
IS allowed.^ 

When the time of exposition is over Benediction is given. 
The celebrant enters, with or without deacon and subdeacon 
or assistant priest, to put back the Blessed Sacrament. All 
make a prostration before the altar, then kneel. The usual 
form of Benediction may be used (without, of course, the rite 
of taking" the Sanctissimum from the tabernacle, since it is 
already exposed), or only the latter part, from the Tantuni 
ergo. In the first case the Sanctissimum will be incensed 
twice, in the second case only at the verse Genitori Genitoque. 
The closing of the tabernacle after Benediction ends the 
exposition. 

§ 6. TO RExMOVE THE BLESSED SACRAMENT 

If, for any reason, the Sanctissimum is to be carried from 
one altar to another, this is done by a priest or deacon^ in 
surplice and white stole. He is accompanied by three servers, 
of whom two carry torches,^ the third the small canopy (um- 
bella, see p. 18) used on these occasions.* 

A corporal must first be spread on the altar to which the 
Sanctissimum will be brought. On the altar from which it is 
taken there is another corporal, unless the priest brings this 
with him. By the altar a white humeral veil is laid out. On 
both altars two candles should be lighted. The torch-bearers 
may come from the sacristy holding their torches, or these 
may be ready for them to take at the altar to which they first 
go. The bearer of the canopy goes first, holding it not ex- 
tended, then the torch-bearers, then the priest or deacon. 

At the altar from which the Sanctissimum will be taken all 
genuflect, then kneel for a moment. The priest rises, spreads 
the corporal, opens the tabernacle, takes out the ciborium or 
pyx and places it on the corporal. Then he kneels and re- 
ceives the humeral veil from a server. With this he holds the 
ciborium or pyx. The torch-bearers go in front with the 
torches, the other server walks behind the priest, holding the 
canopy open over him. 

On the way to the other altar the priest should recite 
psalms^ with the servers. He goes straight up to the altar 

^ S.R.C., 2 September 1741, no. 2365, ad I. 

' A deacon may always do so, even if priests are present. S.R.C. , 
23 November 1906, Dubium III. 

^ In case of necessity one torch-bearer is sufficient. 

* The umbella is always used at Rome. If the church does not possess 
one, it must be dispensed with. But, where the Sanctissimum is reserved 
not on the High Altar, this umbella becomes a necessary article of 
furniture, which should be procured. 

* The psalms are not specified. Ps. ii5(Credidi), 147 (Lauda lerusalem), 
121 (Laetatus sum), 112 (Laudate pueri), 116 (Laudate Dominuro), or 
others from the office of Corpus Christi are suitable. 



250 lEventttG Services 

and places the ciborium on the corporal there. Then he 
kneels and the veil is taken from him. He opens the taber- 
nacle, puts the ciborium in it, genuflects again and closes the 
tabernacle. He comes down the steps and all genuflect to- 
gether. The torches are extinguished, the canopy closed, all 
go back to the sacristy. 



PART IV 
THE LITURGICAL YEAR 



I 



CHAPTER XXIII 
ADVENT TO HOLY WEEK 

^ I. ADVENT 

THE colour of the season in Advent is purple. The 
Gloria in excelsis at Mass and Te Deiun at Matins 
are not said, except on feasts.' But Alleluia is said 
in the office, as usual, and on Sundays at Mass. 
At Mass of the season the ministers do not wear 
dalmatic and tunicle, but folded chasubles, except on the third 
Sunday and Christmas Eve. From 17 December (O Sapientia) 
to Christmas, votive offices and Masses or Requiems are not 
allowed. 

During Advent the altar is not to be decorated with flowers 
or other such ornaments ; nor is the organ played at liturgical 
offices. But the organ may be played at non-liturgical services, 
such as Benediction; ' and it is tolerated, even at Mass, if the 
singers cannot sing correctly without it. In this case it should 
be played only to accompany the voices, not as an ornament 
between the singing. 

The exceptions to this rule are the third Sunday of Advent 
(mid-Advent, " Gaudete ") and the fourth Sunday of Lent 
(mid-Lent, '' Laetare"). On these two days alone in the year 
the liturgical colour is rosy (color rosaceus).^ On both the 
ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, the altar is decorated as 
for feasts,* and the organ is played. On the week-days after 
the third Sunday (Monday, Tuesday, Thursday), when the 
Mass is that of the Sunday, repeated,^ the colour is purple, 
the ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, the organ is played. 
The same rule applies to Christmas Eve (see below, p. 255). 

§ 2. THE FOLDED CHASUBLES 

The rules for the use of folded chasubles ^ are these. They 
are worn by the deacon and subdeacon, instead of dalmatic 
and tunicle, on days of fasting and penance, except vigils of 
Saints' days and Christmas Eve, which have dalmatic and 

^ According to the general rule, when the " Gloria in excelsis " is not 
said, the form " Benedicamus Domino" is used at the end of Mass, in- 
stead of '* Ite missa est." 

^ There is no law requiring the organ at any time. If a priest thinks 
well to mark the season by complete silence of the organ at all services 
during this time he may do so, and does well. 

^ For lack of rosy vestments the usual violet may be used (violet 
dalmatic and tunicle). 

^ According to the Caer. Ep., Lib. I, cap. xii, § 12 this means with, 
"vases of flowers bound with sweet-smelling leaves or silk." 

' Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday are ember days and have Mass 
of their own. 

'^ " Planetae plicatae '" in the missal [Ruhr, gen., xix, 6) and Caer. Ep. 
Lib. II, cap. xiii, § 3. 

»53 



254 XTbc Xltutgical 13ear 

tunicle. Folded chasubles therefore are used on Sundays and 
ferias of Advent and Lent, when the Mass is of the season. 
Except from this the third Sunday of Advent and the week- 
days (Monday, Tuesday and Thursday) on which its Mass 
may be repeated. Except also the fourth Sunday of Lent, 
Maundy Thursday, and Holy Saturday at the blessing of 
the Paschal candle and Mass. Folded chasubles are used 
further on ember days (except those in the Whitsun octave), 
on Whitsun Eve before Mass (not at the red Mass), on 
Candlemas at the blessing- of candles and procession.^ From 
this it follows that the folded chasuble is always purple, 
except on Good Friday, when it is black. But the purple 
colour does not always involve folded chasubles. On Christ- 
mas Eve, on the three Sundays, Septuagesima, Sexagesima, 
Quinquagesima, and (for lack of rosy vestments) in some 
churches on mid-Advent and mid-Lent the ministers wear 
purple dalmatic and tunicle. 

The folded chasubles (not the colour purple) are the test for 
the organ to be silent." 

The chasubles are now folded about half-way up in front.' 
The ministers wear the same vestments as usual, with this 
one exception. The folded chasubles are taken off when they 
have some special office to perform. During the last collect 
the subdeacon takes off his, assisted by the second acolyte, 
who then lays it on the sedilia. He reads the epistle in alb 
and maniple. When he has received the celebrant's blessing 
and has handed the book to the M.C., he goes to the sedile 
and puts on the folded chasuble again, assisted by the second 
acolyte.* He then moves the missal. 

The deacon goes to the credence table as soon as the cele- 
brant begins to read the gospel. Here, assisted by the first 
acolyte, he takes off the folded chasuble, which is laid on the 
table. Formerly he folded it lengthwise and put it over his 
shoulder. It is difficult to do so with the badly made and 
generally stiff chasubles so much in vogue since the eighteenth 
century. He is therefore allowed to use instead a broad band 
of purple silk (black on Good Friday), incorrectly called a 
"broad stole."" This may not have crosses or other orna- 
ment.® The deacon puts it on over the real stole, from the left 
shoulder to under the right arm, where he gathers it together 
with the ends of the girdle. He then takes the book of lessons 

^ Missal, Ruhr, gen., xix, 6. 

^ S.R.C, 2 September 1741, no. 2365, ad IV. 

^ " Plicatae ante pectus " {Ruhr. gen. Missalts, xix, 6). This is the 
exact opposite of the old rule, that they should be folded up the sides as 
far as the shoulders, thus making them exactly the size of the Baroc 
chasuble now common. * Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xiii, § 8. 

* The missal uses this expression: " aliud genus stolae latioris" {ib.). 
The Italians call this strip " stolone." 

^ S.R.C, 25 September 1852, no. 3006, ad VII. 



H^vent to tbol^ TKHee?: 255 

and puts it on the altar as usual. He remains so vested till 
after the Communion. Then, when he has carried the missal 
to the epistle side, he goes again to the credence table, takes 
off the " broad stole" and puts on the folded chasuble, assisted 
as before by the first acolyte.^ In putting on and taking off 
this garment he does not kiss it. It is not really a stole at all. 
The deacon must wear his stole all the time beneath it. There 
is no reason why he should not carry out the original plan, 
namely, to fold his chasuble and wear that in a long strip 
across his shoulder, if he can do so." 

All this rule about folded chasubles need not be observed in 
smaller churches.^ If they are not used the subdeacon wears 
only amice, alb, girdle, maniple; the deacon wear amice, alb, 
girdle, maniple, stole. In this case neither makes any change 
during Mass; the *' broad stole" is not used. 

§ 3. CHRISTMAS AND EPIPHANY 

Christmas eve is privileged. If then Christmas Day falls 
on a Monday, an exception is made to the general rule, that 
in such cases the vigil is on the Saturday. The office of 
24 December is combined from that of the fourth Sunday of 
Advent and that of the vigil. At Matins the invitatorium is 
of the vigil, the psalms and versicles of the Sunday ; the 
lessons of the first and second nocturn are of Sunday with 
their responses, those of the third of the vigil, without the 
ninth lesson of Sunday. All the rest of the office and the Mass 
are of the vigil, with commemoration of Sunday. On Christ- 
mas Eve the colour is purple ; the ministers wear dalmatic 
and tunicle, and the organ may be played. 

The colour for Christmas is white. On the day (be- 
ginning at midnight) every priest may say Mass three times. 
No special privilege is needed for this. Three Masses are 
provided in the missal, one for the night, one for dawn, 
one for the day. If a priest says Mass once only, he should 
choose the one which best corresponds to the hour at which 
he says it. The same rule will apply to a priest who says two 
Masses. If he says three he must say the three provided, in 
their order, at whatever time he says them.* 

It is not allowed to say a purely private Mass in the night. ^ 
One Mass only is allowed at midnight. It should be, if 
possible, a High Mass ; but a sung, or even a Low Mass is 
allowed, if it is the one at which the people attend, and is 
said in default of High Mass. It may not begin before mid- 

1 Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xiii, § 9. 

^ Both the missal {Ruhr, gen., xix, 6) and the Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xiii, 
§ 9 propose this first, as the normal way. 
^ Missal {Ruhr, gen., xix, 7). 

* But if he sings the third Mass, he may say the first and second later. 
^ Cod., c. 821. 



256 Zbc Xttur^ical lljear 

night; it should begin exactly then, or as soon after as 
possible. People are allowed to receive Holy Communion at 
the midnight Mass, unless the bishop, for some reason, forbids 
this.^ If they do so there is no special rule concerning the 
Eucharistic fast. The common law remains, that they must be 
fasting from midnight. It is, however, considered respectful 
not to eat or drink for about two hours before Communion. 

If matins are said or sung in church before midnight Mass, 
see the rules at pp. 236-237. The celebrant, when he intones 
the hymn lesu redemptor oninhmi at Matins, should lift and 
join the hands, bowing towards the altar." 

If a priest says three Masses he must not take the ablutions 
at the end of the first or second. For the manner of purifying 
the chalice in this case see pp. 65-66. 

At all sung Masses on Christmas Day the celebrant and 
his ministers kneel before the altar while the choir sings the 
words Et incarnatus est de Spiritu sancto ex Maria virgine: et 
homo /actus est. A special clause is inserted in the Com- 
7nunica7ttes prayer of the canon. In this clause the celebrant 
says Noctem sacratissimavi celebraiites at the first Mass (at 
whatever hour he may celebrate) ; at the second and third 
Masses and during the Christmas octave he says Die??i 
sacraiissimtwi . 

At the gospel of the third Mass the deacon who reads it, and 
all, except the subdeacon who holds the book and the acolytes, 
genuflect at the words Et Verhum caro factum est. The cele- 
brant kneels towards the altar, laying his hands on it. But 
when, at High Mass, he reads the gospel himself, he does not 
do so. The last gospel of this Mass is that of the Epiphany. 

The EPIPHANY is, liturgically, one of the three greatest 
feasts of the year.^ Its colour is white. Matins of the Epi- 
phany begin with a special form. The Invitatorium is not 
said, nor Domme labia mea aperies^ nor Deus in adiutorium. 
After the silent Pater noster^ Ave Maria, and creed, the ofiice 
begins at once with the first antiphon. This occurs only on. 
the feast itself, not during the octave. 

In the Mass a genuflection is made at the words of the 
gospel Procidentes adoraverunt euruy under the same condi- 
tions as noted above for Christmas; that is, the celebrant 
does not genuflect when he reads this gospel if the deacon 
will sing it later. 

In cathedrals and the principal church of each place, after 
the gospel the movable feasts of the year are announced. If 
this is done a white cope is prepared in the sacristy for the 
priest or deacon who will do so. A lectern stands on the 

^ Cod.y c. 821 - Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. xiv, § 5. 

^ Not Christmas, but Epiphany, Easter, Pentecost are the three days 
which alone have closed octaves, and are " cardinal " feasts, after which 
we count the Sundays. Corpus Christi now also has a closed octave. 



Ht)\?ent to 1bolp Mee?? 257 

gospel side of the choir, or the pulpit may be used. The 
lectern or pulpit is covered with a white cloth. The priest or 
deacon who will announce the feasts goes to the sacristy 
during the gradual and puts on the cope over his surplice. 
He comes out, makes the usual reverences to altar, celebrant 
and choir, and announces the feasts. The form for doing so, 
with the chant, is in the Pontifical at the beginning of its 
third part. 

§ 4. CANDLEMAS 

Candlemas (the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
2 February) is a double of the second class. On this day 
candles are blessed and distributed, and a procession is made 
with them before the principal Mass. The colour of the day 
is white, but purple is the colour for the blessing of candles 
and procession. The candles are blessed and the procession 
made on 2 February, even if the feast is transferred.^ 

Supposing first the normal conditions, that is, that High 
Mass will be celebrated with deacon and subdeacon, the cere- 
mony is arranged in this way : ^ 

The preparations are : On the credence table, all required 
for High Mass, as usual, covered with a purple veil, also the 
holy water and sprinkler. If another priest will assist to give 
out the candles a purple stole is required for him. On the 
sedilia the Mass vestments are laid out; these, too, should be 
covered with a purple veil. Near the altar a table stands at 
the epistle side, so that the celebrant standing there can easily 
sprinkle and incense the candles on it. This table is covered 
with a white cloth, on which the candles lie. They are then 
covered with w^hite or purple.^ The altar is prepared for Mass, 
the six candles are lit. Over the white frontal there should be 
another of purple. No flowers or other such ornaments stand 
on the altar ; the altar-cards are not placed on it till the be- 
ginning of Mass. The missal, covered with purple,* stands at 
the epistle side. At the blessing of candles and procession the 
organ should not be played. Following the usual procession 
of servers, ° the celebrant comes from the sacristy in alb, girdle, 

^ The only possibility is that 2 February may be Septuag-esima or a fol- 
lowing- Sunday. In this case the feast is transferred ; the Mass is of Sun- 
day (purple) and all noted above about changing- to white is to be ignored. 

^ Cfr. Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xvii; Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 
160-169; Van der Stappen, v, 325-328; Le Vavasseur, ii, 22-32; Wapel- 
horst, pp. 268-278. 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, p. 160, § 2. The Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. 
xvi, § 2, does not mention this cloth. 

* Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, p. 160, § i. The Roman texts always 
suppose that books are covered in the colour of the office. This is often 
not observed in England. If such a cover is used, it should be chang^ed 
to white for the Mass. 

* A M.C., thurifer, and acolytes at least are required. There may be 
others, and clergy. The subdeacon will carry the cross at the procession 
of candles. 

S 



25« XTbe Xtturoical IJeat 

purple stole and cope, between the ministers, who wear folded 
chasubles,^ the deacon with his stole. If it is a Sunday the 
usual Asperges ceremony is made first, in purple vestments. 
The celebrant and ministers bow, as usual, to the choir, bow 
or g-enuflect to the altar, go up to it ; the celebrant kisses it 
(the ministers do not genuflect when he does so) ; then they 
stand at the epistle side, the ministers on either side of the 
celebrant. 

They no longer now hold the ends of the cope. The M.C. 
uncovers the candles. With joined hands the celebrant sings 
Dominus vobiscurn and the prayers provided in the missal for 
the blessing of candles, all in the ferial tone; that is, in the 
case of those which have the longer conclusion, he makes no 
inflection, at the shorter ones he ends by falling a minor third 
on the last syllable. As he signs the cross over the candles 
he lays his left hand on the altar and the deacon raises the 
right side of the cope. While these prayers are said all in 
choir stand; the thurifer gfoes to prepare the thurible, if he 
has not come with it at the beginning'. When the fifth prayer 
is ended, the thurifer approaches, with the first acolyte who 
carries the holy water and sprinkler. The celebrant puts on and 
blesses incense as usual, the deacon assisting and holding the 
incense boat. Meanwhile the subdeacon raises the right end 
of the cope. When the incense is blessed the deacon hands 
the sprinkler to the celebrant (solita oscula). He sprinkles 
the candles, saying the antiphon Asperges me only (not the 
psalm). Then he incenses the candles with three double swings, 
saying nothing. The thurible and holy water are put back in 
their places. 

The celebrant and ministers ^o to the middle of the altar, 
bow and turn to the people, not changing their places. The 
deacon then goes to the celebrant's right. The priest highest 
in rank present comes to the altar. The M.C. hands him a 
candle, which he gives to the celebrant, both standing. He 
kisses the candle first; the celebrant does so on receiving it; 
neither kisses the other's hand. The celebrant gives this 
candle to the subdeacon, who lays it on the altar. The cele- 
brant now receives another candle from the deacon and hands 
this to the priest from whom he received his." This priest 
kneels to take it, kissing first the candle, then the celebrant's 
hand. If he is a canon or prelate he stands and kisses only 
the candle. He then goes back to his place. The ministers 
kneel before the celebrant, who gives them candles in the 

^ Folded chasubles are not necessary, except in the principal churches 
(Martinucci, I, ii, p. i6i, §7); otherwise the ministers may wear only 
amice, alb, girdle, and the deacon his stole. 

'^ In no case may the deacon or subdeacon give the celebrant his 
candle. If no other priest is present, a candle is laid on the altar by the 
M.C. The celebrant takes this from the altar himself, kneeiiiig". 



H^v>ent to 1bol^ Meek 259 

same way. In every case the person who takes the candle 
kisses it first, then the celebrant's hand.^ The ministers hand 
their candles to an acolyte, who puts them on the credence 
table. It will be convenient if the M.C. at this moment takes 
the celebrant's candle and puts that, too, on the credence 
table. 

The members of the choir now come up in order and kneel 
on the lowest step. The celebrant hands to each a candle in 
the same way. Canons and prelates do not kneel to receiv^e 
theirs, nor do they kiss the celebrant's hand." If canons are 
present the ministers (unless they, too, are canons) receive 
their candles after them. The singers also come up to take 
their candles. This should be arranged so that the singing is 
not interrupted. The M.C. must see that the candles are 
brought from the table to the celebrant (handed to him by the 
deacon). 

If the people receive candles, the celebrant, with his minis- 
ters, goes to the communion rail or entrance of the choir and 
distributes them. Each person kisses first the candle, then 
the celebrant's hand. Another priest, in surplice and purple 
stole, may assist in distributing the candles. 

During the distribution, beginning as soon as the celebrant 
has received his candle, the choir sings the antiphon Lumen 
ad revelatione7n gentiiLm^ etc., with the canticle Nunc dhnittis^ 
as in the missal and gradual. The antiphon Exsurge Dmnine^ 
etc., is sung next. The candles are lighted. After the distribu- 
tion the celebrant washes his hands at the epistle side of the 
altar; the acolytes serve him, as at Mass, the ministers hold- 
ing the ends of the cope. Then, standing at the epistle side 
as before, he sings Oremus and the collect Exaudi quaesumus 
Domine^ as in the missal. If Candlemas comes after Septua- 
gesima, when the celebrant has sung Oremics^ the deacon adds 
Flectanius genua \ all genuflect except the celebrant; the sub- 
deacon, rising first, sings Levate^ and all rise. Meanwhile the 
M.C. or servers light the candles of all who will carry them 
in procession. 

The procession follows. If the thurifer has laid aside the 
thurible he takes it again during this last collect. The sub- 
deacon goes to the credence table and takes the processional 
cross; the acolytes go with him, stand at his side by the 
entrance of the choir, facing the altar. The subdeacon bear- 

^ This is the rule for things already blessed. 

- Martinucci (I, ii, pp. 163-164, § 32) and Le Vavasseur (ii, p. 27, § 89) 
distinguish between prelates and canons. According to them neither 
kneel ; prelates do not, but canons do kiss the celebrant's hand (so also 
when palms are distributed and all similar occasions). This is a mistake. 
The Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. xvii, §§ 2-3 (cfr. Lib. II, cap. xxi, § 6) says 
that canons also kiss the candle only. Cfr. Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, 
tit. xiv, Rub. 4 {ed. ciL, p. 340) and Pars IV, tit. vii, Rub. 14 (pp. 266, 
267). Menghini corrects Martinucci (I, ii, p. 164, n. ; p. 182, n.) 



260 Ubc OLituroical l^ear 

ing the cross, the acolytes and thurifer, do not genuflect. 
Meanwhile the celebrant goes to the middle, puts on and 
blesses incense, assisted by the deacon. The thurifer goes to 
stand behind the subdeacon, so as to be first in the procession. 
The M.C., having lit the celebrant's candle, hands it to the 
deacon, who gives it to the celebrant. Then he gives the 
deacon his candle, lighted. The celebrant and deacon, at his 
right, turn towards the people. The deacon sings Procedamus 
in pace\ the choir answers In nomine Christi. A7nen. The 
celebrant and deacon come down the altar steps, all genuflect,^ 
they put on their birettas. The procession begins in this 
order: first, the thurifer, then the subdeacon bearing the cross 
between the acolytes with their candles burning, the choir, 
clergy, celebrant, with the deacon at his left holding the cope. 
The M.C. may walk at the right of the celebrant or in front 
of him. The procession passes around the church, or goes 
outside, according to the custom of the place. Meanwhile the 
choir sings the antiphons Adorna thalamuni tuum Si07i^ and 
Responsum accepit Simeon^ from the gradual.^ One of these 
may be omitted, if there is not time for both. During the pro- 
cession the church bells should be rung. If Mass is being 
said at the same time at a side altar, the Sanctus bell should 
not be rung. On entering the church, if the procession has 
gone without, the choir sings the responsory Obtuleruiit pro 
eo Domino par tnrtiiritm. If the procession has not left the 
church this is sung as it comes back to the sanctuary. When 
the procession returns to the sanctuary the clergy genuflect, 
bow to each other, two and two, and ^o to their places. The 
celebrant and deacon come before the altar and make the 
usual reverence. The thurifer goes to the sacristy to prepare 
the thurible for Mass, the acolytes put their candles on the 
credence table, the subdeacon puts the cross near. The cele- 
brant and deacon come to the sedilia, the subdeacon joins them 
here. They take off" the purple vestments and vest for Mass, 
assisted by the M.C. and acolytes. They come to the altar 
and begin Mass. 

During Mass the candles are held lighted during the gospel, 
and from the Sanctus to the end of the Communion. The M.C. 
will see that they are lit in time, first during the epistle or 
gradual, the second time after the choir is incensed at the 
off"ertory. At the gospel the celebrant also holds his candle 
lit. The M.C. hands it to him (solita oscula), after he has 
signed himself, at the words Sequentia sancti evaiigelii. Each 

^ Except the subdeacon with the cross and acolytes, who bow. The 
celebrant, canons and prelates bow only, if the Sanctissimum is not 
reserved on the altar. 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, p. 167, § 56, says that the singers do not 
hold lighted candles. It is a question whether they can do so conveni- 
ently while singing from books (see p. 275, n. 3). 



Hbvent to 1bol^ Mee?? 261 

time, when the period in question is ended, everyone blows 
out his candle and lays it down. After the gospel the cele- 
brant gives his back to the deacon. 

If the Mass is not of the Purification the candles are not lit 
nor held durine it. 



't> 



§ 5. FUNCTIONS IN SMALL CHURCHES 

Candlemas is the first of the days concerning which there is 
a special document, describing how the ceremonies are to be 
carried out in small churches. 

This document is the memoriale ritvvm of Pope Bene- 
dict XIII. In 1724 Benedict XIII issued a Memoriale Rituum 
pro aliquibus praestantioribus sacris functionibus persolvendis 
in minoribiis ecclesiis parochialibus. ^ This considers the cere- 
monies of six days in the year only, namely, the blessing of 
candles and procession at Candlemas, the blessing and dis- 
tribution of ashes on Ash Wednesday, the blessing of palms 
and procession on Palm Sunday, the ceremonies of Maundy 
Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday." 

By small churches those are meant in which it is not possible 
to celebrate these functions with the assistance of deacon and 
subdeacon; the rites described in the document are simplified 
for the case of a celebrant and a few servers only. The Me- 
moriale rituum was not originally issued for all such small 
churches of the Roman rite throughout the world, but for the 
smaller parish churches of the city of Rome. Nor is there any 
general law imposing it on other churches. However, since 
the Roman diocese is the mistress of all, this document forms 
the natural standard for similar cases everywhere. Indeed, 
on at least three occasions the Congregation of Rites has 
answered a question from some other diocese by saying that 
the Memoriale rituum of Benedict XIII is to be followed.' The 
first provincial Synod of Westminster ordered its use in small 
churches.^ 

The manner of celebrating the rites in this document is ex- 
ceedingly simple. It supposes the assistance of three servers 
only, and even deprecates the presence of a fourth." Nor does 

'' The Mem. Rit. forms a little book in six parts (tituli). It has con- 
stantly been republished by the editors of liturg-ical books, e.g.^ by 
Desclee, Lefebvre and Co., at Tournai in 1882. Translated into Eng-lish: 
A Reminder of the Rites for carrying out in small parochial churches some 
of the principal functions of the year^ published bv order of Pope Bene- 
dict XIII, translated by Rev. David Dunford, 2nd ed., R. and T. Wash- 
bourne, s.a. Most editions add the texts to be recited, from the missal 
and breviary. 

^ There is one titulus for each of these six days. 

" S.R.C., 23 May 1846, Tuy in Spain, no. 2915, ad I; 22 July 1848, to 
the Carmelites, no. 2970, ad V; 9 December 1899, Como, no. 4049, ad I. 

■^ Deer, xviii, no. 19 (2nd ed., p. 21). 

"* " For the most part it requires three only; it hardly desires a fourth " 
(Monitum at the beginning). 



262 ubc Xiturgical Iffear 

it make any provision for a choir or singing of any kind. 



All 



that is sung in the normal ceremony is to be recited by the 
celebrant and servers.^ The Mass which follows is always a 
Low Mass. This is in accordance with all local Roman pro- 
visions of the kind. They never contemplate any solemnity in 
the case when the deacon and subdeacon do not assist. 

The question then which occurs is : are we bound in England 
to follow the Memoriale rituum, when it is not possible to 
celebrate High Mass, not only in its positive rules, but also in 
these negative suppositions? It would seem, at first, that the 
extreme simplicity of the arrangements in the document is due 
to the fact that it gives the lowest possible standard of cere- 
monial with which the rite can be carried out ; it intends to 
show" how little is absolutely necessary. But, if it is possible 
to secure the attendance of more servers and even of singers, 
must we say that it would not be lawful to employ their 
service? Is the effect of this document that, unless the service 
can be held with ministers, nothing more is allowed than the 
extremely bare rite of the Memoriale, as it stands? If this is 
so, it is unfortunate for most of our churches in England. In 
Rome the circumstances are different. There is no lack of 
ordained clerks there ; every church of any importance can 
always have the assistance of sacred ministers. But in 
England the great majority of Catholic churches, even 
churches of considerable size, are served by one or two 
priests, and have no other ordained ministers. They may, 
however, have large congregations, competent choirs and a 
number of persons able to act as servers. If the rules of the 
Memoriale rituum hold absolutely, in what they do not con- 
template as well as in their positive directions, this will mean 
that in all such churches the people never see any of the 
solemnity of these days. They will never hear the chants ; 
even the great days of Holy Week will be kept with nothing 
but the barest possible necessity in the way of rite. The people 
will never hear the Exsultet sung on Holy Saturday, nor the 
first Alleluia and vespers of Easter on that day. The pro- 
cessions will be reduced to four people who recite what norm- 
ally should be sung. This presents the same difficulty as if, 
in all such churches, no form of the holy Sacrifice were allowed 
but Low Mass. 

Yet, on one occasion at least, the Congregation of Rites 
has apparently decided that it is to be so. In 1879 the master 
of ceremonies of Bayonne Cathedral sent a number of questions 

^ " These clerks modulate in equal concord of voices (that is, on one 
note) those things that are to be recited in the processions " {ib.). *' The 
celebrant . . . recites . . . with an audible and equal voice, alternately 
>vith his clerks, after the manner of regular clerks " (Tit. I, cap. ii, § 4), 
namely as monks and friars monotone the office. For the convenience of 
this recitation the Mem. Rit. prints all the chants in verses, like psalms, 
to be said alternately by the celebrant and servers. 



Ht)\?eut to 1301^ Meek 263 

to the congregation, among which was this one, whether 
functions celebrated according to the Memoriale rituum of 
Benedict XIII may nev^ertheless be accompanied by singing. 
The answer was " Negative." '^ 

We know, however, that these decisions are not always 
final ones ; that in many cases later concessions annul former 
answers; that an ansvver given to one diocese is not always 
intended to apply without modification to all others. And, as 
a matter of fact, it has long been the custom in English 
churches to adorn the services of these days, particularly 
those of Holy Week, with somewhat more of solemnity than 
is provided in the Memoriale rituum ; just as we celebrate a 
Missa cantata with more servers and more ceremonies (such 
as the use of incense) than are contemplated in the Roman 
documents.'^ This may undoubtedly be considered a legitimate 
custom, allowed by bishops in many countries, and, at least 
tacitly, by the Roman authorities. In a large and important 
church where the only reason against celebrating High Mass, 
or these functions with ministers, is that it is not possible to 
secure the ministers, we may borrow more of the ceremonies 
of High Mass and of the normal function than where they 
can be held only with the bare complement absolutely neces- 
sary. The most unimpeachable authorities, Le Vavasseur, 
De Herdt, and others, formally recognize and provide for 
such additions to the Memoriale rituum as singing, more 
servers, and so on. Indeed, this seems to settle the question. 
Le Vavasseur's book is re-edited by Father Hasgy,^ Con- 
suitor of the S. Congregation of Rites, Secretary of the 
Liturgical Commission and Censor of the Roman Academy 
of Liturgy. It has the warmest possible approbations of two 
Popes (Pius IX and Leo XIII) and 114 bishops. It has the 
Imprimatur of the Mag. S. Pal. and of Mgr. Ceppetelli at 
Rome, and a recommendation by the President of the Roman 
Liturgical Commission.^ This book says explicitly that the 
three servers of the Memoriale are a minimum; it recom- 
mends a greater number (specified, as here below^). It sup- 
poses as possible, and prefers, that all should be sung." 

De Herdt, hardly a less authority, says equally plainly (in 
the case of Palm Sunday) : "If in the smaller churches singers 
are present, they may sing the antiphon Hosanna, the gradual 
. . . (naming all the chants). In this case the priest also 
sings the prayers, lesson, gospel and preface," etc." 

^ S.R.C, no. 3505, ad VI. ' See p. 137. 

^ Manuel de Liturgie ct C^remo7iial seloti le rite romaiti^ loth ed. , Paris, 
Lecoffre, 2 vols., 1910. 

* See vol. i, pp. v-xxvii. 

'" Vol. ii, pp. 186-187; cf""- P- 200, § 55, p. 201, § 57, etc. throughout the 
Holy Week services in small churches. 

'• Sacrae Liturgiae Praxis, 9th ed. , Louvain, Vanlinthout, 1894, vol. iii, 
. 36, § 5. 



264 Ube Xtturgical 19ear 

In the following accounts of these days, besides the instruc- 
tions of the Memoriale rituum, we add directions for other 
servers and for the choir, in the case where these can attend. 

Note further that none of the special functions of these six 
days may be held in private or convent chapels without special 
leave of the Holy See and Ordinary. Secondly, in every case 
the priest who performs the earlier part of the rite must be 
the same who says the Mass. 

It will be noticed below that in some cases, where the de- 
scription of the ceremonies with deacon and subdeacon does 
not seem sufficiently explicit in the missal, Caerimoniale epis- 
coporum and other liturgical authorities, the rubrics of the 
Memoriale rituum are quoted to illustrate the point. It is of 
course true that this document describes a different order. 
Its rules apply to the case in which there are no ministers, 
and then (in the first place) only to the smaller parish churches 
at Rome. But the points in question are such as are not 
affected by the presence or absence of ministers. The cere- 
monies of the Memoriale rituum are intended to be those of 
the normal full rites simplified. It would be strange if Bene- 
dict XIII had intended to make changes in indifferent points 
common to both cases. Since then his decree is put forth by 
the same authority as the other liturgical books, we may, no 
doubt, consult it (with due regard to the necessary modifica- 
tions) when other documents fail. In the same way all the 
approved books of ceremonies quote the rules of the Caeri- 
moniale episcoporum (mutatis mutandis) for services cele- 
brated by a priest; in the case of processions we apply general 
rules, noted for some other procession, perhaps in another 
book, whenever an explicit exception does not occur. 

§6. CANDLEMAS IN SMALL CHURCHES' 

The following preparations must be made beforehand : 

On the credence table the chalice, with its ornaments, are 
prepared for Mass. The Mass vestments lie on the credence 
table or at the sedile. If the Mass is of the Purification the 
colour is white. The holy water and sprinkler are on the 
credence table, the cruets for Mass, a plate with bread, with 
which to cleanse the celebrant's hands after the distribution of 
candles, and another vessel of water with a dish and towel for 
this purpose. The Memoriale, according to the Roman custom, 
says that the thurible is at the credence table. It is generally 
more convenient to leave this in the sacristy, unless there is 
a thurifer who comes out with it at the beginning, and holds 
it during all the blessing of candles. The Memoriale also 
requires that a copy of this book be at the credence table, 
from which the celebrant and ministers will recite the chants. 

1 Mem. Rif., Tit. I. 



Hbvent to Iboli^ MeeF? 265 

The altar Is covered with a white frontal,^ and over it a 
purple one, easily removed, for the blessing of candles. At the 
epistle corner of the altar is a table with a white cloth, on 
which are the candles to be blessed. The processional cross 
is near, unless again a cross-bearer brings it at the head of 
the procession from the sacristy and stands with it all the 
time. In the sacristy are the surplices for the servers (three, 
according to the Memoriale), the amice, alb, girdle, purple 
stole and cope for the celebrant." 

If it is a Sunday the Asperges ceremony is held first, in 
purple vestments. 

According to the Memoriale rituum the function is carried 
out by the celebrant and three servers only. Of these three 
one, the first, brings the thurible when it is required at the 
blessing; he then lays it aside and, in due time, takes the 
processional cross and goes in front of the procession. The 
other two stand on either side of the celebrant during the 
blessing, answer the prayers, hand him the sprinkler for 
the holy water, assist when he puts on and blesses Incense, 
and finally walk on either side of him, presumably holding 
the ends of his cope,^ in the procession. These two, and the 
celebrant, hold their candles lighted during the procession 
and recite the chants. 

If no other priest is present the first server after the bless- 
ing lays a candle on the altar; the celebrant goes up, takes 
It kneeling, kisses It, and then gives it to the server to keep, 
till he takes it again for the procession. If a priest is present, 
he gives the candle to the celebrant, who receives It before 
the altar facing the people, both standing. Before giving It 
the other priest kisses the candle, the celebrant does so when 
he receives it. Neither kisses the hand of the other. But this 
second priest receives his candle from the celebrant In the 
usual way, kneeling, kissing first the candle, then the cele- 
brant's hand. 

There is no difficulty about the blessing. The celebrant says 
all the prayers in order, as they are in the missal, the servers 
at his sides answer. The Memoriale says that, when the 
candles are blessed, the celebrant sitting with head covered 
at the gospel side of the footpace preaches to the people 
about the meaning of the ceremony.^ When he has taken his 
own candle, he stands at the epistle side and there recites the 
antiphon Lumen ad revelationeni with the Nunc dimittis. Then 
he gives the candles to the people.' The servers accompany 

^ Supposing that the Mass is of the Purification. The only other case 
is if 2 February is Septuag-esima or a following- Sunday ; then purple is 
the colour throughout. 

- Mem. Rit., Tit. I, cap. i. ^ The Mem. Rit. does not say this. 

^ Tit. I, cap. ii, § I, n. 15. 

■' Mem. Rit., Tit. I, cap. ii, § 2, n. 7, says first to the men, then to 
women. This is not usual in England. 



266 zbc Xttuv^ical 13eav 

him, right and left, and hand him the candles to distribute. 
The first brings them from the table. He then goes back to 
the altar, washes his hands and says the antiphon Exsurge 
Donmie, etc., Oremus (if on a weekday after Septuagesima he 
adds Flectamus genua \ the second server answers Z^?:;^/'^), and 
the collect. 

Finally, taking his candle lighted from a server (the other 
servers, except the first, taking theirs) he turns to the people 
and says Pj'ocedarnus in pace. The servers answer In 7iomi7ie 
Christi. Amen. So the little procession goes round the church, 
the cross before.' When it comes back to the altar, all make 
the usual reverence, the celebrant goes to the seat and there 
takes off the cope and stole, putting on Mass vestments, 
assisted by the servers. While he does so the first server 
takes off the purple frontal, so as to expose the white one, 
and puts vases of flowers between the candles on the altar." 
Low Mass follows. The servers (and presumably the people ') 
hold the candles lighted during the gospel, and from the eleva- 
tion to the Communion.* 

To this simple ceremony it is possible to make the following 
additions: There may be a M.C., thurifer, cross-bearer and 
two acolytes. These acolytes cannot well be the two servers 
who stand at the celebrant's side (his assistants), because 
these should walk on either side of him in the procession, 
whereas the acolytes ^q in front on either side of the cross. 
Other servers in surplices may attend, to carry blessed candles 
and make a longer procession. They may come out from the 
sacristy in the usual order and stand in the sanctuary during 
the blessing. All receive candles, but the acolytes, thurifer 
and cross-bearer cannot carry theirs in the procession. The 
acolytes hold, not the blessed candles, but those of their office, 
in candlesticks. Incense will be put on and blessed by the 
celebrant before the procession begins. 

All may be sung as when there are deacon and subdeacon. 
The celebrant in this case will sing the prayers, the choir 
answering. He will s\w^ Procedamus in pace before the pro- 
cession. During the procession the choir sings the antiphons 
provided in the gradual. 

If the procession is not made, strictly, the candles should 

^ The Mem. Rit.^ Tit. I, cap. ii, § 2, n. 5 and 8, says that the cross- 
bearer, both before and after the procession, genuflects to the altar. 
This is directly opposed to the g^eneral rule that a cross-bearer with the 
cross never g-enuflects, but bows instead (Le Vavasseur, i, p. 685, § 330; 
De Herdt, iii, p. 420, n. ). Nor can he g^enuflect, without a most awkward 
gesture, while he holds the cross. See p. 22, n. i. 

^ He is told explicitly to do so: "apponit vasa florum inter cande- 
labra" {Mem. Rit, Tit. I, cap. ii, § 4, n. 3); so little is it true that the 
Roman documents do not contemplate flowers on the altar. 

^ The Mem. Rit., Tit. I, cap. ii, § 4, n. 4, says only: " clerici tenebunt 
candelas accensas." 

* Only if it is the Mass of the Purification. 



Hbvent to 1bol^ Mce?? 267 

not be blessed. They are blessed and distributed primarily in 
order to be held during the procession. Indeed, in many coun- 
tries the candles are given back to the church afterwards. 
But in England it is not unusual to bless and distribute candles 
at Candlemas, even when there is no procession. People keep 
them for use at sick calls, or to burn around the bed of a 
dying person. 

Other candles may be blessed at the same time, not dis- 
tributed, but used in the course of the vear on the altar. 

% 7. SEPTUAGESIMA AND LENT 

The time from Septuagesima Sunday to Ash Wednesday par- 
takes in many ways, but not in all, in the character of Lent. 
The colour of the season is purple from Septuagesima to 
Easter.^ The Te Deuvi is not said at m.atins, nor the Gloria 
in excelsis at Mass, except on feasts. At the end of Mass the 
deacon (or celebrant) says Benedicanius Do^jiino instead of Ite 
7nissa est. In no case is the word Alleluia used at all from 
Septuagesima till it returns at the first Easter Mass on Holy 
Saturday. On all days, even feasts, a tract (tractus) takes 
the place of the Allelnia and its verse after the gradual. In 
the office, at the end of the response to Dens in adiutornciUy 
Laiis tibi Domine^ rex aeterfiae gloriae is said instead oi Alleluia. 
But from Septuagesima to Ash Wednesday, although purple 
is the colour, the ministers use dalmatic and tunicle. The 
organ may be played then, as during the rest of the year.* 
From Ash Wednesday to Easter the ministers wear folded 
chasubles; the organ is silent till the Mass of Holy Saturday 
(except on mid-Lent). 

On Ash W^ednesday and the three following days the office 
is said as on other ferias of the year, though they have special 
collects, antiphons at the Magnificat and Benedictus, and 
ferial "preces." The Lenten order of the office does not begin 
till the first Sunday of Lent. 

On mid-Lent Sunday, the fourth of Lent (Laetare) rosy- 
coloured vestments are used, the altar is decorated as for 
feasts, the organ is played. ' 

During the last fortnight of Lent, from Passion Sunday 
(Passiontide) the verse Gloria Patri in the office of the season 
is omitted at the invitatorium of Matins, at all responsories, 
at the Asperges, and introit and Lavabo of Mass. The psalm 
Iiidica me at Mass, and suffragium in the office are not said ; 
no votive office or Mass is allowed. Before the first vespers 

' Except on mid-Lent Sunday (rosy), Maundy Thursday (white for Mass), 
Good Friday (black), and Holy Saturday (partly white), as will be noted. 

- This is the general rule, that the org-an may be played when the 
ministers wear dalmatic and tunicle, even if the colour be purple (S.R.C., 
2 September 1741, no. 2365, ad IV). 

^ The rule is the same as for mid-Advent (see p. 253). 



268 zhc Xtturotcal 19ear 

of Passion Sunday all statues and pictures (including crucifixes) 
in the church and sacristy are to be covered with a plain 
opaque purple veil. No other figure or ornament is allowed 
on these veils. The images are not to be uncovered on any 
pretext (except the crosses on Good Friday, see p. 305), till 
the veils are removed at the Gloria in excelsis on Holy 
Saturday. But the Stations of the Cross may remain un- 
covered.^ 

At High Mass on Lady Day (25 March) the celebrant and 
ministers come to kneel before the altar while the choir sings 
Et incamatus . . . e^ homo fachis est, as at Christmas (see 
p. 256). 

§8. ASH WEDNESDAY 

The rite of blessing the ashes is similar to that of blessing 
candles at Candlemas." 

The colour is purple for both blessing and Mass. No orna- 
ments are used on the altar, except the cross and six candles 
(for High Mass). The altar-cards may either be on the altar 
from the beginning of the function, or they may be put in their 
place before Mass begins. The missal, covered with purple, 
stands on the epistle side ; near it, between the book and the 
end of the altar, is a vessel containing the ashes, made by 
burning palms from last Palm Sunday. This vessel is covered 
with a purple veil or a lid. The sedilia are covered with 
purple. On them are the three maniples, and a chasuble for 
the celebrant. At the credence table everything is prepared 
for Mass, as usual. There is, moreover, the vessel of holy 
water and sprinkler, the broad stole for the deacon (if the 
ministers wear folded chasubles), water in a vessel, a basin, 
towel and plate with dry bread, that the celebrant may wash 
his hands after the distribution of ashes. If another priest 
will assist in distributing the ashes, a purple stole and a second 
vessel for ashes are prepared here for him. 

In the sacristy everything is prepared for Mass as usual, 
except the maniples and the celebrant's chasuble, which are 
at the seat. The celebrant vests in purple stole and cope, the 
deacon in purple stole ; he and the subdeacon in folded cha- 
subles.' 

The function begins after none. 

The procession comes to the sanctuary as usual. The cele- 

^ Le Vavasscur, ii, p. 43, n. 2. 

- Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xix; Martinucci-Meng"hini, I, ii, pp. 169-174; 
Van der Stappen, v, pp. 328-330; De Herdt, iii, pp. 19-23; Le Vavasseur, 
ii, pp. 35-41 ; Wapelhorst, pp. 278-280. 

^ The folded chasubles are not necessary, except in cathedrals and 
larger churches. Otherwise the deacon need wear only alb and stole, 
the subdeacon onl}' the alb. 



Hbvent to 1bolp Mce?? 269 

brant, between the ministers, goes up to the altar and kisses 
it in the middle. The ministers do not genuflect, but bow. 
They go to the missal at the epistle side and stand there, the 
celebrant between the ministers, who do not hold the ends of 
his cope. The ashes are uncovered by the M.C. While the 
choir sings the antiphon ExatLdi nos Donime, etc., the cele- 
brant reads it in a low voice, with folded hands. Meanwhile 
those in choir sit. Then all stand and remain standing while 
the ashes are blessed. The celebrant chants the four prayers, 
as in the missal. He chants them in the ferial tone, with 
joined hands, and does not turn to the people at Doinmus 
vobisctivi. At the word Oremus he bows to the cross. The 
ministers are at his sides. Meanwhile the thurifer goes to pre- 
pare the thurible, and returns with it. When the celebrant 
blesses the ashes, he lays his left hand on the altar, and makes 
the sign of the cross over them with the right. The deacon 
holds up the end of the cope. Incense is put on and blessed, 
the ashes are sprinkled with holy water, then incensed, as 
always on such occasions. While sprinkling the ashes the 
celebrant says Asperges me, without the psalm. He incenses 
them, saying nothing. The thurible is taken back to the 
sacristy. While the ashes are distributed the choir sings the 
antiphons appointed in the missal and gradual. 

If another priest is present he gives the ashes to the cele- 
brant. In this case he does not wear a stole. He comes to 
the altar when the blessing is finished. The celebrant, with 
the ministers, also comes to the middle and turns to the 
people; the ministers change places, passing behind him, so 
that the deacon shall be on his right as they face the people. 
The M.C. gives the vessel with ashes to the deacon to hold. 
The priest who gives the ashes to the celebrant takes some 
from the dish between the forefinger and thumb of his right 
hand, and with them makes the sign of the cross on the cele- 
brant. The rubrics do not define exactly the place where the 
ashes are put. It is usual, in the case of priests and of all 
who are tonsured, to put the ashes at the place of the tonsure.^ 
Lay people receive them on the forehead. 

In making the cross with ashes the verse Memento homo 
qtiia piilvis es et in pulverem reverteris is said. 

If no other priest is present the celebrant kneels on the 
foot-pace, facing the altar, and puts the ashes on himself, 
saying nothing. Neither of the ministers may give the ashes 
to the celebrant. The celebrant next gives the ashes to the 
priest from whom he has received them. This priest kneels 
on the edge of the foot-pace (if he is a prelate or canon he 
stands and bows). The deacon hands the ashes to the M.C, 
and kneels before the celebrant ; he and the subdeacon receive 

^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 39, n. i. 



270 XT be Xiturgtcal 13ear 

theirs. If canons or prelates are present they receive ashes 
before the ministers, unless these, too, are canons. 

The ashes are then distributed to the clergy in choir, in 
order. They come before the altar two by two (if their 
number is unequal the last group is of three). They kneel 
there while the celebrant puts the ashes on their tonsure or 
forehead, saying- to each the form as above. Most authors 
say that the deacon holds the vessel of ashes meanwhile at 
the celebrant's right. ^ It is probably inconvenient to take 
a thing in the right hand from a man who holds it at your 
right side. Often the vessel will be held by the subdeacon 
or M.C. at the celebrant's left, unless the deacon goes to that 
side. 

Ashes are then given in the same way to the servers. 
Lastly they are given to the people at the Communion rails. 
They are not put on clothes, but on the skin or hair. To do 
so the celebrant goes there between the ministers. The Roman 
books demand that men should kneel separate from women." 
This is not the custom in England. 

While the ashes are distributed the clergy in choir sit as 
soon as everyone in their row has received them. If another 
priest assists, or alone gives out the ashes to the people, the 
M.C. must put some of them into a vessel for his use, and he 
will wash his hands after the celebrant. 

When the distribution is over the celebrant goes to the 
epistle corner of the altar, and there washes his hands. The 
first acolyte holds the plate with bread, the second the water 
and dish, with the towel over his arm. The ministers at the 
celebrant's sides hold the ends of his cope. Then at the 
epistle side of the altar, the celebrant sings Dominus vobisctini 
and the last collect, as in the missal. The ministers stand at 
his side, as before. They ^o straight to the sedilia, and there 
the celebrant takes off the cope, putting on the maniple and 
chasuble; the ministers put on their maniples. The M.C. and 
acolytes assist them. 

Mass follows as usual. When the celebrant reads the verse 
Aditiva 710S in the tract he does not genuflect. He says the 
gospel, then, returning to the middle, kneels there, between 
the ministers, while the choir sings those words. The deacon 
takes off the folded chasuble (if he wears it) and puts on the 
*' broad stole" ^ before he takes the gospel book to put it on 
the altar. He puts on the chasuble again after the Com- 
munion (see p. 255). 

After the last post-communion the celebrant sings Dominus 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, p. 172, § 22; Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 39, 
§ 134, etc. 

2 Martinucci, I, ii, p. 173, § 25. 

^ If he does not use the folded chasuble, neither does he use a " broad 
stole." 



Hb\?ent to Ibolp Meek 271 

vobiscuniy the deacon turns to the people, sings Hu7nilate 
capita vestra DeOy then turns back to the altar. The cele- 
brant sings the Oratio super populum.^ 

§ 9. ASH WEDNESDAY IN SMALL CHURCHES 

The Memoriale rituum ^ in its description of this ceremony 
has almost the same account as is already given above. 
That is to say, the ministers have so little to do on Ash 
Wednesday that the description above will do for this case 
too, with the obvious exception that their part is left out. 
The servers assist at the incense and sprinkling of ashes. A 
server holds the vessel of ashes by the celebrant while he 
distributes them. According to the Memoriale rituum the 
celebrant, with the servers, recites the antiphons, otherwise 
sung, as soon as he himself has received the ashes. If there 
is a choir they will sing the same parts as when there are 
deacon and subdeacon. 

^ What is left of the ashes is to be thrown into the sacrarium after- 
wards. 

^ Titulus II. 



CHAPTER XXIV 
THE FIRST PART OF HOLY WEEK 

5 I. PALM SUNDAY 

THE normal rites of Palm Sunday ^ suppose that the 
celebrant is assisted by deacon and subdeacon, that 
the Mass is a High Mass. 
The persons who take part in the service are 
the celebrant, deacon and subdeacon, three other 
deacons who will chant the Passion, two masters of cere- 
monies," thurifer, two acolytes, torch-bearers, clergy^ in choir 
who receive palms and form the procession. It is supposed 
that the singers are among these. 

The following preparations are made beforehand. 

The altar is prepared for Mass, with the cross (veiled in 
Passion-tide), six candles, and missal at the epistle side. 

The altar-cards may be on the altar from the beginning of 
the ceremony, or may be placed there by one of the masters 
of ceremonies while the celebrant vests for Mass. If it is the 
custom, branches of palm or olive may decorate the altar 
between the candles in the place where flowers are put on 
feasts." 

At the credence table everything for High ]Mass is prepared 
as usual. 

Further, another vessel of water, basin and towel are put 
here, that the celebrant may wash his hands after distributing 
the palms, the so-called "broad stole" for the deacon, if he 
uses a folded chasuble, also the holy water and sprinkler.* 
The processional cross (covered with purple) stands near the 
credence table, and by it a purple ribbon to tie a palm to it. 
Near the altar, at the epistle side,^ a table is prepared, covered 
with a white cloth. On this the palms are laid out, and are 
covered with a purple or white veil. 

The seat should be purple. On it the chasuble and three 
maniples are laid. If lecterns will be used for the singing of 

^ Caer. £p., Lib. H, cap. xxi ; Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, tit, vii (torn, i, 
pp. 262-271); Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, ii, pp. 176-191; Van der Stappen, 
v> PP- 330-335 > De Herdt, iii, pp. 25-42 ; Le \'avasseur, ii, 48-63 ; Wapel- 
horst, pp. 281-289. 

^ The chief office of the second M.C. will be to attend to the deacons 
who sing the Passion. 

^ The Mem. Rit. prescribes this, absolutely, for the smaller churches 

of Rome: "Rami palmarum, loco florum, inter candelabra" (Tit. Ill, 

cap. i); cfr. Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, tit. vii, no. ^{ed. cit., torn, i, p. 265): 

' Between the candlesticks branches of palms or olives may be placed, 

decently adorned with gold or silver." 

* The same vessel of holy water may be used as for the Asperges. 

* The rubric in the missal (on Palm Sunday) says: "in the middle 
before the altar, or at the corner of the epistle." It is now always at the 
epistle side. Cfr. Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV^, tit. vii, rub. vii (c), {ed. cit.^ 
p. 262). 

a;* 



Ube jf trst part of 1bol^ 'HOeclft 273 

the Passion, they may be set up beforehand or brought out 
during the tract of the Mass. Three are used, in a line at a 
little distance from one another, at the place where the gospel 
is read. They may be bare or covered with purple cloth. 

In the sacristy the vestments are laid out for the celebrant 
and ministers. The celebrant will wear amice, alb, girdle, 
purple stole and cope; the deacon amice, alb, girdle, purple 
stole and folded chasuble ; the subdeacon amice, alb, girdle 
and folded chasuble. In the sacristy, or other convenient 
place, the vestments are prepared for the three deacons who 
will sing the Passion. They wear amice, alb, girdle, purple 
maniple and stole. 

The ceremony begins after terce. The Asperges takes place 
first. Then the acolytes bring maniples to the ministers and 
help them to put them on. The palms are uncovered. 

The celebrant goes up to the altar between the ministers. 
He kisses it in the middle; they bow. All ^o to the epistle 
side. Here the celebrant stands between the ministers and 
reads the first antiphon Hosaiuia filio David in a low voice. 
Meanwhile it is sung by the choir; everyone else sits. Then 
all stand; the celebrant at the same place, not turning to the 
people and with hands still joined, sings Domnms vobiscum^ 
and the collect, in the ferial tone. As soon as he begins the 
subdeacon comes down from the foot-pace to his place be- 
hind the celebrant. He stands here, facing the altar, while 
the second acolyte takes off his chasuble and the second M.C. 
hands him the book of lessons. When the collect is finished, 
he comes to the middle, accompanied by the second M.C. 
They genuflect to the altar, bow to the choir, as usual, and 
^o to the place where the epistle is sung. All in choir sit. 
The subdeacon sings the lesson. He again makes the usual 
reverences to the altar and choir, comes to receive the cele- 
brant's blessing, kissing his hand, as at Mass, puts on 
again the folded chasuble and goes back to the celebrant's 
left. The celebrant may read the lesson, one of the respon- 
sories, say the Munda cor meiifn and read the gospel, all at 
the epistle side.^ After the lesson the choir sings one of the 
responsories provided "for a gradual."^ The deacon goes 
down when the subdeacon has been blessed, making the usual 
reverences, takes off the folded chasuble and puts on the 
"broad stole," assisted by an acolyte. The second M.C. 
hands him the book of lessons. He puts this in the middle of 
the altar, as at High Mass, goes to the right of the celebrant 

^ This does not seem prescribed ; Martinucci, " leg-ere poterit " (p. 179, 
§ 25); Le Vavasseur, " Le C^lt^brant peut lire . . ." (p. 52, § 178). But 
see Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxi, § 4: " iis omnibus quae cantantur . . . 
lectis " 

^ Rubric of the missal. There seems no law against their singing both 
responsories. 

T 



274 Ube Xiturotcal 13eat 

and assists as usual while incense is put on and blessed. The 
subdeacon then goes down to the middle and waits there. 
The deacon kneels on the edg-e of the foot-pace and says the 
Munda cor tneum. He receives the celebrant's blessing, as at 
Mass. He sings the gospel exactly as at High Mass, the sub- 
deacon holding the book, the thurifer, acolytes with candles 
and M.C. accompanying him. He incenses the book; the cele- 
brant stands facing him at the epistle side. The celebrant 
afterwards kisses the book and is incensed, as at Mass. The 
deacon takes off the ''broad stole" and maniple, and puts on 
the folded chasuble. The subdeacon takes off his maniple ; the 
maniples are put at the sedilia. ' The ministers stand again on 
either side of the celebrant. The celebrant, at the epistle side, 
chants the prayer that follows in the missal (in the ferial tone) 
and the preface. The choir answers. The tone of the preface 
is ferial. The choir sings Sanctus'y the celebrant and ministers 
say it in a low voice, bowing. The prayers for blessing the 
palms follow. They are sung, in the ferial tone, by the cele- 
brant. When he makes the sign of the cross over the palms 
with his right, he rests his left on the altar, and the deacon 
holds up the end of the cope. Incense is put on and blessed, 
the palms are sprinkled with holy water, while the celebrant 
says Asperges vie (without the psalm) ; the palms are incensed 
by the celebrant in silence, all as on all similar occasions. 
When the palms have been incensed the thurifer takes the 
thurible back to the sacristy, unless the procession will follow 
very soon. 

When the palms are blessed the distribution follows. The 
celebrant and ministers come to the middle of the altar, bow 
to the cross and turn so as to face the people. If another 
priest is present, he comes forward, takes a palm from the 
M.C, kisses it and hands it to the celebrant, who kisses it on 
receiving it, then gives it to the subdeacon to lay on the altar. 
Both stand ; neither kisses the hand of the other. The cele- 
brant then first gives a palm to this priest. He receives it 
kneeling on the foot-pace, and kisses first the palm, then the 
celebrant's hand. If he is a canon or prelate he stands to 
receive his palm, and does not kiss the celebrant's hand.^ If 
no other priest be present, the deacon lays a palm on the altar. 
Kneeling, the celebrant takes it thence, kisses it and hands it 
to the subdeacon, who lays it again on the altar. ^ The ministers 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, p. i8o, § 39. This seems obviously the 
right moment to lay aside the maniples ; they wear them only because of 
the lessons. Moreover, to do so now agrees with the rule of the Mem. 
Rit. for small churches (Tit. Ill, cap. ii, § 2). But other authors say the 
maniples are laid aside later, that of the subdeacon just before he takes 
the processional cross, that of the deacon just before the procession 
starts. So Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, tit. vii, § 22 (vol. i, p. 267). 

^ See p. 259, n. 2. 

^ Neither of the ministers may give the palm to the celebrant. 



XTbe jf irst part of IFdoI^ Meek 275 

now receive their palms from the celebrant. If the Chapter is 
present the ministers receive them after the canons, unless 
they too are canons. They place their palms on the altar, or 
hand them to an acolyte. The deacon now stands at the left 
of the celebrant. He takes palms from an acolyte or the M.C. 
and hands them to the celebrant for distribution. The sub- 
deacon on the right holds the end of the cope. Palms are 
given to the clergy in choir. They come up two and two (if 
there is an uneven number the last group is of three) and take 
the palms from the celebrant, as they kneel on the edge of 
the foot-pace, kissing first the palm, then the celebrant's 
hand. Those in choir sit as soon as all in their line have re- 
ceived palms. Palms may now be given to the people at the 
Communion rail or entrance of the sanctuary. The celebrant 
does so, having the ministers at his sides, as before. Or it 
may be done by another priest, who will wear a surplice and 
purple stole. 

The Roman books say that women should kiss only the 
palm, not the hand; ^ also that women should kneel separate 
from men." While the palms are distributed a server ties one 
to the processional cross. 

The celebrant and ministers go back to the altar, bow to 
the cross, and go to the epistle side ; the celebrant washes his 
hands, as at Candlemas (p. 259), then standing between the 
ministers sings Doviinus vohiscum and the prayer, as before. 

While he does so the procession is formed. The thurifer 
brings the thurible to the sanctuary, if he has put it away. 
The subdeacon takes the processional cross. He goes with 
the acolytes to stand at the entrance of the sanctuary, facing 
the altar. Neither the cross-bearer nor the acolytes with him 
genuflect. Meanwhile the thurifer comes to the celebrant. 
Incense is put on and blessed as usual, the deacon assisting. 

The deacon takes the celebrant's palm from the M.C. and 
gives it to the celebrant with the solita oscula. Then he takes 
his own. The thurifer goes to stand behind the cross-bearer, 
so as to be in front of him when all turn round ; the deacon 
turns to the people, at the celebrant's right, and sings Pro- 
cedamus in pace. The choir answers /// nomine Christi. Aj7ie?t. 
The procession starts, in this order: First the thurifer with 
incense, the subdeacon carrying the cross between the acolytes, 
the singers ^ and the clergy in choir. These come out from 
their places two and two, genuflect before the altar and join 

^ Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, tit. vii, § 19 (ed. ctt, vol. i, p. 267). 

- Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, p. 182, § 55. 

^ Some authors {e.g., Martinucci, I, ii, p. 184, § 74) say that the singers 
do not carry palms. This seems to be only because they think that a 
man cannot hold both a palm and a book to sing- from. There is no 
reason why the singers should not hold palms, if they can do so con- 
veniently. Indeed, the rubric of the missal says: " omnes cum ramis in 
manibus " ; so does the Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxi, § 8. 



276 



Ube Xitutatcal igeat 



those before them. The servers follow. The M.C. may go 
immediately before the celebrant, or at his right. Before leav- 
ing the altar the celebrant and deacon, coming down from the 
foot-pace, make the usual reverence. The deacon takes the 
celebrant's biretta from the M.C. and hands it to him with 
the solita oscula, then takes his own. Both celebrant and 
deacon cover themselves. The deacon walks at the celebrant's 
left, holding the end of the cope in his right, his palm in his left. 
In the procession everyone holds the palm in the outer hand. 
Meanwhile the choir sings all or some of the antiphons ap- 
pointed. During the procession the church bells should be rung, 
but not the Sanctus bell if Mass is being said at a side altar/ 
The procession should go outside the church. Finally it 



P P 




t h 




V 



%/ 



^ 




M #T5r 



FIG. 36. PALM SUNDAY : THE PROCESSION BEFORE THE 
CHURCH DOORS 

The ministers wear folded chasubles. Thie deacon is at the cele- 
brant's left, except while actually ministering" to him 



arrives outside the church doors, which are shut. Here it 
stands thus : the subdeacon with an acolyte on either side is 
immediately before and facing the doors, ^ the thurifer stands 
to the right of the right-hand acolyte. The celebrant and 
deacon stand behind the subdeacon, also facing the door, but 
at some distance from it. The choir and clergy form lines, 
one on either side, between the celebrant and the door; or 
they make a wide semicircle around. 

Meanwhile two or more cantors^ remain inside. They 
should separate themselves from the rest of the choir when 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, 1, ii, p. 185, §§ 75, 78. 

^ Gavanti thinks the cross should be turned so as to face the celebrant 
behind (Pars IV, tit. vii, Rub. 16, 9); Merati is not sure {ib.^ § 26, vol. i, 
p. 268) ; Martinucci, Le Vavasseur, and most modern authors say nothing 
about this. No rubric says so. He had better hold the cross as usual; it 
would be strange to strike the door with the cross backwards. 

^ Missal rubric: "duo vel quatuor cantores"; Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II» 
cap. xxi, § 8: "aliqui cantores." 



TLbc 3f irst part ot Ibolp Meeft 277 

the procession leaves the church. These cantors inside, facing" 
the closed doors, sing the first verse of the hymn Gloria laus 
et }w7ior. Those without repeat the same verse. The cantors 
within sing the following verses ; those without after each 
repeat the first, Gloria laus et honor tihi sit rex Chris te re~ 
demptory etc. When all is sung, the subdeacon strikes the 
door with the lower end of the processional cross. ^ It is opened 
by those within. The procession enters, singing the responsory 
Ingrediente Domino. 

If it is impossible that the procession ^o outside the church 
this ceremony must be performed at the entrance of the sanc- 
tuary. If there are gates to the sanctuary, they are shut, 
instead of the church doors. '^ Outside the church all who have 
birettas may wear them (except the subdeacon, acolytes and 
thurifer). It is better that they should uncover during the 
singing of the hymn Gloria laus. Inside the church only the 
celebrant and deacon wear the biretta. They too uncover 
when they enter the sanctuary. Before the altar the thurifer 
genuflects and either takes the thurible to the sacristy, or 
waits at the side for the beginning of Mass. The subdeacon 
with the cross and acolytes do not genuflect; they bow to the 
altar and ^o to the credence table. The subdeacon here puts 
the cross near, and comes to the sedilia, where he waits for 
the celebrant and deacon. The acolytes put their candles on the 
table, and stay there. The members of the choir genuflect, 
two and two, bow to each other, and ^o to their places. The 
M.C., celebrant, and deacon come to the altar, genuflect (if 
the Sanctissimum is not there the celebrant bows), and ^o to 
the seat. Here the deacon takes the celebrant's palm (solita 
oscula) and hands it, with his own, to the M.C., who puts 
them on the credence table. The subdeacon is already at the 
seat. They vest for Mass. 

The Mass is celebrated according to the rules for Passion- 
tide (p. 267) with the following special points. The celebrant, 
when he reads the epistle, does not genuflect. When the sub- 
deacon reads it the celebrant, deacon, and all in choir genu- 
flect at the words Vt in nomine lesu to infernorum. W^hile the 
tract is sung the celebrant and ministers may sit at the seat. 

The chief feature of this Mass is that the Passion (the gospel 
of the Mass) is not sung by the deacon who assists the cele- 
brant, but by three other deacons. Of these three deacons 

^ Dale's translation of Baldeschi says : " with his foot " (nth ed., 1913, 
p. 214, § 31). This is a curious blunder. The rubric oi the missal says : 
** Postea subdiaconus hastili crucis percutit portam " ; Caer. Ep.y Lib. II, 
cap. xxi, § 9: " tangit cum illius (sc. crucis) hasta portam." All the 
authors say the same. Dale mis-read his Italian text: " col sue piede," 
meaning- the foot of the cross. 

* If the entrance to the sanctuary has no gates the subdeacon strikes 
the floor with the cross ; the opening of the doors must be left to pious 
imagination. 



^78 Ube Xiturgtcal 13eat 

one sing-s all the narrative; he is called the Narrator. 
Another sings the words spoken by our Lord, and is called 
Christus. The third sing-s whatever is spoken by the crowd 
or by anyone else. He is generally called the Synagoga.^ In 
case of necessity the celebrant himself may sing the words of 
Christ; there are then but two deacons of the Passion." The 
choir may sing the words said by the crowd (the " Turba ") ; ^ 
but this does not dispense with the '^Synagoga" deacon, 
though it reduces what he has to sing to very little. He will 
then take the part of Pilate, or of any other one person who 
speaks. 

While the gradual is sung, the deacons of the Passion go 
to the sacristy, or other place where their vestments are laid 
out, and vest in amice, alb, girdle, purple maniple and 
stole from the left shoulder, as always worn by deacons. If 
lecterns are used, these are meanwhile set up in a straight 
line, at a little distance from one another, at that place in the 
sanctuary where the gospel is read at High Mass.^ The lecterns 
may be covered with purple cloths. 

The Caerimoniale episcoporum does not suppose that lecterns 
be used. It directs that the three deacons sing from one book, 
held by three servers, one standing before each deacon, who 
pass it to one another as the parts change.^ In this case, the 
deacons of the Passion come out towards the end of the tract, 
the Narrator holding the book. The second M.C. goes before 
them, then the Narrator, the Synagoga and the Christus. 
Each wears his biretta. The three servers follow. The 
deacons uncover at the entrance of the choir, handing their 
birettas to the M.C. They genuflect and bow to choir. Then 
they go to stand at the usual place for singing the gospel. 
The three servers stand facing them, the Narrator is in the 
middle here, the Christus at his right, the Synagoga at his 
left, the second M.C. at the left of the Synagoga deacon, a 
little behind him. 

If lecterns are used, the three servers need not accompany 
the deacons. If three books are used each carries the one 
from which he will sing. 

* So in editions of the Passion for use in Holy Week the three parts 
are generally marked: " N, C (or +), S." 

' It is even allowed, if the subdeacon is ordained deacon, that the 
ministers of Mass take off the folded chasubles (the subdeacon puts on a 
deacon's stole) and sing two parts of the Passion at the usual place, the 
celebrant singing the " Christus " at the altar (Le Vavasseur, ii, 6i, n. i). 
But there must be three men, ordained deacon, to sing the Passion. 
Otherwise the celebrant reads it aloud at the epistle corner, and the 
deacon sings the last part only. 

■^ S. R.C., 17 iun. 1706, no. 2169. 

* Unless this was done before the service began (see p. 273). 

* Caer. £p., Lib. II, cap. xxi, § 15. Martinucci thinks this manner more 
convenient and preferable in every way (I, ii, p. 188, n. 1). It is rarely 
observed now, even in Rome. 



Zbc ff irst ipart ot 1bolv lVXcc\\ 279 

The Narrator begins at once Passio Dcnnini 7iostri lesu 
Christi secundum Mafthaeum. Without further ceremony they 
sing the Passion, with joined hands. All in choir and in church 
stand as they do so; and all hold their palms/ except the 
deacons of the Passion and servers who hold the book. 
Meanwhile the celebrant, deacon and subdeacon stand at the 



* 
^ 



►P 
^ 



^ 



4 



^ 



y 



*S 






FIG. 37. PALM SUNDAY (AND GOOD FRIDAY): THE PASSION 
The ministers wear folded chasubles 



The celebrant 



He does not genuflect at 



epistle corner of the altar, as at the introit 

reads the Passion in a low voice 

the words emisit spiritum. When he has finished, he and the 

ministers turn to face the deacons of the Passion, and stand 

there in line holding their palms. At the holy Name they bow 

^ The celebrant and his ministers take their palms from the M.C. 
when he has finished reading- the Passion. 



28o ubc Xitur^ical 19ear 

to the cross. As the words emisit spiritum are sung" by the 
Narrator they kneel where they are, towards the altar; the 
deacons of the Passion kneel before the lecterns or servers. 
Everyone in church kneels and pauses for a short time, except 
the servers who hold the book. The celebrant rises first and 
all rise with him. The deacons of the Passion continue the 
text to the part to be sung- by the deacon of the Mass. Then 
they leave the sanctuary as they came. 

When the Passion is finished, the deacon takes the cele- 
brant's palm. This and those of the ministers are given to the 
M.C. to lay on the credence table. The subdeacon carries the 
book to the gospel side. The celebrant at the middle says the 
prayer Munda cor meuin^ goes to the missal and reads the end 
of the Passion, in a low voice, neither saying Dominus vobis- 
cum^ etc., nor making the sign of the cross. At the end the 
subdeacon, who assists him, as at every High Mass, answers 
Laus tibi Christe. Meanwhile the deacon, laying aside the 
folded chasuble and taking the broad stole, receives the gospel- 
book and lays it on the altar. Incense is put on and blessed, 
the deacon says Munda cor meuni^ receives the celebrant's 
blessing and goes to sing this last part of the Passion, as he 
sings the gospel at every High Mass. But the acolytes do not 
hold their candles. They may hold palms. 

The book is incensed. The deacon, without any intro- 
duction, begins at once Altera autem die. While this is 
sung, the celebrant at the epistle side corner faces the deacon, 
holding his palm. All in choir and church stand, holding 
palms. The celebrant gives his to the M.C. when the deacon 
has finished. He kisses the book of lessons brought to him 
by the subdeacon, and is incensed as usual. 

There is no special ceremony after this. The celebrant, 
ministers, and all others not otherwise engaged hold their 
palms while going out at the end. 

If the last Mass of the *' Forty Hours" is held on Palm 
Sunday the palms are to be blessed and distributed at a side 
altar, and there must be no procession.^ 

§ 2. PALM SUNDAY IN SMALL CHURCHES 

The rite, as described in the Memoriale rituum, is this:^ 

At the credence table the chalice is prepared, as usual, with 
purple veil and burse. The purple maniple and chasuble are 
laid out here (or at the sedile), also the cruets for Mass, 
another vessel of water, dish and towel to wash the hands 
after the distribution of palms, and a copy of the Memoriale 
rituum book to use when the chants are recited in pro- 

^ S.R.C., 17 September 1822, no. 2621, ad IX. 

^ Mem. Rit.y Tit. III. Cfr. Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 348-355. 



TLbc ffirst ipart of Iboli^ Meek 281 

cession. The altar is vested in purple, the missal is covered 
with a purple cloth, palms instead of flowers stand between 
the candles.^ At the epistle corner is a table covered with 
white, on which are the palms to be blessed. The proces- 
sional cross stands near, veiled in purple, with a purple ribbon 
with which to tie a blessed palm to it. In the sacristy three 
surplices are prepared for the servers, the amice, alb, girdle, 
purple stole and cope for the celebrant, also fire for the 
thurible and the holy water. 

There are supposed to be only three servers and the cele- 
brant. Nothing- is sung. 

The first server comes first to the altar, holding the holy 
water vessel and sprinkler. He is followed by the celebrant 
between the other two. The Asperses is performed as usual. 
Then the third server takes the maniple from the credence 
table and puts it on the celebrant's left arm." He goes up to 
the altar between the second and third servers, kisses it in 
the middle, goes to the epistle side, and here, standing be- 
tween these two servers, he says, '' in a high and equal 
voice,"' the first antiphon, Hosaiina filio David. The servers 
continue it with him. He reads the collect, lesson, both re- 
sponsories [Collegerunt pontificcs and Iiirnonte Olive ti)^ Miinda 
cor meu7n and gospel, all at the same place. He kisses the 
book after the gospel and takes off" the maniple. ' The servers 
say the responsories with him and answer all the prayers. 
The celebrant continues, saying the preface, the servers say 
the Sanctus. The five prayers in the missal follow in order. 
While he says them the first server goes out and brings the 
thurible. While he says the fifth prayer the third server 
takes the holy water from the credence table. Assisted by 
the servers the celebrant puts on and blesses incense, sprinkles 
the palms, saying Asperges nie^ without the psalm, incenses the 
palms. Then he adds the sixth prayer. The incense is taken 
away. Sitting, the celebrant now preaches to the people. 

The first server then takes four palms and puts them on 
the altar. Kneeling before the altar the celebrant takes one 
first for himself, kisses it, and gives it to the first server to 
put, for the present, on the credence table. If another priest 
is present he gives the palm to the celebrant. Both stand, 
the celebrant with his back to the altar, facing the other 
priest. The priest who gives the palm kisses it first; the 
celebrant does so on receiving it. Neither kisses the hand of 
the other. Having taken his palm, the celebrant goes to the 

^ Mem. Rit.y Tit. Ill, cap. i: "In altari '" ; no. 3: "Rami palraarum, 
loco florum, inter candelabra." Notice again how the Roman books 
always suppose flowers as the normal decoration of an altar. 

^ Meng-hini says that nowadays the maniple is never worn with a 
cope (Martinucci, I, ii, p. 349, n.). 

^ Mem. Rit.y Tit. Ill, cap. ii, § 7. 

* Ib.y § 10. ' lb., § 20. 



282 zhc Xtturgtcal 13ear 

epistle corner and there recites the two antiphons, Pueri 
Hebraeorwn. He comes to the middle, bows to the cross, 
and gives palms to the servers. If another priest is present 
he receives his first. 

Then palms are given to the people at the Communion rail, 
beginning at the epistle side. Everyone receives the palm 
kneeling, and kisses first the palm, then the celebrant's hand. 
The Memoriale says that palms are to be given first to 
men, then to women. ^ The celebrant washes his hands at the 
epistle corner, the servers assisting. He comes round to the 
middle by the longer way, genuflects or bows to the cross, 
goes to the missal at the epistle side and says the last prayer 
before the procession. Meanwhile the first server ties a palm 
branch to the processional cross. He then hands their palms 
to the celebrant and the other servers, and copies of the book 
from which they will recite the antiphons at the procession. 
The celebrant, standing in the middle with his back to the 
altar and holding his palm, says Procedanius in pace\ the 
servers answer In nmnine Christi. Amen. The celebrant be- 
gins the antiphon Cnm approqumquarefy and continues it with 
the servers. Meanwhile the first server has taken the pro- 
cessional cross and stands with it at the entrance of the 
sanctuary, facing the altar. He bows^ and turns. The pro- 
cession proceeds, first the cross-bearer, then the celebrant 
between the other two servers, reciting the antiphons altern- 
ately. They go outside the church. The second and third 
servers go in. The door is shut, they stand inside, facing the 
door. The cross-bearer stands without, facing the door, the 
celebrant behind him. The servers within recite the hymn 
Gloria laus^ the celebrant without answering the first verse 
each time. When this is finished the first server knocks at 
the door with the foot of the cross. It is opened by those 
Avithin. The cross-bearer enters, followed by the celebrant, 
who begins the responsory Ingrediente Domino. The second 
and third servers join him on either side as he enters. So 
they go up the church. Before the altar the first server puts 
aside the cross and takes the palms from the celebrant and 
others. If the responsory is not finished by the time they 
arrive before the altar, they stand there first to finish it. The 
celebrant goes to the seat and vests for Mass, assisted by the 
servers. Then he is to sit for a little.^ The first server takes 
the chalice to the altar. Mass follows as usual. 

The Passion is read at the gospel side. The celebrant does 
not say Munda cor meum till before its last part. While he 

^ Mem. Rit., Tit. Ill, cap. ii, § 7. 

■^ The text says nothing' about his gfenuflecting this time. See p. 22, n. i . 

■' Mem. Rit., Tit. Ill, cap. ii, § 3, n. 12. This constant provision, that 
the celebrant, being- tired, is to sit and rest in the middle of ceremonies, 
need not be observed if he is not tired. 



Zbc jf irst part of 1bol^ Meek 283 

reads the Passion the servers hold their palms. During- the 
Communion antiphon the first server takes the chalice from 
the altar to the credence table. After Mass the servers 
arrange everything-. They are to g-o away modestly.^ 



§3. THE FUNCTION WITH CHOIR 

According to what we have noted above about churches where 
the deacon and subdeacon cannot assist (ch. xxiii, § 5, pp. 261- 
264), if this ceremony is to be made more solemn, after the 
manner of a sung Mass (which sung Mass will follow it), the 
following additions may be made." There may be more servers, 
a M.C., cross-bearer, thurifer, two acolytes, the two who 
accompany the celebrant,^ and others who will carry palms in 
the procession, of whom some will serve as torch-bearers at 
Mass. All will be sung, as when there are ministers. Two or 
more cantors sing the Gloria laiis within the church, the rest 
of the choir answering without. 

At the Mass the celebrant reads the first part of the Passion, 
in an audible voice, at the gospel side.* He comes to the 
middle of the altar, puts on and blesses incense, says Munda 
cor meuni^ goes back to the book on the gospel side, incenses 
the book and sings the last part of the Passion in the usual 
gospel tone. The acolytes do not hold candles at this gospel. 
All the rest of Mass follows the rules of Missa cantata. A 
lector may read the first lesson at the blessing of palms ' and 
the epistle at Mass. 



§4. LOW MASS ON PALM SUNDAY 

At Low Mass, when the palms are not blessed, the cele- 
brant says the Passion at the gospel side. He does not 
say Munda cor meiini till before its last part. He begins 
the Passion with joined hands : Passio Domini nostri Icsu 
Christi secundum Matthaeum, with no other ceremony. At the 

^ Mem. RiL, Tit. Ill, cap. ii, § 3, n. 18. The rubric seems superfluous. 

^ Le Vavasseur formally provides for more than three servers, for a 
thurifer and acolytes in the procession (ii, p. 203, § 67) and for singing 
throughout (ii, p. 200, § 55 ; p. 201 , § 57 ; p. 203, § 64 ; p. 205, § 69, etc. ). If 
the thurifer attends the procession, incense is put on and blessed first; 
he goes in front of the cross. 

^ As far as the ceremonies are concerned, if there are a M.C., thurifer, 
and acolytes, these two assistants are not really needed. The acolytes 
may wash the celebrant's hands after the distribution of palms. 

^ On the analogy of Missa cantata, it would seem that at the gospel 
of the blessing of palms the celebrant should go to the middle, put 
on and bless incense, say Mtcnda cor nieuvi there, sing the gospel at the 
gospel side, incensing the book, all as at sung Mass — unless it is thought 
better to follow the Mem. Rit. here exactly. 

^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 201, § 56. 



284 Zbc Xtturaical 19ear 

words eniisit spiritum he kneels for a short time, before the 
book. All in church kneel too. He goes to the middle, there 
says Munda cor meufriy etc., as usual, goes back to the book 
and finishes the Passion, not making the sign of the cross. 
At the end he kisses the book ; the server answers Laus tibi 
Christe. At the end of Mass, instead of the Gospel of St. 
John, he reads the Gospel Cum approquinquasset^ otherwise 
read at the blessing of palms. 

§ 5. MONDAY, TUESDAY, AND WEDNESDAY IN 

HOLY WEEK 

During Holy Week (indeed, during the Easter octave too, 
that is, from the first Vespers of Palm Sunday to the second 
Vespers of Low Sunday) no other office or Mass may be said 
than those of the season. No feast is commemorated from 
Maundy Thursday to Easter Tuesday.^ 

On the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday following Palm 
Sunday everything is done according to the rules for Passion- 
tide (p. 267), and as noted further in the missal and breviary 
(or Holy Week book). On Tuesday the Passion according to 
St. Mark is read or sung at Mass, on Wednesday the Passion 
according to St. Luke. Whether the Passion be read or sung, 
the same rules are observed as on Sunday (pp. 277-280, 283). 

^ A priest who has a complete Holy Week book need not use his 
breviary at this time. 



CHAPTER XXV 
TRIDVVM SACRVM 

§ I. GENERAL RULES 

THE Triduum sacrum is the three days, Maundy 
Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday. It 
begins with matins of Maundy Thursday (tene- 
brae) said or sung" the evening- of Wednesday, 
and ends with the first vespers of Easter, which 
occur during the Mass on Holy Saturday. 

During this time special rules are to be observed. 
The office is double in rite. It contains noDeus in admtorium^ 
etc., at the beginning of any hour. The verses Gloria Patri 
and Sicut erat in principio are not said at any time, not even 
at the end of psalms. There are no chapters, hymns, or short 
responsories. At the end of each hour the antiphon Christus 
/actus est is said, with a further clause in the office of Friday 
and another again in the office of Saturday. Then Pater noster 
is said silently, the Miserere aloud, and the prayer Respice 
quaesumus Domine, without Dominus vobiscum or 0?'e7nus. 
The conclusion of this prayer, qui tecum vivit et regnat^ etc., 
is said silently. Except tenebrae, the Divine office is not 
sung, but recited in monotone. On these three days the morn- 
ing office may be celebrated only once in each church. Private 
Masses are forbidden.^ The offices may not be held in private 
chapels or those of convents or monasteries, unless the Ordin- 
ary has given a special indult for that purpose. Wherever 
possible, the morning office is to be celebrated with the assist- 
ance of deacon and subdeacon. 

For further rules to be observed from the Mass of Maundy 
Thursday to that of Holy Saturday, see p. 296. 

§ 2. TENEBRAE 

The office of Tenebrae is simply matins and lauds said, as 
usual, the evening before. Matins and lauds of these three 
days have special rules and are commonly called by this 
name. 

Tenebrae, therefore, of Maundy Thursday is said in the 
evening of Wednesday ; tenebrae of Good Friday in the 
evening of Thursday; tenebrae of Holy Saturday in the even- 
ing of Friday. 

The directions which follow^ ^PP^y to all three days. The 
differences between the three cases are noted here. 

' But see p. 288, n. i. 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxii; Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 192- 
196; LeVavasseur, ii, pp. 68-71; Van der Stappen, v, pp. 77-79; Wapel- 
horst, pp. 424-426. 

28c 



286 TLbc %it\xvg\cal 13ear 

These preparations are to be made beforehand : 

The six candles on the altar should be of unbleached wax. 
On Wednesday evening- the altar cross is veiled in purple as 
during" Passiontide, on Thursday evening it is veiled in black/ 
on Saturday evening" it is unveiled. The frontal is purple on 
Wednesday evening" ; there is none on Thursday and Friday. 
The altar has no other decoration. The Sanctissimum should 
be removed. On the epistle side of the choir, at about the 
place where the epistle is read, the hearse* stands, bearing" 
fifteen candles of unbleached wax.^ An exting"uisher should be 
near. In the middle of the choir a lectern stands, uncovered, 
with a book of the lessons. At tenebrae on Thursday the 
altar carpet may be purple. In the other two cases there 
should be no carpet before the altar at all. 

The procession to the choir should proceed in this order: 
the M.C., the two cantors, celebrant, the choir, those of 
greater dig"nity before the others. All wear choir dress.* The 
celebrant has neither stole nor cope. At tenebrae for Friday 
no reverences are made to the choir ; in many churches this 
rule is observed on all three days." 

The celebrant should take the first place in choir. 

The Caerimoniale episcoporum does not suppose that the 
antiphons be pre-intoned at tenebrae.^ But in many churches, 
especially at Rome, this is done,^ as usual (see pp. 202-203). 
The prayer Aperi Dmnine is said, all kneeling. All stand ; Pater 
iioster, Ave Maria and the Apostles' Creed are said silently. 
The first antiphon is sung^ by the choir. The cantors intone 
the first psalm ; all sit, put on the biretta, and continue it. 
Everything proceeds as usual at matins (see pp. 236-237), 
except that the verses Gloria Patri and Sicut erat are not sung" 
at the end of the psalms."* 

At the end of the first psalm a server, appointed for this 
purpose,^ g"oes to the hearse and extinguishes the lowest 
candle on the gospel side. 

^ Supposing the cross is to be veiled in black on Good Friday. But 
see p. 301, n. 4. 

^ The hearse is a tall staff supporting- a triang-le on which are fifteen 
spikes or sockets for candles. Orig-inally the word means a harrow. The 
tenebrae hearse is so called because it looks like a harrow (a triangle 
with spikes). Such triangles of candles were erected on the stand where 
a coffin rests in church ; so this too is still called a hearse. 

^ All the candles should be unbleached. There is no authority for using 
a white candle in the centre. But the matter is not important and may 
tolerate some such slight variety of local custom. 

* Normally cassock and surplice, unless they have canon's robes, etc. 

^ S.R.C., 12 August 1854, no. 3029, ad XI; cfr. 12 September 1857, 
no. 3059, ad XXVII, which contradicts the other decision. 

° Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxii, § 6. ''^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 69, n. i. 

'^ The former special cadence for the end of the last verse of each 
psalm has disappeared from the Vatican edition. 

® It may be the M.C. {Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxii, § 7). 



ITribuum Sacrum 287 

At the end of the second psalm he extinguishes the lowest 
candle on the epistle side. So he extinguishes a candle after 
every psalm, going to the alternate sides to do so. There are 
fourteen psalms in tenebrae, nine at matins and five at lauds. 
When the last psalm of lauds is finished, he will have ex- 
tinguished all the candles, except the one in the middle at the 
summit of the triangle. 

At the end of the third psalm of each nocturn of matins the 
versicle and response appointed are sung, the versicle by the 
cantors. Then all stand and say the Lord's Prayer silently. 
All sit again and put on the biretta. The lessons are sung 
at the lectern in the middle. The M.C. should go to the 
lector who will do so each time, accompany him to the lec- 
tern and stand at his left behind while he chants, holding his 
biretta. The lessons are chanted without asking first for a 
blessing, and without the final clause Tn atitern Doinine 
miserere nobis. While chanting the lector lays his hands on 
the book. There should be nine lectors chosen beforehand.' 
The celebrant does not sing the last lesson. The lessons of 
the first nocturn (Lamentations of Jeremias) have a special 
tone. Any of these may be sung by the choir. In this case no 
one goes to the lectern. 

Lauds follow immediately after the ninth responsor}-; the 
choir remain seated. All stand when the Benedictiis begins. 
The Benedictiis has twelve verses. After the second, fourth, 
sixth, eighth, tenth and last of these the same server who 
put out the candles on the hearse puts out one of the six 
candles on the altar, beginning with the farthest candle on 
the gospel side."^ Next time he puts out the farthest on the 
epistle side, and so on alternately. On Wednesday evening, 
as soon as the last candle on the altar is extinguished, all 
the lamps in the church are put out, except the one which 
burns before the tabernacle. The lamps are not lit again till 
the Exsultet on Holy Saturday. 

As soon as the server has put out the last candle on the 
altar, he goes to the hearse and takes from it the candle 
which remains there burning. He does not extinguish it, but 
carries it to the epistle side of the altar. He holds it here 
facing the gospel side while the antiphon at the end of the 
Benedictiis is sung. 

As soon as the antiphon Christiis f actus est begins, all kneel ; 
the server puts the candle behind the altar, so that its light 
is not seen,'^ then kneels near it. 

^ Beginning with those of lower rank. 

- Or he may do so during the last six verses. 

^ If the altar is against the wall, so that the candle cannot be put 
behind it, a small screen should be made in the corner near the epistle 
side, so as to hide the light. The server puts the candle behind this. In 
any case a candlestick should be placed beforehand, into which he will 
put the candle. 



288 Ube Xiturotcal 19cat 

On Wednesday eveningf the antiphon is Christus f actus est 
pro nobis obedieiis usque ad mortem. On Thursday evening" the 
choir adds to this, without pause, mortem autem crucis. On 
Friday evening" they add the third clause, Propter quod et Deiis 
exaltavit ilium ^ et dedit illi tiomen quod est super omne iiomcn. 

After the antiphon Pater noster is said silently. Then the 
psalm Miserere is recited, aloud, but in a low voice. The cele- 
brant, still kneeling, recites, in the same voice, the pray er Pespice 
quaesumus Domiiie super hauc familiani tuam. But he says 
the conclusion qui tecum vivit et regnat^ etc., silently. AH 
remain kneeling from the beginning of the antiphon Christus 
f actus est. 

At the end the M.C. strikes the bench or a book to 
make a sound ; everyone in choir does so too. The server 
takes the candle from behind the altar, and holds it up so as 
to show the light. Then he extinguishes it and puts it on the 
credence table, or takes it with him to the sacristy. When he 
has shown the light, all rise and leave the church silently, as 
they came. The hearse is taken away and put back for the 
next tenebrae. 

§ 3. TENEBRAE IN SMALL CHURCHES 

No special provision is made for this ; but there is no reason 
why a church in which vespers or compline are celebrated 
should not have tenebrae on these days. It is possible to 
sing tenebrae on one of the three days only. 

In a small church the rules, as given above, will be carried 
out as far as possible. Indeed, there is no g^reat difficulty in 
any point. Only one server is absolutely necessary, to put out 
the candles. If there are no choir stalls, the celebrant will sit 
at the sedile. The choir and people may sing alternate verses 
of the psalms. Any nine men in cassock and surplice may 
read the lessons, including^ the celebrant. If nine cannot be 
procured, the same lector may read more than one lesson. 
The celebrant may sing" the versicles, if there is no other 
cantor. 

§ 4. MAUNDY THURSDAY MORNING 

The morning" services of Maundy Thursday and Good Friday 

correspond, so that neither may be held, unless the other is 

held also.^ 

^ Only one Mass may be celebrated in each church; all the other 
priests receive Communion at this. Cod., c. 862. But bishops and abbots 
nullius may say private Mass in a private chapel ; superiors of relig-ious 
communities may say Mass, without the procession and reservation, in 
order to give Communion to their brethren, but only privately with doors 
shut. In churches where not even the simple rites of the Mem. Rit. can 
be carried out, the Ordinary may allow one Low Mass to be said on 
Maundy Thursday. This permission must be renewed each year (cfr. Le 
Vavasseur, ii, p. 65, and decrees there quoted). 



Uri^uum Sacrum 289 

On Maundy Thursday the colour of the office is purple; 
that of the Mass is white. It is a festal Mass/ 

The following" preparations are made beforehand : 

The High Altar is vested in white (the best frontal and 
tabernacle veil will be used, as for a great feast). The altar 
cross is veiled in white ; there are six candles of bleached wax, 
lighted.^ 

On the credence table all is prepared as usual for High 
Mass. Two altar-breads are placed on the paten. A second 
chalice is prepared with its paten, a pall, veil of white silk 
and white silk ribbon. The crotalus (rattle) is laid on the 
credence table, if it will be used (see p. 291, n. 3). The white 
cope is laid out here, also white stoles for the priest and 
deacons who will receive Holy Communion. The processional 
cross stands near the credence table, veiled in purple ; the 
canopy to carry over the celebrant during the procession.^ 
Candles for those who walk in the procession are laid in some 
convenient place. 

In another part of the church, not in the sanctuary and as 
far distant from the High Altar as possible, the place is pre- 
pared at which the Sanctissimum will be reserved till the Mass 
of the Presanctified on Good Friday. It will generally be a 
side chapel with an altar. The altar is not used as an altar. 
No Mass is said on it. All that is essential is the little box 
(capsula, urna) in which the Sanctissimum is reserved, and a 
table or space in front on which the chalice can be set down 
before it is enclosed in the capsula.* The capsula^ is often 
made in a special form, like an urn. It must be so enclosed 
that the chalice within cannot be seen.^ Inside a corporal is 
spread. It has a lock and a key. Before the service begins, 
and till the Sanctissimum is enclosed here, the urn should 
be left open. This urn may be the tabernacle of a side altar. 
In this case it should have no veil. Around it many candles 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxiii; Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, tit. viii (torn, 
i, pp. 271-283); Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 196-210; Le Vavasseur, 
ii, pp. 71-83; De Herdt, iii, pp. 48-58; Van der Stappen, v, pp. 335-338; 
Wapelhorst, pp. 293-303. 

- According to the Mem. Rit. there should be flowers on the altar 
(below, p. 298). 

^ In a larg-e church two canopies are often used. The greater one, 
with four or six poles, waits at the entrance of the choir. While the 
priest carrying- the Sanctissimum comes from the altar to this a smaller 
one (the so-called umhella, p. 18) is held over him. 

* However the Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxiii, §§ 2, 13, does call the place 
of repose an altar. So does the rubric of the missal on Maundy Thursday 
(after the Mass). This is because, as a matter of fact, a side altar will 
nearly always be used. Perhaps the best name for the place where the 
capsula stands is merely " locus aptus," as at the beginning of the same 
rubric. It is often called the sepulchre, S.R.C. 3929; 2873, ad II. 

* This is the word in the rubric of the missal, tb. 
« S.R.C, 30 March 18S6, no. 3660, ad I. 

U 



290 Zhc XtturGxcal Igear 

are placed^ and other decorations. The Memoriale rituum 
formally demands that there be flowers." Relics or pictures 
are not allowed.^ The '^ locus aptus," whether it be really an 
altar or a temporary table without an altar stone, should have 
a white frontal. On the table before the urn a corporal is 
spread, if the Sanctissimum is to be placed on it; near this 
is the key of the urn. If necessary, steps are provided that 
the deacon may go up to put the Sanctissimum in the urn. 

Somewhere else, if possible outside the church or in the 
sacristy, a suitable place is prepared where the ciborium 
containingf the Sanctissimum, in case of sick calls, will be 
kept.* 

In the sacristy all is prepared for High Mass, with white 
vestments. An amice, alb, g-irdle and white tunicle are laid 
out for the second subdeacon who will carry the cross, if he 
assists, also purple stoles for the celebrant and deacon to use 
when they strip the altar. 

If the Maundy (washing of feet, see p. 296) is to be per- 
formed, further preparations are necessary. The Maundy, 
if possible, should not be held before the high altar, but in a 
side chapel, in the sacristy or a hall near the church. Here 
there should be an altar or table ^ with purple frontal, a cross 
covered with purple, four or six candles of bleached wax, the 
missal covered with purple. At the epistle side a credence 
table stands, covered with a white cloth, on which are a large 
white cloth with strings to tie (an apron) for the celebrant, 
the book of lessons (covered white), ^ two vessels of water and 
two basins,^ thirteen towels on a plate or in a basket, a plate 
containing the coins to be given to those whose feet are 
washed, another vessel of water and dish with which the cele- 
brant washes his hands afterwards. On the gospel side is a 
long bench on which the thirteen men will sit, and a large 
vessel into which the water may be poured after use. There 
may be other benches or seats for the clergy who assist at this 
ceremony. 

Besides the usual ministers and servers required for every 
High Mass, there should be a cross-bearer, who is either a 
second subdeacon vested (without maniple **) or a server in 

^ No liturgical book mentions a cross at the locus aptus. 

^ Mem. Rit., Tit. IV, cap. i: " luminibus ac floribus ornatus." 

^ S.R.C., 15 December 1896, no. 3939. 

* It may not be kept at the locus aptus (S. R.C., 9 December 1899, no. 
4049, ad IV). 

^ It need not be a real (consecrated) altar; nor need it have an altar- 
stone. 

^ The Roman authorities always suppose that all liturgical books are 
vested in the colour of the office. This vesting of books is often omitted 
(see p. 20). 

'' Two are needed only if one is not large enough to wash thirteen 
feet (p. 297). 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxiii, § 10. 



Uribuum Sacrum 291 

surplice, a second thurifer for the procession, as many torch- 
bearers as attend on the greatest feasts, clerg-y to walk in the 
procession holding' candles. The canopy is carried by clerks 
in copes ^ or surplice only, or by laymen. Confraternities may 
walk in the procession in their dress, holding- candles. 

The service begins after none. High Mass is celebrated 
as usual, with the following exceptions: 

The psalm ludica nie is not said. Gloria hi excelsis is sung. 
When the celebrant has intoned this, the church bells are 
rung, then not again, on any condition, till the Gloria of Holy 
Saturday. After the intonation of the Gloria, the organ is 
played for a little time, or the Gloria may be accompanied on 
the organ." The Sanctus bell may also be rung for a short 
time when the celebrant has intoned the Gloria. It is not 
rung again. From now till the Mass of Holy Saturday a 
wooden clapper or rattle may be used instead of the bell.^ The 
torch-bearers remain before the altar to the end of Mass. The 
kiss of peace is not given. After they have said Agmis Dei 
with the celebrant, the ministers change places, genuflecting 
before and after. The M.C. then brings the second chalice to 
the altar with its paten, pall and veil. When the celebrant 
has made his communion, the subdeacon covers the chalice of 
Mass and sets it aside on the gospel side, not outside the 
corporal. The ministers genuflect and again change places. 

The deacon uncovers the second chalice and presents it to 
the celebrant on the corporal. The celebrant takes the second 
Host he has consecrated and places it carefully in this chalice. 
The deacon covers the chalice with the pall, then over this he 
puts the paten, upside down, covers all w^ith the silk veil, and 
ties the veil around the stem with the ribbon. He places it on 
the middle of the corporal, and by it the ciborium from which 
Holy Communion will now be distributed."* The celebrant and 
ministers genuflect. The ministers ^q to the ends of the foot- 
pace, the deacon at the epistle side, the subdeacon at the 
gospel side, and stand there on the step below, facing each 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib, II, cap. xxiii, § lo. 

^ Either practice is allowed. The org-an may not be played at any 
other time during- Mass (S.R.C., ii iun. 1880, no. 3515, ad IV; 30 Dec- 
ember 1881, no. 3535, ad VII). 

^ The Caer. Ep. and missal do not mention this wooden instrument 
(crotalus) at all. The Mem. Rif. requires it (see p. 298, n. 3). Many 
authors disparag-e its use {e.g., Martinucci, I, ii, p. 199, n. 2). But Merati 
requires it unconditionally (Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, tit, viii, no. 3, p, 273). 
It is not commanded. It may be used. If it is, it is rattled whenever, on 
other days, the bell would be rung — at the Sanctus, elevation and during- 
the procession. 

* Most authors suppose that the Hosts to be distributed at Communion 
are consecrated at this jNIass. So they direct the M.C. to bring- the 
ciborium from the credence table at the offertory. But in most of our 
churches the Sanctissimum will be taken from the tabernacle where it is 
already reserved. The deacon opens the tabernacle after he has arranged 
the second chalice. 



292 Zbc Xiturgical l?ear 

other. The celebrant turns towards the people, but at the 
gfospel side, so as not to turn his back to the Sanctissimum. 
The ministers bow low ; the deacon sings the Coiifiteor. Mean- 
while a server has given stoles to the priests and deacons in 
choir. Holy Communion is distributed according to the usual 
rule (see pp. 130-132). The ministers of Mass receive Com- 
munion first, then priests, deacons, the acolytes of the Mass, 
then all the others. All come up two and two, or in groups of 
four, kneel before the foot-pace where the acolytes hold the 
Communion cloth stretched across (p. 130). Afterwards the 
celebrant goes down to the Communion rails to give Com- 
munion to the people, accompanied by the ministers on either 
side. Torch-bearers go with him and kneel at either end of 
the rail. After Communion no one sits, because the Sanct- 
issimum is exposed on the altar. 

The rest of Mass is celebrated according to the rules when 
the Blessed Sacrament is exposed (p. 66). The deacon sings 
Ite niissa esty the blessing is given, the celebrant says the last 
gospel. 

During the last gospel the second subdeacon, who will 
carry the cross, or a server, goes to the credence table, and 
takes it.^ Two thurifers bring thuribles from the sacristy. 
Candles are given out to all in choir, unless the singers find 
it impossible to hold both a candle and an open book. 

When Mass is ended, the celebrant and ministers come to 
the ground before the altar, genuflect and go to the seats. 
Here the ministers take off their maniples, assisted by acolytes. 
The celebrant, assisted by the M.C., takes off the chasuble 
and maniple, puts on the cope. The acolytes take their candles 
and go, on either side of the cross-bearer, to the entrance of 
the sanctuary, where they wait facing the altar. The celebrant 
and ministers come to the altar, prostrate and kneel on the 
lowest step. The two thurifers come forward, the celebrant 
puts incense into both thuribles, not blessing it, and incenses 
the Sanctissimum with one.^ The thurifers stand on either 
side of the altar. The M.C. takes the humeral veil and puts 
it on the celebrant, the subdeacon attaches it in front. The 
canopy-bearers take the canopy and stand at the entrance of 
the choir or sanctuary. The celebrant and ministers go up 
and kneel on the foot-pace. The deacon bows, rises, goes to 
the altar, takes the chalice and gives it to the celebrant, who 
receives it kneeling, and first bowing. He holds it in the left 
hand through the humeral veil, laying the right hand on it, 

^ A subdeacon must go first to the sacristy to vest. 

^ In cases of processions when there are two thurifers, it is convenient 
to distinguish them as first and second. The first is the one whose thur- 
ible is used by the celebrant to incense the Sanctissimum. He will natur- 
ally be the thurifer of the Mass ; his thurible will receive incense first. 
The second thurifer merely walks by his side swinging a thurible. 



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Lr 



CONFRATEKNITIES 



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CHOR 
CLERGY 



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TH-MW 







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FIG. 38. MAUNDY THURSDAY: THE PROCESSION 



293 



294 Ube XiturGical Iffear 

and stands. The deacon genuflects towards the Sanctissimum 
and covers the chalice with the end of the veil. The celebrant 
turns to the people, the ministers change sides behind him, so 
that the deacon shall be at his right. They hold the ends of 
the cope. The cantors intone the hymn Pange lingua^ the 
singers continue it. 

The procession goes to the sepulchre. If the small canopy 
is used, a server walks behind the celebrant, holding this 
over him till he comes to the large canopy. Lay people or 
members of confraternities may ^o first, holding lighted 
candles, then the cross-bearer between the acolytes, the clergy 
holding candles, lastly the celebrant between the ministers. 
While the procession is formed the celebrant and ministers 
wait under the canopy. All make a prostration before turn- 
ing.^ The celebrant and ministers walk under the canopy held 
over them. The two thurifers ^q immediately in front, swing- 
ing the thuribles,' the torch-bearers in two lines at the sides 
of the canopy. The procession should not ^q> outside ; it may 
go around the church. During the procession the rattle may 
be sounded. Meanwhile the celebrant and ministers recite 
suitable psalms,^ not saying the Gloria Patri. The verse 
TantuTn ergo should not be begun before the celebrant arrives 
at the altar of repose. If necessary other verses of the hymn 
may be repeated. At the place of repose the cross-bearer and 
acolytes stand aside to let the others pass. Those who hold 
the canopy stay at the entrance,* the members of the pro- 
cession separate on either side, the thurifers and torch-bearers 
go to either side. All kneel, except the cross-bearer and 
acolytes ; the celebrant goes to the place of repose and stands 
before it. The deacon, kneeling, takes the chalice from 
him, and places it in the urn,'' which he leaves open. The 
celebrant and subdeacon kneel. The Tantimi ergo is sung. 
The first thurifer approaches, the celebrant puts on incense 
as usual, not blessing it, and incenses the Sanctissimum. 
Then the thurifers go back to the sacristy, first making a pro- 

^ Except the cross-bearer and acolytes. 

- There is no authority really for the practice of walking backwards 
and incensing the Sanctissimum all the time with repeated ductus duplex. 
Gavanti mentions it, but dissuades from it (Pars IV, tit. viii, rubr. 9, n. 9, 
ed. cit, i, p. 275). The Rituale Romanuyn (Tit. IX, cap. v, § 3) clearly 
supposes that the thurifers walk in front swinging- their thuribles. So do 
the approved authors (Martinucci, I, ii, p. 205, § 49; Le V'avasseur, ii, 
P* 79> § 271). Nor is it graceful to walk backwards. Merati (Pars IV, tit. 
viii, § 10; vol. i, p. 276) proposes an even stranger plan, that the thurifers 
walk sideways, facings one another. By far the most dignified proceed- 
ing- is that they walk straight, swinging the thuribles in the inner hands, 
as Martinucci and Le Vavasseur say. 

' See p. 249, n. 5. 

* The small canopy may again be used, to the altar. 

° The Mem. Rit. says it is placed on the altar (see p. 299). Presum- 
ably either method may be followed. 



TTribuum Sacrum 295 

stration. The deacon goes up, genuflects, shuts and locks 
the urn. The clergy extinguish their candles and hand them 
to servers, the torch-bearers put out their torches and leave 
them there. All make a prostration and leave the place of 
repose to go back to the choir. The celebrant, ministers, 
cross-bearer and acolytes remain. They then rise, prostrate 
(except the cross-bearer and acolytes) and go to the sacristy. 
The celebrant and ministers wear the biretta on the way. 
Meanwhile vespers are said in choir. The altar is covered 
with a purple frontal, the altar cross with a purple veil. The 
six candles remain alight. Vespers are recited, not sung, 
according to the rubrics in the vesperal. There are no cere- 
monies, except that all stand at the Magnificat, kneel during 
the antiphon Christies fachis est and all that follows. 

. While the Miserere is said at the end of vespers, a priest 
in surplice and white stole takes the Blessed Sacrament from 
the altar to the place where it is to be kept. The rules for 
this case are observed as usual (p. 249). He leaves the 
tabernacle open.^ At the end of vespers the celebrant and 
ministers come back to the altar, the celebrant and deacon 
wearing purple stoles over the alb. The acolytes go before 
them, without candles. They hand the birettas they have 
worn to the M.C., bow to the choir, as usual. All, except 
the celebrant, genuflect to the altar ; he bows. The celebrant 
begins the antiphon Dimserunt sibi, not singing it. The 
choir continue the antiphon and the psalm Dens Deus mens. 
The celebrant, ministers and acolytes go up to the altar and 
strip it. The acolytes take away the altar-cards and put them 
on the credence table. The celebrant and ministers take off 
the three altar-cloths and hand them to the acolytes to put 
on the credence table. The acolvtes take awav the frontal, 
the tabernacle veil and the carpet. They leave only the cross, 
covered with purple, and the six candles. They extinguish 
the candles and the sanctuary lamp. If there are other altars 
in the church, the celebrant, ministers and acolytes go to 
strip them in the same way. In going they wear the biretta. 
The choir does not recite the antiphon after the psalm till they 
return to the High Altar. The other altars may be stripped 
by other priests in surplice and purple stole. If anyone passes 
before the place of repose he makes a prostration. All leave 
the church and unvest in the sacristy as usual. 

From now till the Mass of the Presanctified the Blessed 
Sacrament at the sepulchre is treated as if it were exposed. 
In passing it everyone makes a prostration. At least six 
candles burn all the time there. If possible two clerks in 
surplice watch, kneeling all the time. Priests and deacons 
while watching wear a white stole. In any case someone 

^ The Sanctissimum must not be left in the tabernacle. 



296 Ubc Xiturgical l^ear 

must watch all the time the church is open. If necessary, for 
safety, the chalice containing" the Sanctissimum may be put 
in the tabernacle used throughout the year during the night. 
It must be replaced at the locus aptus early on Friday 
morning.^ 

From now till Saturday no other lamps in the church are 
lit. No bells are rung. Holy water should be removed from 
all stoups and thrown into the sacrarium.^ A small quantity 
is kept for blessing" the fire on Holy Saturday. The holy oils 
should be burned (in the sanctuary lamp) and the new oil pro- 
cured from the bishop as soon as possible on Maundy Thurs- 
day. The High Altar is quite bare, having neither altar-cloth 
nor frontal. The tabernacle is open and empty. 

If the MAUNDY is performed it may follow immediately the 
stripping of the altars, or be done later in the day.^ 

Thirteen men wait at the place prepared.* 

The ceremony is done by a celebrant in purple stole and 
cope, deacon and subdeacon in white vestments with maniples, 
acolytes who carry their candles lighted, a thurifer, M.C. and 
four servers ^ who will hand what is wanted at the time. 

The procession comes to the place appointed in the usual 
order.' The men whose feet are to be washed stand as it 
enters. The members of the choir, clergy and singers go to 
the benches or seats prepared for them. The celebrant and 
ministers go to the altar, make the usual reverences and, if 
it is really an altar, the celebrant kisses it. The acolytes re- 
main below, or in front, holding their candles. The deacon 
takes the book of lessons from the credence table, brings it 
to the altar and lays it there, as at Mass, when he is about 
to sing the gospel. 

All now follows exactly as at the gospel of High Mass. 
The subdeacon goes down and waits for the deacon before 
the altar. Incense is put on and blessed by the celebrant, 
standing at the altar, the deacon kneels to say Munda cor 
meuniy takes the book and receives the celebrant's blessing. 
He sings the gospel A7ite diem festuni (it is the same gospel 

^ De Herdt, iii, p. 53. 

- S.R.C., 12 November 1831, no. 2683, ad LIV. Martinucci (I, ii, p. 210, 
§ 80) and Le Vavasseur (ii, p. 83, § 281) speak as if the holy water may 
be left. The decree seems to forbid it. 

•' This ceremony is generally now performed in cathedrals and religious 
houses only. 

■* If possible they should be poor men. Martinucci thinks they should 
be given new clothes and a dinner afterwards *' in a kind and liberal 
spirit" (I, ii, p. 211, §82). No special dress is appointed for them; it 
would be proper that they should be dressed uniformly in white, or in the 
costume of some confraternity {ih. ). 

° The acolytes could be two of these; if necessary, the M.C. and 
thurifer might be the other two. 

^' Thurifer, acolytes, choir, servers, celebrant between the ministers. 
For the things to prepare see above, p. 290. 



XTrtOuum Sacrum 297 

as at Mass), first singing' Doniinus vohiscum and announcing 
Sequentia^ etc. The choir answer as at Mass. The book is 
incensed. After the gospel the subdeacon takes it to the 
celebrant to kiss. The deacon incenses the celebrant. All 
stand during the gospel. 

Then the acolytes put their candles at the credence table 
and the thurifer takes away the incense. The ministers join 
the celebrant ; all come from the altar together to the credence 
table. The ministers take off their maniples, the celebrant 
takes off the cope and puts on the white cloth that is to serve 
as an apron, assisted by the acolytes and M.C. The men 
whose feet are to be washed sit and take off their shoes and 
stockings.^ 

One server takes a basin, another a vessel of water, a third 
the towels, a fourth the plate with coins. They ^o to the first 
man whose feet are to be washed in this order: first, the 
servers with the water and basin, the celebrant, between the 
ministers, with hands joined, all wearing birettas, the other 
two servers bearing the towels and plate with coins. 

In passing the altar all make the usual reverence. They 
come to the first of the thirteen. The server with the water 
stands at his left, the server with the basin at his right. The 
celebrant kneels before him, the ministers stand on either side 
of the celebrant. The subdeacon holds the man's right foot, 
the server pours a little water over it, into the basin held by 
the other server. The celebrant rubs the foot a little with his 
hand. Meanwhile the deacon takes the first towel and unfolds 
it. He hands this to the celebrant, who dries the foot and 
kisses it. He hands the towel to the man. The deacon holds 
the plate with coins, the celebrant takes one and gives it to 
the man, who takes it, kissing the celebrant's hand. They then 
pass to the next and repeat the same ceremony for each. If 
the water fails in the vessel the servers bring the other vessel 
and basin. The water used is poured into the large jar at the 
end of the row of men. As each man's foot is thus washed he 
puts on his shoes again. 

As soon as the washing begins the choir sings the antiphon 
Mandahun noviciUy with the psalm verse, and the other anti- 
phons and verses provided in the gradual as long as the 
ceremony lasts. The celebrant, when he has washed the feet 
of the last, goes back to the credence table. Here he washes 
his hands, assisted by the acolytes. He takes off" the apron 
and puts on the cope. The ministers accompany him. They 
g^o to the altar. Standing there at the epistle corner, between 
the ministers, the celebrant chants the Pater noster (continued 
silently), the versicles and prayer, in the ferial tone. All then 
•gQ back to the sacristy or other place as they came. 

^ They take off both shoes and stockings, though only the right foot 
is washed. 



298 Zbc Xtturaical 19ear 



§5. MAUNDY THURSDAY IN SMALL CHURCHES^ 

The altar is prepared as for feasts, with flowers," white 
frontal and tabernacle veil. The altar cross is covered with 
white. The six candles are lit. The missal is at the epistle 
side. At the credence table all is prepared for Mass. Two 
altar breads are placed on the paten. There is another chalice 
with its pall, paten, a white silk veil and ribbon. If necessary 
the ciborium with altar breads for the Communion is placed 
here, also a white humeral veil and the rattle (crotalus). ' The 
processional cross, covered with purple, stands near, and a 
small canopy (umbella). 

The locus aptus for the reservation of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment is prepared in another part of the church, as described 
above (p. 289). In the sacristy white Mass vestments are laid 
out for the celebrant, also a white cope, purple stole, the 
surplices for the servers (supposed to be three only by the 
Memoriale rituum), incense and candles or torches* to be 
carried by people in the procession. 

The six altar candles are lit. 

The Memoriale rituum supposes that a Low Mass is said. 
At the Gloria in excelsis the bells are rung, then not again 
till Holy Saturday. At the Sanctus and elevation the rattle 
may be sounded. During the prayers before Communion the 
first server brings the second chalice, with its coverings, from 
the credence table and puts it on the altar. After his Com- 
munion the celebrant puts the second consecrated Host into 
this chalice, lays the pall over the chalice, on the pall the 
paten upside down, and the veil over all.^ He uncovers the 
ciborium (if necessary takes it from the tabernacle) and genu- 
flects. From now he acts as if the Blessed Sacrament were 
exposed, genuflecting each time he comes to the middle or 
leaves it, not turning his back to the Sanctissimum. He 
stands towards the gospel side, looking towards the epistle 
side, while the first server, kneeling at the epistle corner, 
says the Confiteor. Holy Communion is given as usual, first 
to the servers, unless priests are present. Coming back to the 
altar the celebrant puts the ciborium in the tabernacle and 
closes it. The chalice used at Mass is put on the credence 
table by the first server. While Mass is being finished the 

^ Mem. Rit.^ Tit. IV. Cfr. Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 356-363; Le 
Vavasseur, ii, pp. 207-214. 

^ Mem. Rit, Tit. IV, cap. ii, § 4, no. 4. 

•'' The Mem. Rit.^ Tit. IV, cap. i, "In abaco," no. 11, requires the 
crotalus, but only for the " Ang-elus " after Mass. 

* ** Funalia sive candelae pro processione " are required {Mem. Rit., 
Tit. IV, cap. i, " In Sacristia," no. 6). As all three servers are otherwise 
occupied, these can be held only by members of the congregfation. 

* According- to the Mem. Rit. he ties the ribbon later (below, p. 299). 



XTrt^uum Sacrum 299 

candles at the place of repose are lighted, candles or torches 
are handed to the members of pious confraternities who will 
take part in the procession, the canopy is made ready. 

When Mass is ended, the celebrant genuflects to the Sane- 
tissimum in the chalice, comes down to the ground; there at 
the epistle side he takes off the chasuble and maniple and puts 
on the cope, assisted by the servers. The first server brings 
the thurible from the sacristy. The celebrant comes to the 
middle, genuflects on the ground, and kneels on the lowest 
step for a short time. He puts on incense, does not bless it 
(nor do the solita oscula occur). He goes up to the altar 
steps ; kneeling on the foot-pace he incenses the Sanctissi- 
mum with the usual three swings. He gives the thurible 
back to the first server; the second brings the humeral veil 
and puts it on his shoulders. He goes to the altar and genu- 
flects. It is at this moment that the Memoriale rituum says 
he is to tie the ribbon round the stem of the chalice. He takes 
the chalice in his left, holding it through the humeral veil ; he 
lays his right on it, the second server spreads the end of the 
veil over the hand and chalice. The celebrant turns his back 
to the altar and begins to recite the hymn Pange lingua. The 
procession goes to the place of repose in this order: First the 
banner used when Viaticum is taken to the sick ^ (if the church 
has such a banner), then confraternities or pious men carry- 
ing lighted candles, the processional cross borne by the third 
server, the first server with the thurible, the celebrant carry- 
ing the Blessed Sacrament. At his left the second server 
walks, who lifts the ends of his dress when he goes up or 
down steps. Immediately behind him the small canopy is 
carried by a member of the congregation or of a confraternity,"' 
who holds it over to him. The celebrant and second server, 
as they ^o^ recite the Pange lingua. The rattle may be 
sounded during the procession. At the chapel where the place 
of repose is prepared all divide, so that the celebrant may 
pass. The thurifer goes to the epistle side. The celebrant 
under the canopy goes straight up to the altar or table and 
places the chalice on it.'^ He comes down and the humeral 
veil is taken off. He puts on incense, without a blessing, goes 
up to the foot-pace and, kneeling, incenses the Sanctissi- 
mum. Meanwhile the servers and people recite the last two 
verses of the hymn Tantnrn ergo and Genitori. The cele- 
brant stands, genuflects, puts the Sanctissimum in the urn, 
genuflects again, closes and locks the urn. He comes down, 

1 Mevt. Rit, Tit. IV, cap. ii, § 2, no. 8. 

^ The Mem. Rit. does not say who carries the canopy; but no server 
remains to do so. The large canopy may be used, borne by four or more 
men. 

^ Mem. Rit., Tit. IV^, cap. ii, § 2, no. 11, here disagrees with the Caer. 
Ep.y Lib. II, cap. xxiii, § 13 (the chalice is put in the capsula, left open). 
Either may be followed. 



300 Zbc OLlturgical Jffear 

kneels for a short time at the foot of the steps, then rises, 
prostrates, as do all the others, and goes back to the altar, 
wearing his biretta. 

At the High Altar the celebrant first takes the ciborlum and 
carries it to the same place where the chalice is already re- 
served, namely to the locus aptus.^ In doing this he observes 
the usual rules for taking the Blessed Sacrament from one 
place to another. It will be necessary to bring the humeral 
veil and canopy to the High Altar before he does this. 

He then goes to the sacristy, takes off the white vestments 
and puts on a purple stole over the alb, crossing it in front. 

He comes to the High Altar with the three servers, bows 
and begins the antiphon Diviserunt sihi vestimenta mea ; he 
continues this and the psalm Deus Dens metis alternately 
with the servers.^ Meanwhile he goes up to the altar and takes 
off the three altar cloths. The servers help him to do so, and 
take from the altar the frontal, flowers ^ and carpet, so as to 
leave only the altar cross and six candles, extinguished. In 
the same way he strips all other altars in the church. Coming 
back to the High Altar here he finishes the psalm and repeats 
the antiphon. 

The Memoriale rituum says that he should then stay before 
the altar and say the Angelus, while a server sounds the 
rattle, all kneeling. He goes to the sacristy and unvests. 

The arrangement of the place of repose and the rules for 
watching there are the same as at pp. 295-296. So also the 
other rules about taking away the holy water and so on. 

§ 6. SUNG MASS 

To the simplicity of this rite the following additions may be 
made. 

The Mass may be a Missa cantata, with the full comple- 
ment of servers."^ Instead of the three clerks, there may be a 

^ Mem. Rit.., Tit. IV, cap. ii, § 3, no. 5. This differs from the other case, 
where it is forbidden to do so (see p. 290, n. 4). Presumably the direc- 
tion here only means that the Memoriale supposes no other place pos- 
sible (though compare Tit. V, cap. ii, § 4, no. 5). Le Vavasseur describes 
the direction here as a mere permission and adds roundly: " It is far 
preferable that, already on Maundy Thursday, the Blessed Sacrament 
be taken to the place where it will remain all the next day, till after Mass 
on Holy Saturday" (ii, p. 212 n.); that is, to another remote chapel, or 
to a tabernacle in the sacristy. Martinucci also ignores the rubric of the 
Mevi. Rit.^ and says that the Blessed Sacrament is taken to the sacristy 
(I, ii, p. 362, §77). There seems no doubt then that this practice is lawful. 
It is certainly to be preferred, as uniform with the normal rule and more 
compatible with the ceremonies of Good Friday. 

- The celebrant is supposed to know this psalm, and the " Pange 
lingua," by heart. 

^ Explicitly, Mem. Rit.y Tit. IV, cap. ii, § 4, no. 4. 

* Le Vavasseur gives explicit directions for these, for two thurifers, 
two acolytes, torch-bearers (ii, p. 210, § 87). 



Uribuum Sacrum 301 

M.C., cross-bearer, thurifer, two acolytes, two, four, or six 
torch-bearers. 

The torch-bearers will remain to the end of Mass. The 
procession will be formed as when there are deacon and sub- 
deacon (above, p. 294) only without these two. The celebrant 
must himself put the Sanctissimum into the capsula. 

All may be sung.^ When the celebrant has intoned Gloj'ia 
in excelsis DeOy the organ is played for a short time, while the 
bells are rung. At the procession the Pange lingtia is sung. 
Vespers may be recited before the Sanctissimum is removed 
from the High Altar. The Sanctissimum may be taken to 
another place, not to the place of repose." 



§ 7. GOOD FRIDAY MORNING 

The morning office of Good Friday may not, cannot be held 
unless that of Maundy Thursday was held the day before. 

It consists of five parts: i. Lessons; 2. Collects; 3. The 
Worship of the Cross; 4. Mass of the Presanctified ; 5. 
Vespers. All follow one another without interruption.^ The 
colour of the day is black. 

The following preparations must be made beforehand : 
The altar is entirely bare. It has no frontal nor tabernacle 
veil. The tabernacle is open and empty; the six candles are 
of unbleached wax and are not lighted till the Mass of the 
Presanctified. The candlesticks should be, if possible, neither 
gilt nor of silver, but dark in colour. The altar cross is covered 
with a purple or black * veil. It will be used for the worship 
of the cross. If possible, it should stand on a foot like those 
of the candles; but it will be removed from this foot. It is 

^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 209, § 83 ; p. 211, § 90. 

^ See above, p. 300, n. i. 

^ Cfr. Caer. Ep., Lib. II, caps, xxv-xxvii ; Gavant'i-Merati, Pars IV, 
tit. i's.{ed. cit.j torn, i, pp. 283-297); Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, ii, pp. 217- 
234; Le Vavasseur, i, pp. 87-105; De Herdt, iii, pp. 62-76; Van der 
Stappen, v, pp. 338-346; Wapelhorst, pp. 304-323. 

^ There is considerable doubt as to the colour of the veil which covers 
the cross on Good Friday. On 30 December 1881 the Cong-r. of Rites, 
asked whether it mig-ht be black, gave the ambiguous answer : " Servetur 
rubrica " (no. 3535, ad VIII). They might just as well have said what 
colour they mean. No rubric of the missal or Caer. Ep. mentions the 
colour at all. Yet, since the veil was certainly purple on Maundy 
Thursday, and no rubric says anything about changing it, it would seem 
to follow that it is purple still. However, authors differ on the point. 
Gavanti says the veil Is black (Pars IV, tit. ix, rubr. 2, § 6; ed. cit.y tom. i, 
p. 284). Merati corrects him tentatively ("crux cooperta velo nigro, vel 
potius violaceo "; ih.^ § 2, p. 284) and refers to Bauldry, Pars IV, cap. x. 
Martinucci, considered a great authority, says, absolutely, that it is 
black (I, ii, p. 217, § i). Le Vavasseur says: " black or purple" (i, p. 88, 
§ 297). De Herdt (iii, p. 63), Van der Stappen (v, p. 340, § 12), and Wapel- 
horst (p. 304) say purple. In most English churches the veil is certainly 
black. 



302 Zhc Xtturgtcal Iffear 

possible to stand a largfe cross, with no foot, in the middle of 
the altar. Its veil must be so fixed that it can be undone by 
the celebrant in three stages (below, pp. 304-305). There is no 
carpet before the altar. On the lowest step are three cushions 
covered with purple cloth, on which the celebrant and minis- 
ters will lie when they are prostrate. 

The credence table has a white cloth covering only the top 
of the table. On it are placed the missal, covered with black, 
on its stand, the book of lessons also covered with black, ^ 
one altar cloth, a black burse containing a corporal and 
purificator, the black chalice veil, cruets as for Mass, the 
broad stole for the deacon, if he will use this, possibly another 
vessel of water, dish and towel for the celebrant to wash his 
hands, the acolytes' candles of unbleached wax, not lit, a 
taper, the rattle, if it is used. 

Near the credence table are a carpet of purple cloth and a 
cushion of the same colour, to put under the cross during the 
worship, a white veil to cover the cushion, the processional 
cross veiled in purple." The sedilia are bare. If lecterns are 
used for the Passion, these may be placed where the gospel is 
usually read ; or they may be brought out at the time. 

At the chapel where the Sanctissimum is reserved a cor- 
poral is spread on the altar in front of the urn, its burse 
lies near and the key of the urn. The white humeral veil is 
on a credence table near; the torches and candles that will 
be used at the procession, with a taper for lighting them, the 
large canopy and the small one, if it is to be used, are placed 
in the chapel in some convenient place. 

In the sacristy black vestments are laid out for the cele- 
brant and ministers as for Mass,^ the vestments for the three 
deacons of the Passion and their book or books, as on Palm 
Sunday (p. 273), but black, the vestments for the subdeacon 
who will bear the processional cross, namely, amice, alb, 
girdle, a black folded chasuble, no maniple.* If needed, a sur- 
plice and black stole for another priest, who will hold the 
cross for the people to worship at the Communion rails. Two 
thuribles are prepared. 

The persons who take part in the ceremony are the cele- 
brant, deacon and subdeacon, three deacons who sing the 

^ Supposing- that the books are vested. 

^ Whichever colour is used to veil the altar cross, all other crosses in 
the church keep the purple veils of Passiontide till they are uncovered. 

^ Folded chasubles for the ministers, if they use them (see p. 255). All 
that follows as to taking- oflF the folded chasubles, the deacon's broad 
stole and so on, supposes, of course, that these are used in the church. 
If not, the subdeacon wears only a black maniple over the alb, the 
deacon a black stole and maniple. During the service they have only to 
take off their maniples before creeping to the cross and to put them on 
ag-ain as soon as they have done so (p 305). 

* Supposing- that the cross is borne by a subdeacon. Otherwise a 
server will bear it, vested in cassock and surplice. 



UriC)uum Sacrum 303 

Passion, another subdeacon, or server in surplice, who will 
carry the processional cross, the M.C., possibly a second 
M.C., two thurifers, two acolytes, two, four, or six torch- 
bearers, the men who will hold the canopy. 

The service begins after none. All solita oscula are left 
out to-day; no one bows to the choir. ^ 

The procession comes to the church in this order : the first 
thurifer without incense, the acolytes holding no candles, the 
members of the choir, unless they are already in their places, 
the other servers, M.C., subdeacon, deacon, celebrant. Before 
the altar all genuflect except the celebrant, who bows low. 
Then the celebrant in the middle with the ministers kneels 
before the altar and they prostrate themselves, lying on the 
ground with their arms and faces on the cushions. All others 
kneel. After a few moments the M.C. and acolytes rise. The 
acolytes take one altar cloth from the credence table and 
spread it on the altar. The M.C. places the missal at the 
epistle corner and opens it at the beginning of the service. 
They kneel again. When the celebrant and ministers have 
lain prostrate for about the time it would take to say the 
Miserere^ they rise; the thurifer takes away the cushions, 
they ^o up to the altar. The celebrant kisses the altar; they 
^Q to the epistle corner and stand there as for the introit. 
All in choir sit. A lector comes to the credence table, there 
takes the book of lessons from an acolyte; accompanied by 
this acolyte he goes to the middle, genuflects, goes to the 
place where the epistle is read, and there chants the first lesson 
(the prophecy). He goes again to the middle, genuflects, 
takes the book back to the credence table and goes to his 
place. Meanwhile the celebrant in a low voice reads this 
lesson and the tract that follows, laying his hands on the 
book or altar. Deo gratias is not said after any lesson to-day. 
When the lector has finished, the choir sings the tract. The 
celebrant and ministers may sit at the sedilia. At the end of 
the tract the ministers stand in line behind the celebrant. All 
in choir stand. He sings Oreinus\ the deacon genuflects, 
singing I^/ectamus genua f all kneel with him except the cele- 
brant ; the subdeacon rises, singing Levate^ all rise with him. 
The celebrant with outstretched hands sings the collect in the 
ferial tone. This is the order observed on all such occasions. 
During the collect the subdeacon goes to the credence table 
and takes off the folded chasuble, assisted by an acolyte. He 
then sings the second lesson as he sings the epistle at Mass. 
He does not go afterwards to kiss the celebrant's hand. The 
celebrant reads this lesson and the tract in a low voice. The 

^ That is to say, certainly no one bows from the uncovering of the 
cross till none on Holy Saturday (S.R.C., 12 September 1857, no. 3059, 
ad XXVII); moreover bowing- may be omitted altogether to-day, if such 
is the custom of the church (Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 92, § 313). 



304 XTbe Xlturgical ©eat 

deacon does not answer 'Deo gratias. All In choir sit while 
the subdeacon reads, and during the tract sung- immediately 
afterwards. The celebrant and ministers may sit during the 
tract. 

Towards the end of the tract the three deacons of the Pas- 
sion come from the sacristy and sing the Passion. Everything 
is now done exactly as on Palm Sunday (see pp. 278-280), 
except that there are no palms to hold. When the first part 
of the Passion is finished, the deacon takes off the folded 
chasuble and puts on the ''broad stole" at the credence 
table. ^ He brings the book of lessons to the altar, kneels there 
and says Munda cor meuin. He does not ask for the cele- 
brant's blessing. He sings the last part of the Passion as the 
gospel as at Mass, except that the acolytes stand on either 
side of the subdeacon with joined hands, not holding candles. 
There is no incense; the celebrant does not kiss the book 
afterwards. The subdeacon gives it at once to the M.C. 

If there is to be a sermon it may be preached at this 
moment. 

The COLLECTS follow. The celebrant stands at the epistle 
corner, the ministers in line behind him. All stand. After 
each summons to prayer by the celebrant Flectamus geiuia 
follows and Levate^ as above. The tone is ferial. 

The prayer for the Emperor is left out. At the prayer for 
Jews the genuflection is not made. 

The WORSHIP OF THE CROSS=^ follows. Towards the end 
of the collects the acolytes, or other servers, spread the purple 
carpet in front of the altar, at the middle, in such a way that 
one end covers the lowest step, and the rest is spread across 
the sanctuary before the steps. On the lowest step they lay 
the cushion and the white cloth over it. 

When the collects are ended the celebrant and ministers ^o 
to the sedilia. All in choir sit. The celebrant and subdeacon 
take off their chasubles. They come back to the altar, the 
celebrant stands at the epistle side, on the ground before the 
steps, having the subdeacon at his left. Both face the people. 
The deacon goes to the altar accompanied by the M.C; both 
genuflect. The deacon takes the cross from the altar ^ and 
brings it to the celebrant covered with its veil. The celebrant 
holds it so that the figure of our Lord is towards the people. 
An acolyte brings the missal from the altar and holds it before 
the celebrant open at the text Ecce ligntivt crucis. The deacon 
stands at the celebrant's right. Assisted, if necessary, by the 
ministers, the celebrant unveils the upper part of the cross 

^ He wears the broad stole from now to after the celebrant's Com- 
munion ; then he puts it off and takes back his folded chasuble (p. 255). 

^ This is what our fathers before the Reformation called " Creeping- to 
the Cross." 

^ If necessary, he and the M.C. detach it from its foot or stand. 



Uri^uum Sacrum 305 

about as far down as the inscription I.N.R.I., holding- it 
meanwhile in his left. He lifts it to the height of his face and 
chants, on notes low in pitch, Ecce ligmtin cruets; the minis- 
ters join him as he continues in quo salus mwidi pependit. 
The choir answers Venite adorevms^ everyone in church kneel- 
ing-, except the celebrant. All rise ; the celebrant goes to 
stand on the foot-pace at the epistle corner, facing- the people 
between the ministers, as before. He uncovers the right arm 
of the cross and the head of the figure of Christ, then sings 
as before, except that he does so in a higher pitch. All kneel 
during the answer. The third time he goes to the middle of 
the altar, uncovers the whole cross, handing the veil to the 
subdeacon (who gives it to the second acolyte to put on the 
credence table), and sings again in a still higher pitch. ^ When 
the answer is sung all remain kneeling; the celebrant, accom- 
panied by the M.C., carries the cross to the carpet prepared, 
kneels there and lays it so that the upper part rests on the 
cushion." He rises and genuflects to the cross with the M.C. 
All rise at the same moment. He goes to the seats, where 
the ministers meet him. 

As soon as the celebrant has completely uncovered the 
altar cross, servers unveil the processional cross and all others 
in the church. After the last Venite adoremus the choir begins 
to sing the Reproaches (improperia) and the hymn Pmige 
lingua^ with the verse Crux fidelis repeated, as in the gradual. 
They may sing all or part of this, according to the time oc- 
cupied by the worship of the cross."' 

At the seats the celebrant and ministers take off their 
maniples,* then their shoes, assisted by the M.C. and acolytes. 
The ministers remain standing at the seats; the celebrant, 
with the M.C. at his left, goes first to worship the cross. He 
makes a prostration at the end of the carpet on which the 
cross rests, rises, makes another prostration about half way 
up the carpet, then a third immediately before the cross. This 
third time he bends and kisses the feet of the crucifix. The 
M.C. makes the prostration each time with him, but does not 
kiss the cross. ^ Both rise, genuflect towards the cross** and 
^o back to the sedilia. Here the celebrant puts on his shoes, 

^ *' Ecce lignum crucis " begins orv fa. It may be sung conveniently a 
tone higher each time, beginning first on Ei? (do^B!'), next on F(do = C), 
next on G (do = D). 

'^ In some churches they now collect money and put a plate near the 
cross. 

^ The singing should end when the creeping to the cross ends. There 
is no justification for singing while the procession goes to the place of 
repose, and to do so spoils the ceremony. 

* S.R.C., 15 September 1736, no. 2326, ad IV. 

° The M.C. will come to worship the cross himselt later, as first of the 
servers. 

^ From this moment till the beginning of the function ot Saturday 
everyone genuflects towards the cross. 

X 



3o6 Ube Xtturgical 13ear 

maniple and chasuble, and washes his hands if this is neces- 
sary.^ He is assisted by the M.C. and, if he washes his hands, 
by the acolytes. He sits and puts on his biretta. 

The ministers now go to worship the cross in the same 
way; the second M.C. may accompany them if there is a 
second M.C. The deacon is on the right, he kisses the cross 
first. They come back to the sedilia and put on shoes and 
maniples, and the subdeacon his folded chasuble. If the 
chapter is present the ministers go to worship the cross after 
the canons, unless they are canons themselves. 

All the members of the choir now come in turn to creep to 
the cross, those of higher rank before the others. They 
should all take off their shoes first." They come in groups 
of two, make the three prostrations, the man on the right 
kisses the cross first. The servers do so after the choir. 

The most convenient and orderly way to arrange the creep- 
ing to the cross is that there should be three pairs at least 
before the crucifix all the time. As the first pair kneel to kiss 
it the second pair make their second prostration in the middle 
of the carpet, the third pair at the same time make their first 
at the end of the carpet. All rise, the first pair genuflect to the 
cross and go to their places ; the second pair now becomes 
the first. Meanwhile a new pair has come to the end of the 
carpet. All make the prostration together, as before, each 
pair in their place. 

When each pair has kissed the cross they rise and genuflect 
to it, one on either side, and go to their places. 

The people may come up and worship the cross in the same 
way after the servers. Or, while the clergy do so, a priest in 
surplice and black stole may take the cross to a place near 
the entrance of the choir and place it on another carpet and 
cushion, that the people may come to it there. This priest 
genuflects to the cross before carrying it and when he has 
laid it down. A server may kneel by the cross and wipe the 
feet of the figure each time when they have been kissed. 

Another way, also allowed, is that a priest in surplice and 
black stole take a crucifix, either the one that has served 
hitherto or a smaller one, to the Communion rails and there 
let the people kiss it. They come up as to Communion. He 
may wipe the feet with a cloth each time. 

While the creeping to the cross proceeds, the celebrant and 
ministers read the Reproaches, sitting with head covered. '' 

^ It seems to be left to his discretion whether he will w^ash his hands 
at this point or not. Martinucci says nothing- about it (I, ii, p. 225, § 57). 
Le Vavasseur (ii, p. 97, § 337) says he does so, " if necessary." 

^ Martinucci says they should do so " if it is the custom " (I, ii, p. 225, 
§ 59); Lc Vavasseur, " if the clergy do so " (ii, p. 97, § 339). 

^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 98, § 340. This is the usuiil practice. But Mar- 
tinucci says they stand wearing- birettas (I, ii, p. 225, § 60). Is '* stabunt " 
here a slip for " sedebunt " ? 



XTribuum Sacrum 307 

The second acolyte bring's the missal from the altar and holds 
it before them. They read the text alternately, the celebrant 
saying the verses, the ministers answering" each time Agios o 
Theos^ Popule meuSy Crux fidelis ^ and so on. When they have 
finished, the acolyte puts the missal back on the altar. 

Towards the end of the creeping to the cross an acolyte 
lights the six candles on the altar and those of the acolytes. 
The deacon goes to spread the corporal on the altar, laying 
the purificator near it on the epistle side. He makes the 
usual reverence to the celebrant; the subdeacon stands un- 





m. 



fi 



!^ 



¥ 



FIG. 39. CREEPING TO THE CROSS 
(The ministers wear folded chasubles) 



covered with him, as at Mass. The deacon genuflects each 
time, not to the altar, but to the cross. 

When the creeping to the cross is ended, the deacon, ac- 
companied by the M.C., puts it back on the altar in its usual 
place. Both genuflect to the cross before he takes it. He 
kneels to do so and genuflects again to it when he has put it 
on the altar. As the deacon kneels to take up the cross all 
in choir kneel too, including the celebrant and subdeacon. 
They remain on their knees till the cross is placed on the 
altar. The acolytes take away the cushion and carpet. 

The PROCESSION to the place of repose follows. 

If another subdeacon is to carry the processional cross he 
will ^Q out towards the end of the v/orship of the cross and 
will vest in amice, alb, girdle and folded chasuble (if the 



3os Ubc Xtturotcal ]3ear 

folded chasuble is used in the church), without maniple. 
Otherwise a server in surplice carries the processional cross. 
Two thurifers go to prepare the thuribles. They take the 
thuribles, with burningf charcoal but without incense, straight 
to the chapel, where is the place of repose, and wait there. 
Other servers go to the chapel and there light the torches 
which will be carried on the way back to the High Altar. 
The men who hold the canopy also wait there. 

The cross-bearer, between the acolytes with lighted candles, 
stands at the entrance of the choir. The celebrant and minis- 
ters come before the altar. It will be convenient, if possible, 
that the members of the choir come out to the middle and 
stand here, in the inverse order to that in which they will go 
in procession. All genuflect except the cross-bearer.^ They 
turn and go by the shortest way, and in silence, to the place 
of repose, the celebrant and ministers covered. 

Here the cross-bearer and acolytes stand aside, to let the 
others pass. The thurifers are at the epistle side. The minis- 
ters separate to let the celebrant come between them. They 
uncover and give their birettas to the M.C. All make a pro- 
stration, the celebrant and ministers kneel on the lowest step 
before the place of repose. All kneel with them. They wait 
here a short time. Meanwhile candles are distributed to the 
clergy. The torch-bearers take their torches. When all is 
ready, at a sign from the M.C, the deacon" goes up to the 
capsula, opens it and comes back to his place. The thurifers 
come to the celebrant ; he puts incense into both thuribles, not 
blessing it (nor are the solita osculamade). He kneels again, 
the deacon hands him the first thurible, he incenses the Sanct- 
issimum as usual ; the ministers hold the end of the chasuble. 

The M.C. puts the white humeral veil on the celebrant. 
He and the ministers go up and kneel on the edge of the 
foot-pace. The deacon rises, takes the chalice from the urn 
(leaving the urn open and empty), and hands it to the cele- 
brant, who bows, receives it kneeling, and holds it in the 
left hand through the veil. He lays the right hand on it; the 
deacon, kneeling before him, arranges the end of the veil so 
that it shall cover the hand and chalice. The celebrant rises 
and turns to the people. The ministers change places behind 
him, and stand at his sides. The cantors intone the hymn 
Vexilla regis^ the choir continues. 

The procession returns to the High Altar singing the hymn. 
If a small canopy is used, it will be held over the celebrant 

^ Whether the acolytes genuflect depends on the question at p. 22. 

^ The Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. xxv, ^ 31, and cap. xxvi, § 14, says the 
*' sacrista " opens the capsula. He is supposed to be a priest or deacon, 
and wears a black stole (Merati, i, p. 291, § xlii). The rubric of the 
missal says the deacon opens the capsula. The S. R.C. says so too 
(16 December 1828, no. 2669, ad I). 



Uribuum Sacrum 309 

till he comes to the larger one at the entrance of the chapel. 
The cross-bearer goes first between the acolytes, then the 
clergy and members of the choir holding lighted candles. If 
not all hold candles, those who do so will walk behind the 
others, so as to be nearer to the Sanctissimum. The celebrant 
carries the chalice under the canopy between the ministers, 
the thurifers walk immediately before swinging the thuribles. 
The torch-bearers walk on either side of the canopy. During 
the procession the rattle may be sounded. In the choir and 
sanctuary all remain kneeling with lighted candles to the 
celebrant's Communion. The torches remain. 

At the High Altar the deacon, kneeling before the cele- 
brant, takes the chalice from him and places it on the altar. 
He unties the veil over the chalice, but leaves it covered. 

As soon as the deacon has taken the Sanctissimum, the 
celebrant and subdeacon kneel on the lowest step. The M.C. 
takes the humeral veil and puts it on the credence table. The 
celebrant and subdeacon rise, the deacon stands at the cele- 
brant's side. Incense is put on, not blessed ; the Sanctissimum 
is incensed, the ministers holding the ends of the chasuble. 

The second thurifer takes the thurible to the sacristy; it is 
not wanted again. When the procession has left the place oi 
repose, all candles there should be put out. 

MASS OF THE P RE S A X C TI FIE D folloWS. 

The celebrant and ministers go up to the altar. They genu- 
flect before it ; the subdeacon goes to the right of the deacon, 
and genuflects again when he is at that side. The deacon un- 
covers the chalice and gives the veil to the M.C., who takes 
it to the credence table. The deacon then takes off the paten 
and pall. He holds the paten over the corporal ; the celebrant 
takes the chalice and lets tlie consecrated Host slip from it on 
to the paten. He should not touch the Host with his fingers; 
if he does he must purify the fingers at once in the little vessel 
for that purpose. He puts the empty chalice on the corporal 
in its usual place, takes the paten, and lets the Sanctissimum 
slip from it on to the corporal, not making the sign of the 
cross with the paten. He puts the paten on his right, on the 
corporal. The first acolyte brings the cruets on the dish, 
genuflecting before he comes up. The deacon takes the chalice 
in his left, does not wipe it, stands it on the pall. The sub- 
deacon hands the wine cruet to the deacon, who pours wine 
into the chalice. The subdeacon pours in a little water, as at 
Mass. The water is not blessed ; the celebrant does not say 
the prayer £>eus qui humanae siihstantiae. 

The acolyte takes back the cruets, again genuflecting as he 
reaches the ground. The subdeacon goes to the celebrant's 
left, genuflecting before he goes and when he arrives. The 
deacon hands the chalice to the celebrant, who places it on 
the corporal. The deacon covers it with the pall. There are 



3 1 o Uhc Xt t uraical l^ear 

no oscula, the sign of the cross is not made with the chalice. 
The thurifer comes up, first g-enuflecting-. The celebrant puts 
incense into the thurible, does not bless it, takes the thurible 
from the deacon, incenses the chalice and Host as at the 
offertory in Mass, saying* the prayer hicensiun istiid^ etc. He 
g-enuflects and incenses the cross thrice, again genuflects and 
incenses the altar, saying Dirigatur Domine, as at Mass. 
The ministers hold the ends of his chasuble. All genuflect 
each time in passing the middle, as when the Blessed Sacra- 
ment is exposed. The celebrant gives the thurible to the 
deacon, saying Accendat in nobis. He is not incensed. While 
the altar is incensed, the M.C. lifts and then replaces the 
missal as usual. The thurifer takes away the thurible ; it will 
not be used again. The celebrant washes his hands, as before 
the Blessed Sacrament exposed, that is, turning so as not to 
have his back to the middle (see p. 67). The subdeacon 
holds the water and dish, the deacon the towel. ^ Or the 
acolytes may serve at the washing of hands. In this case, the 
ministers stand in line, as at the collects." The celebrant 
comes to the middle; the ministers do so too, behind him in 
line. All genuflect. The celebrant bows and says the prayer 
In spiritit humilitatis ; he kisses the altar, genuflects, turns to 
the people on the gospel side, says Orate fratreSy etc., turns 
back the same way, not completing the circle. No answer is 
made. 

He sings the Lord's Prayer in the ferial tone, as at Mass, 
the ministers standing in line behind him. When the choir 
has answered Sed libera nos a malo^ he says Aitien silently, 
then sings the prayer Libera 710s Doniine in the ferial tone, 
that is, without any inflection of the voice. During this prayer 
he extends the hands. He does not take the paten nor make 
the sign of the cross. The choir answers Amen. 

The celebrant and ministers genuflect. They kneel on the 
foot-pace behind him. The celebrant passes the paten under 
the Host, holds the paten in the left which he rests on the 
altar, takes the Sanctissimum in the right and elevates it over 
the paten. He lifts it ^o that it may be seen by the people, 
but does not lift the paten. The ministers do not hold the 
ends of the chasuble, the Sanctissimum is not incensed, the 
crotalus is not sounded. The M.C, who genuflected with 
the celebrant and ministers after the prayer Libera nos quae- 
sumns Dominey kneels meanwhile at the gospel side. Then 
he comes to the epistle side. When the elevation is ended, 
the ministers rise and stand at the celebrant's sides. The 
deacon at the right uncovers the chalice. The celebrant 
rests the paten on the altar, does not genuflect, holds the 
Host over the chalice and breaks it, as at Mass, saying 

^ Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, ii, p. 232, § 85. 
^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 102, § 353. 



Uribuum Sacrum 311 

nothing". He puts the fraction in the chalice, not making the 
sign of the cross. The deacon covers the chalice; all three 
genuflect. The ministers change sides and genuflect again on 
arriving. The celebrant, bowing over the altar, says the 
pv^iyer Percepiio corporis silently, his hands joined on the altar. 
He genuflects with the ministers, says the prayers Panem 
caelestem accipiaiUy Domitie non su7n digniis (thrice), Corpus 
Domini^ as usual, and receives Holy Communion, making the 
sign of the cross with the Host, as at Mass. He stands a 
moment silently. Then the subdeacon uncovers the chalice, 
all three genuflect, the celebrant gathers up the fragments on 
the corporal with the paten, and puts them into the chalice. 
The first acolyte brings up the cruets, genuflecting before he 
comes up. The celebrant drinks the wine with the fraction, 
not making the sign of the cross with the chalice, sayings 
nothing*. Meanwhile the ministers stand at his sides and bow. 

Then all in choir stand,' and extinguish their candles, 
which, with the torches, are taken to the sacristy. The sub- 
deacon pours wine and water into the chalice over the cele- 
brant's fingers.^ He drinks this as usual. The ministers 
change places, genuflecting' in the middle. The deacon goes 
to the credence table, takes off the broad stole and puts on 
his folded chasuble. Then he comes to the right of the cele- 
brant, genuflecting before he comes up the steps. The missal 
is not carried across. The subdeacon dries the chalice, covers 
it with the paten and pall, puts the corporal into the burse 
and this on the chalice, with purificator, paten and pall, all as 
usual, then carries it to the credence table. He comes back to 
the celebrant's left, genuflecting before going up the steps. 
The celebrant bowing says the prayer Quod ore sunipsimus'y 
the subdeacon closes the missal. The M.C. takes the birettas. 
The acolytes, without candles, come before the altar. All come 
down the steps, genuflect and ^o to the sacristy, not bowing 
to the clergy in choir, the celebrant and ministers covered. 

When the celebrant and ministers have left the church, the 
choir recite vespers, as the day before (p. 295). Meanwhile two 
servers take from the altar the missal and altar cloth, leaving 
only the cross and six candles alight. Everything is taken 
from the credence table and put away in the sacristy. After 
vespers the candles are put out. 

All the ornament of the place of repose is taken away before 
tenebrae, or a crucifix may be placed there till next morning.' 

^ Martinucci lets them stand now to the end (I, ii, p. 233, § 93). Le 
\'avasseur says they sit, rising- as the celebrant g^oes out (ii, p. 91, § 312). 
'^ The usual first pouring- of wine alone into the chalice is omitted. 
= S.R.C. 2740, ad 5. 



3 1 2 Xlbe XiturGxcal l^ear 

§ 8. GOOD FRIDAY IN SMALL CHURCHES 

The preparations are: at the High Altar six candles of un- 
bleached wax, not lighted, the cross covered with a purple or 
black veil,^ which can easily be removed, a cushion at the 
second altar step in the middle. The credence table is covered 
with a white cloth, not greater than the top of the table ; on 
it are placed one altar cloth of the size of the top of the altar, 
the missal on its stand, a black burse with corporal, pall and 
purificator, the black veil, cruets as for Mass. Near the cred- 
ence table are a purple carpet, purple cushion and white veil 
on which to rest the cross, the processional cross veiled in 
purple. At the ''locus aptus " of the Reservation a corporal 
is spread before the urn ; near by are a white humeral veil, 
the canopy, torches and candles for the procession. In the 
sacristy three surplices are prepared for the servers, an amice, 
alb, girdle, black maniple, stole and chasuble for the cele- 
brant, the thurible, with fire at hand. 

The Memoriale rituum supposes, as usual, that only the 
celebrant and three servers take part in the function. How- 
ever there must be one man or more to hold the canopy in the 
procession, and others to accompany it with lighted candles. 

The Lessons and Collects. — A sign is given with the 
rattle, the servers vest, the celebrant washes his hands and 
vests. He comes to the sanctuary, following the three 
servers, with hands joined, and head covered. Before the 
altar he takes off his biretta, bows, then kneels and pros- 
trates, lying prone with his arms and head on the cushion, 
for about the time it would take to say the Mise7'ere. 

The first and second servers meanwhile spread the one altar 
cloth on the altar, ^ the third puts the missal on its stand at the 
epistle corner. The celebrant rises, a server takes away the 
cushion. He goes up to the altar and kisses it in the middle. 
He goes to the missal and there reads the first lesson, with the 
tract. He says Oreiniis^ genuflects, saying Flectanuis genua, 
and all kneel with him. The second server rising says Levate. 
The celebrant, and all with him, rise. The celebrant says the 
first collect. Then he reads the second lesson, tract and the 
Passion, with hands joined, at the epistle side. At the same 
place he says the prayer Munda cor meum^ and the last part 
of the Passion ; he does not kiss the book at the end. 

^ Me7n. Rit.,T'\\.. V. Cfr. MartinuccUMeng-hini, I, ii, pp. 364-378; Le 
Vavasseur, ii, pp. 214-224. 

^ The Mem. Rit.^ Tit. V, cap. ii, § i, no. 5, here adds a curious direction, 
that they fold the altar cloth in half lengthwise, so that it is doubled on 
the farther part of the altar, the front half of the altar is bare. This does 
not correspond with what is done when there are ministers. It is difficult 
to see the reason for a difference here. Many authors, as Le Vavasseur 
(ii, p. 215, § 106), De Herdt (iii, p. 76, § 49) omit this direction. 



Uri^uum Sacrum 313 

After the Passion a sermon may be preached. 

The celebrant, at the epistle corner, reads the collects, as 
they stand in the missal. After each admonition he says 
OremiiSy then, g-enuflecting^, Flectamiis genua; the second 
server says Levate^ the celebrant, and all with him, rise. 
The collect for the Emperor is not said ; there is no g^enuflec- 
tion at that for the Jews. Towards the end of these collects 
the first and third servers spread the purple carpet in the 
sanctuary before the middle of the altar; on it they lay the 
cushion and cover it with the white veil. 

The Worship of the Cross. — Standing at the epistle 
corner the celebrant takes off the chasuble. He g"oes to the 
middle, genuflects and takes the veiled altar cross. The first 
server holds the missal. The celebrant comes to stand on the 
ground before the steps, at the epistle corner, holding the 
cross. The server holds the missal open before him. He un- 
veils the upper part of the cross with his right hand, holds it 
up and ''reads in a grave voice " ^ the words Ecce lignum 
crucis\ the servers say the rest with him, namely, in quo salus 
mundi pependit. All kneel, except the celebrant. The servers 
say Venite adoremus. The celebrant goes to stand on the foot- 
pace at the epistle corner, uncovers the right arm of the cross 
and the head of the figure of our Lord, lifts it higher, and says 
the same words as before in a higher (or louder) voice." The 
servers continue with him and answer as before. The third 
time he stands on the foot-pace in the middle, uncovers the 
whole cross, lifts it higher still, and says the words as before 
still higher (or louder). The missal is put back on the altar, 
the processional cross and all others in the church are un- 
covered. The celebrant comes to the place where the carpet 
is prepared, passing on the gospel side, kneels there and lays 
the cross on the cushion. The Memoriale rituum says he 
attaches it with cords. ^ He rises, genuflects towards the 
cross, goes to the seat^ and takes off" his shoes and maniple," 
assisted by the servers. He comes alone to worship the cross. 
He makes a prostration at the edge of the carpet, rises, comes 
forward, prostrates again in the middle of the carpet, then a 
third time immediately in front of the cross. As he does so 
the third time he kisses the feet of the crucifix. He rises, 

^ Mem. Rit.^ Tit. V, cap. ii, § 2, no. 4. 

^ " Elevans crucem et voceni " {ib.^ no. 5). Presumably meaning- 
louder. To chang-e the pitch of the voice would seem to involve singing-. 

^ Tit. V, cap. ii, § 2, no. 11. It also provides that a plate for money be 
put near the cross [ib.., no. 9). 

* The Mem. Rit. {ib.^ no. 12) says he goes to a stool on the epistle 
iiide. Supposing always nothing but the arrangements for Low Mass, it 
does not suppose that there are sedilia. 

'" The Mem.. Rit. (tb.) says nothing- about the maniple. But see the 
decision of the S. R, C, quoted at p. 305, n. 4. Martinucci adds that he takes 
off the maniple (I, ii, p. 368, § 60). 



314 Ube Xiturotcal lL)ear 

genuflects to the cross, goes to the sedile and puts on his 
shoes and maniple. The three servers take off their shoes ^ 
and come forward, prostrating- thrice in the same way and 
kissing the feet of the crucifix. They may do so together in a 
group of three, the one on the right kissing first, then the 
one in the middle, lastly the one on the left ; or the first server 
may advance alone followed by the two others. The person 
on the right always kisses the cross first. They go back and 
put on their shoes. 

The people come up and worship the cross, first members 
of confraternities in their dress," then men, then women, all 
in pairs, and (says the book) ''devoutly and gravely."^ The 
Memoriale rituum makes no provision for any other manner 
of worshipping the cross. But there seems no reason why, if 
another priest is present, he should not take the cross to the 
Communion rails for the people to worship there, kneeling in 
line, as when they come to Communion. He would wear a 
surplice and black stole. Or the celebrant himself may do so, 
saying the Reproaches afterwards. 

While the people worship the celebrant, sitting with biretta, 
recites all the Reproaches, either alone or alternately with 
the second and third servers, in a clear voice. The text is 
printed in verses in the book. Meanwhile the first server is to 
assist at the worship of the cross by the people and see that 
all is done in order. He may wipe the feet of the crucifix each 
time when they have been kissed. The server replaces the 
missal on the altar, when the celebrant has read all. 

Procession from the Place of Repose. — Towards the end 
of the Creeping to the Cross the first server lights the six 
altar candles. If the altar cloth till now has been folded in half 
the second and third servers spread it out, removing the 
missal as they do so. The missal is replaced. The second 
server brings to the altar the burse and purificator. He 
spreads the corporal and lays the purificator near it, on the 
epistle side. He places the missal near the centre on the 
gospel side, turned towards the middle, as during the Canon 
of Mass. When the worship of the cross is ended, the cele- 
brant puts it back on the altar, genuflecting towards it before 
he lifts it from the cushion, and again after he has put it in its 
place. The servers take away the cushion, veil and carpet 
used for the cross. The first server brings the thurible with 
burning charcoal from the sacristy. The celebrant at the sedile 
puts on the chasuble, comes to the altar bare-headed, and 
genuflects."^ The second server takes the processional cross. 
The procession goes, by the shortest wa}', to the place of 
Repose, in this order: First the banner used when holy 

^ Mem. Rit., Tit. V, cap. ii, § 2, no. 15. 

* " Sodales cum saccis " (t<5'., no. 16). ^ lb. 

* The Mem. Rit. (Tit. IV, cap. ii, § 3, no. i) says he puts incense into 



'Cribuum Sacrum 315 

Viaticum is taken to the sick/ if the church possesses such a 
banner, then members of a congregation in their dress or 
other '' pious men," ' the first server with the thurible, the pro- 
cessional cross borne by the third server, the celebrant, having" 
at his left, and a little before him, the second server. 

At the place of repose all part on either side to allow the 
celebrant to pass. The thurifer goes to the epistle side. The 
celebrant first genuflects on the ground before the "locus 
aptus," then kneels on the lowest step and says prayers silently 
for a short time. Meanwhile lighted candles are given to men. 
All genuflect, kneel with him, and remain kneeling till the 
procession starts back. The celebrant rises, opens the urn, 
genuflects, comes down, puts incense into the thurible (the 
second server assisting), not blessing it, kneels and incenses 
the Sanctissimum. He gives the thurible back to the thurifer, 
goes up, genuflects, takes the chalice from the urn and 
places it on the altar. He genuflects again and closes the 
urn. The Memoriale rituum supposes that the ciborium with 
consecrated particles remains in the urn. When he has shut 
it he genuflects again and comes to kneel on the edge of 
the foot-pace. Here he receives the humeral veil from the 
second server, rises, genuflects, takes the chalice in his left, 
holding it through the veil, lays the right on it and covers all 
with the end of the veil. He turns and begins to recite the 
hymn Vexilla Regis \ he says this during the procession altern- 
ately with the second server. All rise, genuflect, and form 
themselves for the procession to the High Altar. It goes in 
this order: the banner as before, the men, now holding lighted 
candles, the cross, thurifer swinging the thurible, the cele- 
brant under the canopy (held over him by one man or more) 
having the second server at his left before him. 

If the Blessed Sacrament remains in the urn, four candles 
are left burning there, otherwise all are extinguished when 
the procession has gone. When the procession arrives before 
the altar, the banner is put aside, outside the Communion 
rails, the processional cross near the credence table. Laymen 
stay outside the rails, holding candles and kneeling till after 
the celebrant's Communion; the canopy remains outside the 
rails and is put away. 

The celebrant goes straight up to the altar, places the 
chalice on the corporal, genuflects, and comes down the steps. 
Here the second server takes from him the humeral veil. He 
puts incense on the thurible, assisted by the second server, 

the thurible at the altar before the procession starts. This ag-ain differs 
from the normal rite (see p. 308). Martinucci (I, ii, p. 372, § 76) and Le 
Vavasseur (ii, p. 220, § 125) ignore the direction. De Herdt (iii, p. 77, 
§3) observes it. Merati distinctly contradicts it: " thuriferarius cum 
navicula et thuribulo non fumig-ante " (torn, i, p. 298, § 4). 
'' Mem. Rit., Tit. IV, cap. ii, ^ 2. •* lb. 



3i6 Ubc Xtturoical l^ear 

not blessing it, kneels and incenses the Sanctissimum in the 
usual way. 

Mass of the Presanctified. — The celebrant rises, goes up 
to the altar, genuflects, undoes the veil over the chalice, takes 
from it the paten and pall, lays the pall on the corporal, on 
the epistle side, and the paten in the middle, in front of the 
chalice. He lets the consecrated Host slip from the chalice on 
to the paten, not touching it with his fingers. If he does so, 
he must purify the fingers in the vase for that purpose. He 
takes the paten with both hands and lets the Host slip from it 
on to the corporal, in the middle, again careful not to touch 
it himself. He lays the paten on the corporal, on the epistle 
side. 

Meanwhile the third server brings the cruets to the altar, 
genuflecting before he goes up to the foot-pace. He places 
them at the epistle corner and stands by them. The celebrant 
genuflects and, at the middle, taking wine and water from the 
server, pours them into the chalice as at Mass, holding the 
chalice in his left above the corporal. He does not wipe the 
chalice nor bless the water ; nor does he say the prayer 
Deus qui hiunanae siibstantiae. He sets the chalice on the 
altar, not making the sign of the cross with it. He covers it 
with the pall. He genuflects and, standing in the middle, puts 
incense in the thurible, without blessing. The first server, 
still holding the thurible, comes up for this purpose, first 
genuflecting; the second assists. 

The celebrant takes the thurible from the second server, 
genuflects and incenses the oblata, as usual, saying Incensiim 
istiid. He genuflects, incenses the cross, genuflects again 
and incenses the altar, as before the Blessed Sacrament ex- 
posed, saying meanwhile Dirigatitr Doinine^ etc. While he 
does so the second server removes and replaces the missal. 
He gives the thurible back, saying Accendat in nobis, etc. He 
is not incensed. He comes down the steps, not turning his 
back to the Sanctissimum, and washes his hands; the third 
server pours the water, the second holds the towel. The 
celebrant goes to the middle, genuflects and, bowing with 
hands joined on the altar, says, in a low but audible voice, the 
prayer In spiritu hiunilitatis. He kisses the altar, genuflects, 
turns to the people on the gospel side and says Orate fratres. 
No answer is made. He turns back by the same way, not 
completing the circle, and again genuflects. He says the 
Lord's Prayer, as at Low Mass. The servers answer Sed 
libera nos a malo. He says Amen silently; then aloud, with 
hands extended, he says the prayer Libera nos qiiaesunius 
Doniine. The servers answer Amen. He genuflects, uncovers 
the chalice, slips the paten under the Host, holds the paten 
in his left, and with the right elevates the Host, so that it can 
be seen by the people. The Sanctissimum is not incensed. 



XTribuum Sacrum 317 

the rattle not sounded, the end of the chasuble not held. 
He leaves the paten on the corporal and breaks the Host 
over the chalice, as at Mass, but saying- nothing-. The fraction 
is put into the chalice. He covers the chalice, genuflects and, 
bowing with hands joined on the altar, says silently the prayer 
Perceptio corporis tiii^ etc. Again he genuflects, takes the 
paten in his left, the Host in the right, says the prayers 
Panevii caelesteni accipiam and Domine iion sum digjiiis thrice, 
and so makes his Communion, as at Mass. He makes the 
sign of the cross with the Host and says Co7pus Doinhii 
7iostri, etc. He pauses awhile in prayer silently, then un- 
covers the chalice and genuflects. He gathers the fragments 
on the corporal with the paten and puts them in the chalice. 
He takes the chalice with both hands ^ and drinks the wine, 
with the consecrated fragment, not making the sign of the 
cross with the chalice, saying nothing. The second server 
brings the cruets to the altar and pours wine and water over 
the celebrant's fingers. He drinks this. All rise and put out 
their candles. The celebrant wipes the chalice with the 
purificator, covers it with the purificator, paten, pall and 
veil. The first server, if in holy orders, takes it to the cred- 
ence table. The celebrant, bowing with hands joined says 
silently Quod ore sumpsimus^ etc. He comes down to the 
ground before the altar, genuflects with the servers, puts on 
his biretta, and follows them to the sacristy. 

Removing the Ciborium. — The Memoriale rituum sup- 
poses that the ciborium, with consecrated particles for the 
sick, was placed in the urn on Maundy Thursday (p. 300, 
n. 1). If so, it is now removed. The celebrant, in surplice 
and white stole," goes to the place of repose. In front of him 
are the first server, carrying a white humeral veil, then the 
other two, holding candles.^ He takes the Blessed Sacrament 
to a tabernacle, if possible, in the sacristy,* or in a remote 
chapel of the church. In doing sq he observes the usual 
ceremonies for such occasions (see pp. 249-250). A lamp 
must burn before the place where it is now reserved. If no 
other place is possible it may stay at the locus aptus in the 
urn.^ In this case a lamp is left there. 

When this has been done the rattle is sounded for the 

^ ^o \.\\Q Mem. Rit., Tit. V, cap. ii, §4, no. 22, a curious difference 
from the normal practice. Martinucci (I, ii, p. 378, § 118), Le V^avasseur 
(ii, p. 223, § 139), De Herdt (iii, p. 79, § 4) ignore it. 

^ De Herdt, iii, p. 79, § 4, says the stole is white. It should be white, 
obviously. Except during- the Good Friday function the Sanctissimum 
is never carried in black vestments. Merati (tom. i, p. 298, § 5) says 
that the priest wears a surplice and stole — its colour not defined. The 
Mem. Rit.j Martinucci and Le Vavasseur g"ive no direction. 

^ "Cum ceve'is, " Me7n. Rit, Tit. V, cap. ii, § 5, no. i; presumably 
torches. 

* The Memoriale says the sacristy is " more fitting- " {ih.^ no. 5). 

° Mem. Rit., ib., no. 9. 



3i8 Ube Xtturotcal 18ear 

Ang-elus.^ Then the altar candles are extinguished, every- 
thing is put back in its place. 

;§ 9. THE FUNCTION WITH CHOIR 

If this simplest possible rite of Good Friday is to be amplified 
after the manner of a Missa Cantata, according to what is 
said above (pp. 261-264) ^ ^^^ following additions will be 
made. There will be a greater number of servers; a M.C., 
cross-bearer, thurifer (or two thurifers), two acolytes, two, 
four, or six torch-bearers for the procession. Men will be 
appointed to carry the canopy. 

The first and second lessons may be sung by lectors. The 
Passion will be read by the celebrant at the epistle side, as 
the Memoriale rituum describes, unless he goes to the middle 
to say the Munda cor meurti and sings the last part at the 
gospel side, as at Missa Cantata. 

All else may be sung. The celebrant will sing his part as 
when there are ministers ; the choir will sing the answers. 
Reproaches, and so on. Vespers may be recited after the 
Mass of the Presanctified. 

In some churches a ceremony is made of stripping the altar 
after vespers to-day, as on Maundy Thursday. 



§ 10. HOLY SATURDAY MORNING 

The Holy Saturday service, longest of any that is usually 
celebrated in a Catholic church, consists of five parts: i. The 
new Fire and Paschal Candle; 2. The Prophecies; 3. The 
Blessing of the Font and Baptism; 4. The Litanies; 5. The 
first Easter Mass and Vespers.^ 

The colour of the Praeconium Paschale and Mass is white, 
of all the rest purple. 

Preparation. — In the sacristy three amices, albs and 
girdles are laid outfor the celebrantand ministers, a purple stole 
and cope for the celebrant, the deacon's purple stole, folded 
purple chasubles for deacon and subdeacon,^ also white Mass 
vestments, with tunicle for the subdeacon, but not the deacon's 

^ Mem. Rit.y Tit. V, cap. ii, § 5, no. 7. 

^ Particularly in the case of Good Friday Le Vavasseur provides for 
considerable additions to the directions of the Mem. Rit.^ for singing- 
throughout (ii, p. 216, §§ 107, 11 1; p. 217, § 114; p. 219, § 121; p. 221, 
§ 129, etc.), for lectors (ii, p. 216, §§ 107, 109), for two thurifers, acolytes, 
torch-bearers (ii, p. 220, § 125). 

^ Cfr. Caer. Ep., Lib. II, caps, xxvii-xxviii ; Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, 
tit. X (torn, i, pp. 298-317); Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 234-254; Le 
Vavasseur, ii, pp. 105-126; De Herdt, iii, pp. 79-100; Van der Stappen, 
V, pp. 346-354; Wapelhorst, pp. 324-342. 

^ If these are used. 



Uribuum Sacrum 319 

stole and dalmatic. The thurible is ready here, also the vessel 
of holy water and sprinkler, the five grains of incense ^ on a 
plate, the processional cross. If the church has no font the 
acolytes' candles (bleached) are in the sacristy till Mass. 

Outside the door of the church or, if necessary, 
in the porch, a fire is prepared. This is lit, just before the 
ceremony begins, with a spark struck from a flint ; near the 
iire are tongs and charcoal to be lighted from the fire and 
then put in the thurible. Near at hand (sometimes inside the 
porch) is a table covered with a white cloth ; on this are a 
white dalmatic, maniple and stole for the deacon, a missal 
covered with purple, a taper and splinter of wood or paper spill. 
By the side of this table is the reed holding the triple candle. 

The high altar is vested in the best white frontal, which 
is then covered with a purple one. The tabernacle is hung 
with the white curtains inside, but they are drawn back. It 
is left open and empty. It may have the white tabernacle veil 
drawn back so as not to be seen, or this may be added when 
the altar is prepared for Mass. The altar is covered with 
three altar cloths, as usual. The altar cross is unveiled. There 
are six altar candles of bleached wax, not lit, and a missal at 
the epistle corner. In front of the altar the carpet used on 
feasts is spread, then covered with a purple one. Or the foot- 
pace and steps may be left bare till the Mass." 

Near the altar on the gospel side is the paschal candle 
in its candlestick, not lighted. By its side, turned in the 
direction in which the gospel is sung, is a lectern covered 
with white or gold.^ A foot or stand in which to put the reed 
with the triple candle is at hand, and (if necessary) steps by 
which the deacon may reach the Paschal candle when he 
lights it. 

The credence table is covered entirely with a white 
cloth. On it are placed all things necessary for a festal 
High Mass with white vestments, also the book containing 
the Exsultet chant,* covered with white, the altar cards, and 
over all a purple veil." If the church has a font, the acolytes' 
candles are on the credence table, not lighted. Near the 

■' The grains of incense are now g-enerally enclosed in little wooden or 
metal cases, having spikes which can be stuck into the candle, like large 
nails with spaces in the head where the incense is put. It is quite pos- 
sible, however, to stick several incense grains together, by warming 
them, so as to make one larger grain. Five such larger grains may be 
made. By warming them again they can be stuck to the candle. Le 
Vavasseur (ii, p. io6, n. i) supposes this method. 

^ If, as is usual, further ornaments, vases of flowers (see p. 342, n. 2), 
and so on, will be used on the altar at the first Easter Mass, these should 
be prepared beforehand in the sacristy or other convenient place, from 
which they will be brought during the litanies. 

^ Caer. Ep., Lib. II, cap. xxvii, § i. 

* This will generally be a missal. 

* Which may be a humeral veil. 



320 Ube Xitur^ical 13ear 

credence table are three purple cushions, to be used when the 
Litanies are sung, and a bare lectern for the Prophecies. 

The SEDILIA are vested as for feasts, and then covered 
again with purple. On them are the purple chasuble and 
maniple for the celebrant, the maniples for the ministers, the 
subdeacon's biretta. 

The FONT (if there is one) is emptied and cleaned the even- 
ing before. It is then filled with clear water. There should 
be flowers around or strewn on the ground.^ Near the font is 
a table covered with a white cloth, on which are the two holy 
oil stocks containing Chrism and the oil of catechumens, an 
empty vessel for holy water and the sprinkler, a vessel to 
take the water from the font and pour into this one, a purple 
stole for the priest who will sprinkle the people," a jug of 
water and basin for washing hands, bread and cotton wool on 
a plate, two towels, a large vessel in which to pour and keep 
baptism water, used as holy water at Easter,^ a book contain- 
ing the rite,^ covered with purple. If baptism is to be adminis- 
tered after the blessing of the font, there will be needed, 
further, the salt, a ritual, the shell used to pour the water 
over the child, a towel to dry the child, a white stole and 
cope, the white robe and candle given after baptism. The 
candle will be lit, when the time comes, from the Paschal 
candle. A taper may be provided for this purpose. 

If the Blessed Sacrament is reserved in the sacristy or a 
side chapel, everything is prepared that it may be brought to 
the usual place at the end of the ceremony; namely, a white 
burse w^ith a corporal, the key, a white humeral veil, the 
canopy. 

The following persons take part in the ceremony : the cele- 
brant, deacon and subdeacon,'an M.C., thurifer, two acolytes, 
at least two other servers at the blessing of the font,"^ torch- 
bearers during the Mass at the end. The choir attends through- 
out. 

The function begins after none. 

The New Fire and Paschal Candle. — The celebrant, 
ministers and servers vest during none. The celebrant wears 

^ Merati, i, p. 300, § 2 ; Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, p. 236, §11; Le 
Vavasseur, ii, p. 107, § 369. 

'^ If needed. See p. 330. ^ See pp. 330, 346. 

* Usually a missal. 

^ The same deacon must serve throug-hout the function (S.R.C., 
12 November 1831, no. 2684, ad Mil; 22 iul. 1848, no, 2965, ad III). 
There is only one subdeacon (S.R.C., 13 February 1892, no. 3767, ad 
XXX). But it is tolerated that another priest bless the fire and grains of 
incense, if such is the custom (S.R.C., 12 November 183 1, no. 2684, ad 
VIII). In this case he must do so privately, without ministers, according 
to the form of the Me^n. Rit. 

^ They may be those who will serve as torch-bearers. It will be more 
convenient to have four. They will also be needed to prepare the altar 
for Mass. 



XTrtbuum Sacrum 321 

purple stole and cope, the ministers folded chasubles/ the 
deacon his stole. They do not wear maniples. 

The procession comes from the sacristy and goes to the 
place where the fire has been lit. Three servers walk in front, 
namely, the first acolyte in the middle carrying* the holy water 
and sprinkler, at his right the thurifer carrying the thurible 
(quite empty) and the incense boat with incense in it, on the 
left the second acolyte holding the plate with the five grains 
of incense. Behind them comes the subdeacon holding the 
cross. He walks alone. Then the choir and clergy who assist, 




4 




y- 



Pbable 



V 




/ 



£1 # TIT M 

FIG. 40. HOLY SATURDAY : BLESSING THE FIRE 
(The ministers wear folded chasubles) 



lastly the celebrant, having the deacon at his left, both wear- 
ing the biretta, with hands joined. The M.C. walks at the 
celebrant's right. If they pass the High Altar, all in passing 
genuflect, except the subdeacon, who has the cross, and the 
celebrant, who uncovers and bows. At the entrance of the 
church, or wherever the fire may be, they stand around it. The 
subdeacon holds the cross with his back to the door (or to 
the High Altar). The first acolyte puts the holy water stoup 
on the table, takes and opens the missal. On the other side 
of the fire the celebrant faces the cross, having the deacon at 
his right and the first acolyte at his left, who holds the book 

^ If these are used. 
Y 



322 XTbe Xtturoical 19ear 

open. The M.C. stands near the deacon, the second acolyte 
(with the grains of incense) and thurifer behind the M.C. 

The celebrant and deacon take off their birettas, which they 
give to the M.C. to put aside for the time. The celebrant 
■s ing s --(in the- (er'wA -tofte) Domimis vohiscuni and the three 
collects appointed in the missal for the blessing of the fire. 
To each the choir answers Amen. During the first two of 
these collects he makes the sign of the cross over the fire at 
the points marked ; the deacon holds back the end of his cope. 
The deacon does this each time the celebrant blesses, sprinkles, 
or incenses the fire. The acolyte who holds the grains of in- 
cense stands with them before the celebrant ; he blesses the 
grains. While he does so, the thurifer takes some burning 
charcoal from the fire, and puts it in the thurible, using the 
tongs. ^ When the prayer for blessing the grains of incense 
is finished, the first acolyte shuts the book, puts it back on 
the table, and takes the holy water and sprinkler. The cele- 
brant puts incense into the thurible, the deacon assisting 
(with the solita oscula). The M.C. holds the end of the cope. 
The deacon hands the sprinkler (with the solita oscula again), 
the celebrant sprinkles the fire and grains, saying Asperges 
me, etc., without the psalm. He incenses the fire with three 
double swings. Then he incenses the grains of incense in the 
same way, saying nothing. 

The first acolyte puts the holy water on the table. The 
deacon goes there, bowing first to the celebrant. Here, assisted 
by the first acolyte and M.C, he takes off" the purple chasuble 
and stole and puts on the white maniple, stole and dalmatic. 
He comes back to the celebrant's right. The first acolyte 
lights a taper with the wood or paper at the fire. 

The celebrant again puts incense into the thurible and 
blesses it, as usual. The deacon takes the reed with the triple 
candle in both hands. The M.C. hands his biretta to the cele- 
brant. The procession is formed, in this order: first, the 
thurifer with the second acolyte at his right holding the plate 
w^th grains of incense; the subdeacon with the cross, the 
choir and clergy, the deacon holding the reed, with the first 
acolyte at his left holding the lighted taper; the celebrant, with 
joined hands and covered, having the M.C. at his left. 

While the procession goes to the altar, a server carries the 
deacon's biretta, purple stole and chasuble to the sedilia. The 
table, with all on it, is taken away (to the sacristy) ; the holy 
water used for the fire poured into the sacrarium. 

^ The most convenient arrangement is thus : The lire will be probably 
not of charcoal, but of wood or coal. Most churches possess a little wire 
basket with a long- handle for lighting- charcoal. The thurifer puts char- 
coal in this and lays the basket over the fire before the blessing- beg-ins. 
The charcoal in it takes fire and is blessed with the rest. The thurifer 
lifts the basket from the fire and empties its charcoal into the thurible. 



Uribuum Sacrum 3^3 

As soon as the celebrant is inside the church, the procession 
waits, at a sign from the M.C. The deacon Hg-hts one of the 
three wicks of the triple candle from the taper held at his side 
by the first acolyte. He lowers the reed to do so. Then he 
holds the reed erect and genuflects. All genuflect with him, 
except the subdeacon who has the cross. The celebrant takes 































#1? 




M 




n. 



J. 



FIG. 41. HOLY SATURDAY: BEFORE BLESSING THE PASCHAL CANDLE 



off his biretta and genuflects. Genuflecting the deacon sings 
Lumen Christie to the notes given in the missal. He must 
sing this at a low pitch, since he will sing it again twice, each 
time higher. The choir, at the same pitch, answers Deo 
gratias. All rise and the procession goes forward. At the 
middle of the church the same ceremony is repeated ; the 
deacon lights the second wick and sings at a higher pitch. 
The procession goes forward. When it arrives in the sanctu- 



324 TLbc Xiturgtcal l^ear 

ary before the altar the deacon lights the third wick, sings 
again the same words yet higher/ all genuflect as before. 

Before the altar the thurifer goes to stand at the gospel 
side, the second acolyte with the grains of incense at the 
epistle side. The subdeacon with the cross stands at the side 




of the thurifer. The first acolyte puts out the taper, hands 
it to the M.C. (who lays it on the credence table), takes the 
reed with the triple candle from the deacon, and stands at 
the side of the second acolyte. The deacon comes to the 
right of the celebrant at the foot of the altar steps ; he takes 

^ Each time he sings on one note, dropping a minor third on the last 
syllable (do-la). He may rise a minor third each time: E-CJt, G-E, Bt'-G. 



XTrt^uum Sacrum 325 

his biretta (solita oscula) and hands it to the M.C. who lays 
it aside. The group at this moment is formed as fig. 41. 

All g"enuflect, except the celebrant, cross-bearer and acolyte 
holding the reed. The celebrant goes up to the altar and 
kisses it.^ The deacon remains below. The M.C. brings the 
book containing the Exsultet to the deacon. 

The deacon, holding the book, goes up to the celebrant, 
kneels on the foot-pace, turning towards him, and says lube 
donine benedicere. The celebrant turns to him and gives the 
blessing, as in the missal. The form is the same as for the 
gospel, except that he says suuni paschale praeconiiwi, instead 
of evangeliinn simrn. He makes the sign of the cross over the 
deacon, lays his hand on the book; the deacon kisses it.' 

The deacon comes down the steps and stands in the middle 
between the subdeacon and first acolyte. All genuflect, except 
the subdeacon and first acolyte who holds the reed. All go to 
the lectern. Each turns and goes straight to his place, as 
marked here at fig. 42. 

The deacon stands in the middle, facing the lectern. At his 
right is the subdeacon with the cross, then the thurifer. At 
his left are the first acolyte with the reed, then the second 
acolyte with the grains of incense. The M.C. stands behind 
the deacon at his right. All face the lectern. Meanwhile the 
celebrant has gone to the epistle side of the altar and faces 
the deacon. The subdeacon turns the cross, so that it may 
face the celebrant. The deacon puts the book on the lectern, 
opens it and incenses it, as at the gospel. 

Then he begins to sing the Praeconium paschale, with 
hands joined. As soon as he begins the celebrant turns to 
face him and all stand. The thurifer takes away the thurible 
and comes back with hands joined. During the chant the 
M.C. turns the pages. When the deacon has sung the words 
curvat imperia he stops. He takes the grains of incense, goes 
to the candle, accompanied by the M.C. and the acolyte who 
held them. He fixes the grains in the candle, in the direction 
of the celebrant, in the form of a cross, thus: 

I 

425 

-^ 

He comes back to the lectern and continues the chant. 
The second acolyte puts the dish w^hich contained the grains 
on the credence table ; takes the taper there and comes back. 
The taper is not alight. When the deacon has sung rntilans 
Ignis accendit, he stops again, takes the triple candle from 

' The rubric of the missal says he goes to the epistle corner. But see 
Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, ii, p. 241, § 39; Le Vavasseur, ii, 114, § 390. 

■^ See Martinucci, I, ii, p. 242, § 40; Le\'avasseur, ii, p. 114, n. 1. The 
missal says that the deacon receives the celebrant's blessing " as is done 
at the Gospel " (rubr.). This includes kissing- his hand. 



326 Ube XttutGtcal 13ear 

the first acolyte, and with one of the wicks or a taper from 
one lights the paschal candle/ 

He comes back to the lectern and continues. The acolyte 
fixes the triple candle in the base provided for it, and comes 
back to his place. When the deacon has sung apis mater 
eduxit^ he pauses; the second acolyte lights the taper at the 
triple candle and goes to light all the lamps in the church, 
beginning with those before the High Altar. Meanwhile the 
choir and clergy may sit, rising again as soon as the deacon 
continues. When the lamp or lamps before the High Altar 
are lit, the deacon continues and sings to the end. If the 
Holy See is vacant, he leaves out the clause for the Pope. If 
the see of the place is vacant, he leaves out that for the bishop. 
Otherwise the name of the local Ordinary is to be inserted by 
everyone, even by exempt Regulars. All the clause about the 
Emperor, beginning Respice etiam ad devotissimum impera- 
torem 7tostru77i, to ctirn onini popiilo stw, is now always omitted. 
After the clause for the bishop the deacon goes on at once to 
the end, Pereundeni Dominum nostrum^ etc. The choir answers 
Amen. 

As soon as the Praeconium paschale is ended, all in choir 
and church sit. The deacon closes the book and leaves it on 
the lectern. The subdeacon hands the processional cross to 
the thurifer, who takes it to the place where it is laid aside, near 
the credence table. The deacon and subdeacon, with the two 
acolytes and M.C., come to the middle, genuflect before the 
altar, and ^o to the sedilia. The celebrant goes there by the 
shortest way. 

Here the celebrant takes off the cope and puts on purple 
maniple and chasuble, the deacon takes off" the white vest- 
ments. He puts on a purple stole; both ministers put on 
purple maniples (and folded chasubles). A server takes the 
white vestments to the sacristy ; also the purple cope, if the 
church has no font. 

The Prophecies. — The celebrant and ministers ^q> to the 
middle and so to the epistle corner of the altar, and stand 
there, as at the introit of Mass (see fig. 7, p. 126). Meanwhile, 
if necessary, the lectern for the prophecies is placed in the 
middle of the choir. The lector who reads the first prophecy 
comes to it, accompanied by the M.C. or an acolyte. He genu- 
flects to the altar, bows to the choir on either side, and chants 
the prophecy, to the tone appointed, resting his hands on the 
lectern or book. The server who accompanied him stands at 
his left, a little behind him, holding his biretta. While he 
chants the celebrant reads the prophecy in a low voice with 
hands on the book. When he has finished he may %o to sit 
at the sedilia, with the ministers. After the chanted prophecy 

* He may have to use steps. If so a server or the M.C. must put them 
in place. The M.C. may take down the candle to be lighted. 



'C:nt)uum Sacrum 327 

the ministers stand in line behind the celebrant, as at the 
collects of Mass. The celebrant, bowing towards the altar 
cross, sings Oremiis\ the deacon genuflects as he sings 
Flectavius genua. All do so with him, except the celebrant. 

The subdeacon rising sings Levate. All rise and stand 
while the celebrant sings the collect with hands extended. 
Each of the twelve prophecies is sung in the same way. After 
the fourth, eighth and eleventh the choir sings the tract. 
Meanwhile all may sit. After the twelfth, Flectamus gemca is 
not said and no one genuflects. The members of the choir 
and all in church sit during the prophecies, stand as soon as 
the ministers are in line behind the celebrant, genuflect at 
Flectamus genua, stand during the collect. 

It is forbidden to leave out the prophecies. All must be 
sung entire. It is forbidden for the lector to sing only a part 
of each and to stop when the celebrant has read the whole. ^ 

If there are not twelve lectors the same person may sing 
several prophecies. It is better that he should not sing two 
consecutively. The lectors follow in order of rank, beginning 
with those of lower rank. 

The Blessing of the Font. — If the church has no font, the 
whole of this part is omitted. The ceremony continues at once 
with the litanies. 

If there are children to be baptized, the first part of the 
baptism rite should be carried out before the font is blessed. 
In this case, another priest or deacon may do so during the 
prophecies. He wears a surplice and purple stole. At the 
baptistery he begins the baptism rite up to the end of the 
anointing with oil of catechumens, to the moment where he 
would change the stole from purple to white. The celebrant 
himself may do this, before he proceeds to bless the font, 
after the prayer at the entrance of the baptistery." 

Towards the end of the twelfth prophecy the acolytes light 
their candles at the credence table. Another server, who may 
be the thurifer, takes the Paschal candle from its candlestick. 
Another takes the processional cross. ^ After the prophecy the 
lectern is removed from the middle of the choir. 

The server who carries the Paschal candle stands at the 
entrance of the choir. In front of him, as they face the altar, 
are the cross-bearer and acolytes with their candles. 

The celebrant and ministers go to the seats and take off" 
their maniples. The celebrant also takes ofl^ the chasuble and 
puts on a purple cope. The procession goes to the baptistery. 
The Paschal candle is borne first, then the cross between the 
acolytes, then the choir and clergy, the M.C., the celebrant 
between the ministers who hold the ends of the cope. 

^ S.R.C., 12 April 1765, no. 2436, ad W ; 14 March 1861, no. 3i04» 
ad VIII. 

' Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 117, § 402. ^ In this case, not the subdeacon. 



328 xibe XiturGical l^ear 

All genuflect to the altar before setting out, except the 
celebrant, cross-bearer and acolytes/ On the way to the font 
the tract Stent cervus is sung. The celebrant and ministers 
wear their birettas. 

At the baptistery, at first, the cross-bearer and acolytes stay 
outside and turn towards the celebrant. The choir also stay 
outside in two lines. The celebrant and ministers uncover and 
hand their birettas to the M.C. The celebrant, between the 
ministers, at the entrance of the baptistery, standing with 
joined hands, sings Dmnimis vobiscuni and the first collect 



f 




table 




.1 



FIG. 43. HOLY SATURDAY : BLESSING THE FONT 

(The ministers wear folded chasubles) 



appointed in the missal, to the ferial tone. A server holds the 
missal open before him. Then the bearer of the candle, the 
cross-bearer and acolytes go into the baptistery. The choir 
and clergy follow them, if there is room there. The celebrant 
and ministers enter last. The cross-bearer and acolytes should 
stand opposite the celebrant, facing him, on the other side of 
the font. The cross is turned towards him. The celebrant 
stands before the font, having the deacon at his right and the 
subdeacon at his left. At the right of the deacon is the server 
who holds the Paschal candle. The M.C. stands at the left of 
the subdeacon. The server holds the missal before the cele- 

' See p. 22. 



Uribuuin Sacrum 329 

brant, at his left, in front of the subdeacon. The clergy stand 
in line at another side of the font. 

The celebrant, with joined hands, sings DoTninus vobiscinn 
and the collect, in the ferial tone. The M.C. puts down the 
birettas and holds a towel. 

The last sentence of the prayer. Per omjiia saecula saecu- 
loruTfiy is sung to the tone of the preface. The preface follows, 
in ferial tone, sung with joined hands. After the words gratiam 
de Spirihi sancto, the celebrant pauses, and makes the sign of 
the cross in the water. He holds the right hand stretched out, 
with fingers joined, and so traces a cross in the water. The 
deacon takes the towel from the M.C. and hands it to him to 
dry his hand. He continues to sing. After the words in- 
ficiendo corrumpat he lays the right hand on the surface of 
the water, then dries it, as before. He makes the sign of the 
cross thrice over the water (not touching it), as he sings per 
Deuni + vivum^ per Deiim + veruTUy per Deurn + sanctum. After 
cuius Spiritus super te ferehatur he casts a little water to the 
four points of the compass. He does so with the right hand 
extended, first towards the east, in this way : 

I 

3 4 
2 

The ministers stand aside, that the water may not fall on 
them. The celebrant dries his hand as before. As he sings 
Bene + dico te he again signs the cross over the water, not 
touching it. After in 7ioniine Patris et Filii et Spiritus sancti 
he changes the tone and continues on one note, as when sing- 
ing a lesson. After tu benignus aspira he breathes thrice over 
the water in the form of a cross. After purificandis inentibus 
efficaceSy he takes the Paschal candle from the deacon (who 
has taken it from the server). Singing again in the preface 
tone he plunges the lower end of the candle a little into the 
water, as he sings Descendat in hanc plenitudijiernfontis virtus 
Spiritus sancti. He takes out the candle, plunges it again a little 
deeper and sings the same words in a higher pitch. He takes 
out the candle and plunges it in deeper still, singing again the 
third time, still higher. Holding the candle in the water he 
breathes three times on the water in the form of the Greek 
letter T^, then continues : Totarnque huius aquae substantiani 
regerierandi foecinidet effectu. Then he takes the candle from 
the water, hands it to the deacon, who gives it to the server. 
The server dries the end with a towel. The celebrant continues 
in the tone of the preface to the words iiovatn infajitiam renas- 
catur. Then he lowers the voice and ends Per Dominuin 710s- 
trum, etc., on one note. The choir 3.r\s\vQr Amen on the same 
note. Each time that the celebrant performs any action the 
ministers raise the ends of the cope. 



330 Ube XlturGical 13ear 

The celebrant and ministers stand away from the font. 
Another priest in a purple stole (handed to him at this mo- 
ment by the M.C.), or the celebrant himself, now sprinkles 
the people with the baptism water. A server first fills the 
portable holy water stoup with water from the font. The 
celebrant receives the baptism water first. If another priest 
assists, he comes to the celebrant and hands him the 
sprinkler, bowing and with the solita oscula. The celebrant 
makes the sign of the cross on his forehead with the water, 
sprinkles the priest and ministers, then hands him the sprink- 
ler. The priest sprinkles the choir and clergy, then goes 
round the church, sprinkling the people, accompanied by a 
server who holds the stoup. Meanwhile the celebrant and 
ministers may sit, and put on their birettas. The priest who 
sprinkles the people comes back to the font, gives the vessel, 
sprinkler and stole to the M.C., who lays them aside; then 
goes to his place again as before. If there is no other priest 
to do this, the celebrant does so, after having taken the water 
himself. He is accompanied by the ministers, M.C. and a 
server holding the vessel. While the people are sprinkled, a 
server takes from the font some of the Vv^ater in a vessel and 
from this fills the holy water stoups in the church. 

A server takes the stocks of holy oils, stands at the right 
of the deacon and hands them to him. The celebrant, stand- 
ing at the font as before, pours a little of the oil of cate- 
chumens into the water in the form of a cross, saying aloud 
(not singing) : Sanctificetur et fecundetur^ etc. He hands the 
stock back to the deacon, who gives it to the server. In the 
same way he takes the chrism, pours a little in the form of a 
cross saying Infusio chrisniatis, etc. He takes both stocks 
and pours from both at once, saying the form Commixtio 
chrismatis salutis^ etc., making three crosses in the water as 
he says the last words, where crosses are marked in the mis- 
sal. He then mixes the oil and water together, stirring all 
round with the right hand extended. He wipes his hand on 
cotton wool, and then on the towel held for him by the deacon.^ 

If baptism is to be administered, it follows now. If the first 
part of the baptism rite has not yet been performed, the cele- 
brant proceeds with that ; ^ then changes to a white stole and 

^ The holy oils should be those blessed by the bishop the preceding 
Maundy Thursday. Rectors of churches are bound to procure these in 
time for this ceremony, if possible. If they have not done so, if they will 
have the new oils in a short time, and if no one will be baptized during 
this function, they may omit this part of the ceremony now. It will then 
be supplied later privately by a priest in surplice and purple stole (S. R.C., 
12 April 1755, no. 2436, ad III; 16 December 1826, no. 2650, ad III; 
31 ian. 1896, no. 3879). Otherwise, in case of necessity, the oils of the 
last year may be used (S.R.C., 23 September 1837, no. 2773, ad I; 19 Sept- 
ember 1859, no. 3092; 31 ian. 1896, no. 3879; Cod.^ c. 734). Baptism may 
not be administered with the water until the holy oils have been added. 

'^ But he should have done so before blessing the water. 



rri^uuni Sacrum 33' 

cope. If the first part has been done, he takes the white stole 
and cope at once, and goes on with the baptism, beginning at 
the question, A", credis in Deum Patrem omnipc>tentem crea- 
torem caeli et terrae. The Sacrament is administered, in ev*er>" 
way as usual, except that the ministers assist on either side, 
and hand what is wanted to the celebrant. If they have worn 
folded chasubles they keep them during" the baptism. The 
candle given after baptism is lighted at the Paschal candle. 
After baptizing, the celebrant and ministers put on the violet 
vestments again. Finally the celebrant washes his hands with 
bread and water. Servers hold the vessel, basin and towel, 
the ministers hold the ends oi the cope. 

While the font is being blessed, a sen.-er, or the sacristan, 
lays three purple cushions before the altar, on the edge oi the 
foot-pace, for the prostration during the litanies. A stool may 
be set in the middle of the choir, with a book from which the 
cantors will sing the litanies. If this would hinder the pro- 
cession returning, it should be placed there later. 

The Litanies. — The litanies should begin while the pro- 
cession returns to the altar." The procession comes back in 
the same order in which it went to the font. Meanwhile two 
cantors in surplices, walking im.mediately behind the cross, 
sing each petition. The whole petition is repeated by the choir. 
Before the altar all genuflect, except the cross-bearer and 
acolytes,' separate to let the celebrant, ministers and servers 
pass, then kneel in their places. The ser\-er who carried the 
Paschal candle puts it back in its candlestick. The acohtes 
put their candles on the credence table, the cross-bearer puts 
the processional cross in its place. 

The celebrant, between the ministers, arrives before the altar; 
they genuflect, he bows. He ta.kes off the cope, they take off 
the folded chasubles, if they have worn them. The M.C. and 
acolytes, having come to their sides, take these vestments and 
carr\- them to the sacristy. The celebrant and ministers at his 
sides kneel on the lowest step, and prostrate, l>"ing on the 
steps with their arms and face downward on the cushions at 
the edge of the foot-pace. 

The two cantors kneel in the middle of the choir before the 
stool, if there is one there. The litanies continue, having 
gone on without interruption since the procession left the bap- 
tistery. 

If the church has no font, the litanies follow at once after 

^ There has been considerable discussion about this. The rubric of the 
missal says: •' Revertentibus sacerdote et ministris ad altare cantantur 
litaniae." But the Caer. Ep.. Lib. II, cap. xx\-ii. § 19, says the litanies are 
not begTjn till the bishop has come back to the faldstooL The question is 
now settled by the S.R.C., 7 September 1S61, no. 310S. ad X, which de- 
termines that, in the absence oi the bishop, the rubric of the missal is to 
be obeyed. 

- See p. 22. 



332 Ube Xituroical 13ear 

the prophecies. In this case a server lays the cushions on the 
edg-e of the foot-pace during^ the last prophecy; when the 
prophecy is over, the lectern is taken away from the middle 
and a stool with a book containing the text of the litanies is 
put in its place. The celebrant and ministers, at the end of 
the last collect, go to the sedilia and there take off chasubles 
and maniples; they come to the altar and prostrate there. 
Two cantors kneel at the stool and begin the litanies. 

When the cantors arrive at the petition, Peccntores te roga- 
tnus audi noSy the celebrant and ministers rise. The M.C. and 
servers rise with them. All make the usual reverence to the 
altar, and go to the sacristy, not bowing to the choir. ^ The 
celebrant and ministers walk one behind the other, wearing- 
birettas. The acolytes do not carry candles. If the font has 
been blessed, their candles remain on the credence table ; if 
not, they will find them and light them in the sacristy. 

If the sacristy is very far away, the celebrant and ministers 
may go to the sedilia to vest for Mass. In this case the white 
vestments must be brought there beforehand." 

As soon as they are in the sacristy, servers prepare the altar 
for the Mass. They take off the violet frontal, so as to show 
the white one under it. They take away the cushions and 
purple carpet, if there is one. If there has been no carpet, 
they now lay down one adorned as for the greatest feasts. 
They put on the altar the missal covered with white, and the 
altar cards. They decorate the altar as for the chief feast of 
the year. According to the Caerimoniale episcoporum and the 
Memoriale rituum this means that they put vases of flowers 
between the candles.^ They light the six candles on the altar. 
All purple coverings in the sanctuary are taken away. Mean- 
while, in the sacristy, the celebrant and ministers vest for 
High Mass, in white, assisted by the M.C. and acolytes. 

The first Easter Mass and Vespers. — i\s the cantors 
sing the petition Agnus Dei^ etc. , the procession comes from 
the sacristy. The acolytes come first. ^ If their candles were 
in the sacristy they carry them lighted ; if not, their hands 
are joined. The M.C. follows, then the subdeacon, deacon 
and celebrant, one behind the other, wearing birettas. They 
uncover at the entrance of the choir, but do not bow to the 
members of the choir, since these kneel. They should arrive 
before the altar as the petition Christe audi nos is sung. 

As soon as the choir has answered Christe exaudi nos they 
rise and sing the Kyrie eleison^ as at High Mass. The two 
cantors go back to their place. The celebrant and ministers 
make the usual reverence to the altar and beefin Mass. The 



't>' 



* Because the choir kneels. See p. 23. 
^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 123, § 417. 

^ Caer. Ep.^ Lib. I, cap. xii, § 12; Mem. Rit., Tit. VI, cap. ii, § 6, n. 5. 

* Or the thurifer may lead the procession with the thurible. 



Uribuum Sacrum 333 

psalm hidica vie is said, with the verses Gloria Patri and 
Siciit erat. They go up to the altar and incense it, as at every 
High Mass. The thurifer must bring the thurible in time for 
this, unless he has brought it at the head of the procession 
before Mass. The celebrant, at the epistle corner, says the 
Kyrie eleison with the ministers. He comes to the middle and 
intones Gloria in excelsis Deo. 

The sanctuary bell and church bells are rung.' The organ 
is played as long as the celebrant is saying the Gloria at the 
altar. All the purple veils over pictures and statues in the 
church and sacristy are taken down. The choir begins the 
Gloria as soon as the celebrant has said it and has gone to 
sit at the sedilia. It is accompanied. From now the organ 
is played throughout Mass, as on feasts. 

High Mass proceeds as usual, with the following notable 
exceptions : When the celebrant has read the epistle he does 
not go on at once to read the gradual. He waits till he has 
blessed the subdeacon after the chanted epistle. Then, at the 
epistle corner, he sings Alleluia thrice, to the tone in the 
missal, with hands joined, raising the pitch of his voice each 
time. The choir answers, repeating Alleluia at the same 
pitch. The celebrant reads, and they sing the gradual and 
tract. 

At the gospel the acolytes stand on either side of the sub- 
deacon or lectern, in their usual place, but do not hold 
candles. The creed is not said. The celebrant sings Doniiinis 
vobiscum and Orenius at the offertory as usual, but the offer- 
tory chant is not sung. The organ is played to the beginning 
of the preface. If the Sanctissimum is reserved at the High 
Altar a ciborium with particles and the pyx with the Host 
for Benediction are brought up at the oflfertor}'. They are 
consecrated at this Mass and put in the tabernacle by the 
deacon after the Communion.^ 

The Easter preface is sung, with the clause in hac potissinium 
node, as noted in the missal. The Paschal form of the Co7n- 
niunicantes prayer is said, again with the form nocteni sacra- 
tisshnam celehrantes. The Paschal form of the Hanc igitur 
prayer is said. The Agnus Dei is not said. The kiss of peace 
is not given, so the subdeacon does not then go up to the 
altar. After the celebrant has put the consecrated particle 
into the chalice the deacon covers it. Both genuflect; the 
celebrant says the three usual prayers before his Communion. 
Then the deacon genuflects and the subdeacon with him, but 
at the foot of the steps. The deacon goes to the left of the 

- They are rung as long" as the celebrant says the '"Gloria." The 
church bells may be still rung while the choir sings the " Gloria.'" 

- This is, strictly, only necessary if there will be Communion of the 
people during Mass. After Mass the Sanctissimum will be brought back 
to the tabernacle. 



334 'G^be Xiturgical 13ear 

celebrant, the subdeacon comes up to his right. Both again 
genuflect on arriving. Holy Communion may be distributed 
to the faithful at this Mass.^ 

As soon as the Communion of priest and people is over the 
choir sit. Instead of the Communion antiphon the cantors 
begin vespers, intoning the antiphon Alleltna, alleluia, alle- 
luia. It is continued by the choir. The cantors intone the 
first verse of the psalm Laudate Domimuii oinnes gentes. This 
is sung, as usual, with Gloria Patri, etc. ; the antiphon is 
repeated. 

The thurifer must bring the thurible from the sacristy in 
time for the incensing at the Magnificat, which will now 
occur. 

While the choir sings the psalm, the celebrant, at the 
epistle corner, says it, with the antiphon, alternately with the 
ministers. They stand as at the introit. With joined hands 
the celebrant then intones the antiphon Vespere auteni sabbati. 
The melody is in the missal. The choir continue it, while the 
celebrant and ministers recite it in a low voice. Then two 
cantors intone the Magnificat. The celebrant makes the sign 
of the cross and goes to the middle, with the ministers, who 
stand at his sides. The thurifer comes up, incense is put on 
and blessed, the altar is incensed as usual. While he incenses, 
the celebrant recites the Magnificat alternately with the minis- 
ters. At the end of the incensing the deacon, having the sub- 
deacon at his left, incenses the celebrant, who stands at the 
epistle corner, as at Mass. The deacon, accompanied by the 
thurifer at his left, incenses the choir as usual. Meanwhile 
the subdeacon goes to the epistle corner and stands at his 
place for the introit. When he has incensed the choir the 
deacon incenses the subdeacon, from about the middle of the 
sanctuary. The subdeacon turns towards him. The deacon 
then goes to his place, as at the introit, and is incensed by 
the thurifer, to whom he has handed the thurible after having 
incensed the subdeacon. The thurifer incenses the servers 
and people. When the antiphon after the Magnificat has 
been sung the celebrant goes to the middle, the ministers ^o 
behind him and stand there in line. He sings Dominus vobis- 
cuniy then, at the epistle corner, the prayer Spirittini nobis 
Domine tuae caritatis infunde, etc., which prayer serves as 
both post-communion of Mass and collect of vespers. 

Mass ends as usual, except that at the verse Ite inissa est 
and at its response Alleluia is added twice, to the tone pro- 
vided in the missal. 

After Mass the Sanctissimum is brought back to the taber- 
nacle. The reed with the triple candle is taken away. 

Holy Communion may be distributed after Mass. 

1 Cod.,c. 867, §3. 



Urtbuum Sacrum 335 

§ II. HOLY SATURDAY IN SMALL CHURCHES 

The function consists of five parts: i. The New Fire and 
Paschal Candle; 2. The Prophecies; 3. The Blessing of the 
Font and Baptism ; 4. The Litanies ; 5. The First Easter 
Mass and Vespers/ 

Preparation. — Outside the main door of the church, or (if 
necessary) in the porch, a table is set covered with a white 
cloth. On it are placed a small book-stand (as used on the 
altar) with a missal open at the beginning of the blessing 
of the fire ; also a dish, if possible of silver, with the five 
grains of incense, an empty thurible and the incense-boat 
with incense, a portable holy water stoup with holy water 
and a sprinkler; a white maniple, stole and dalmatic, a lantern 
with a candle, a taper. Near this table is a small fire, lit 
just before the ceremony from a flint, in some convenient 
vessel, tongs to take charcoal for the thurible, the reed with 
triple candle. 

The High Altar is prepared, with the cross unveiled, six 
candles of bleached wax, and the missal at the epistle corner. 
It has a white frontal and over this a purple one. On the 
gospel side of the sanctuary is the Paschal candle in a candle- 
stick, in front of it a lectern covered with white for the Prae- 
conium paschale, a foot or stand in which to place the reed 
with the triple candle, if necessary steps by which the cele- 
brant may reach the Paschal candle, to put in the grains of 
incense and to light it. The sanctuary lamp and other lamps 
in the church are ready to be lit. 

The credence table is covered with a white cloth. On it are 
a missal (or other book) for the Praeconium paschale, the 
chalice arranged for Mass, with white veil and burse, the 
cruets, dish and towel, a taper, the altar cards and bell. 

In the sacristy the surplices are laid out ready for the four 
servers, also amice, alb, girdle, purple stole and cope, purple 
maniple, stole and chasuble," a white maniple, stole and 
chasuble, a white humeral veil, canopy and torches for the 
carrying of the Blessed Sacrament back to the altar at the 
end, the processional cross. ^ 

If there is a baptistery and font, a table is prepared there 
and covered with a white cloth; on it are two towels, a port- 
able empty holy water stoup ^ and sprinkler, vessels to take 

^ Mem. Rit.^ Tit. VI; cfr. Martinucci-Meng-hini, I, ii, pp. 379-389; Le 
Vavasseur, ii, pp. 224-235. 

^ Unless these are at the credence table or sedile. 

^ If the g"rains of incense, thurible and holy water are to be carried by 
the servers on the way to the fire these will be prepared in the sacristy, 
not at the table by the door. 

* If the church possesses only one portable stoup, it is used first for 
the fire, emptied into the sacrarium during the procession up the church, 
taken to the baptistery and used ag'ain for baptism water. 



336 XTbe Xituraical 13ear 

some of the water from the font, the stocks containing oil of 
catechumens and chrism, a basin and water with bread on a 
plate, to wash the celebrant's hands, a plate with cotton wool. 
If baptism is to be administered, a copy of the ritual will be 
required, further a white stole and cope, a towel to dry the 
child, the white robe and candle given after baptism. 

In this case even the Memoriale rituum cannot arrange the 
ceremony with three servers only. Four are required, besides 
the celebrant. 

The New Fire and Paschal Candle. — Before the service 
begins the fire is lit outside the church with a flint. The four 
servers vest in cassock and surplice in the sacristy; the cele- 
brant vests there in amice, alb, girdle, purple stole and cope. 

The procession goes to the place of the new fire in this 
order: first the first server with hands joined, then the third 
server bearing the processional cross, the celebrant wearing 
the biretta between the second and fourth servers, who hold 
the ends of his cope. If they pass before the High Altar, all 
genuflect, except the celebrant who uncovers and bows. At 
the door of the church the cross-bearer stands with his back to 
it (or to the altar, if this ceremony takes place in the porch). 
In front of him is the table. The celebrant stands on the 
other side of this table, with the fire at hand. The cross is 
held so as to face him. The second and fourth servers are at 
his sides. 

Standing so the celebrant says Domimcs vobisctiniy and, 
reading from the missal on the table, the three prayers for 
blessing the fire, then the fourth prayer for blessing the grains 
of incense (which are on the table). When he makes the sign 
of the cross, the second server, at his right, raises the end of 
the cope. The servers answer these and all prayers during 
the whole ceremony. 

While he blesses the grains of incense the first server, who 
now becomes thurifer, takes coals from the fire with tongs ^ 
and puts them into the thurible. The celebrant puts incense 
on and blesses it as usual, the second server assisting, holding 
the boat and handing the spoon with the solita oscula. The 
fourth comes round to the priest's right and lifts the end 
of the cope. The celebrant sprinkles the fire and grains of 
incense, saying Asperges me Doininey etc. , not the psalm. He 
incenses the fire and grains with three double incensings, say- 
ing nothing. The thurifer puts more of the fire into the 
thurible.^ 

Assisted by the fourth server the celebrant now takes off 
the purple stole and cope and puts on the white maniple and 
the stole, as a deacon, from the left shoulder to under the 
right arm ; lastly the white dalmatic. Meanwhile the second 

^ See p. 322, n. i for one way of doing this. 
•^ Mem. Rit,, Tit. VI, cap. ii, § i, no. 10. 



X^^^uum Sacrum 337 

server takes light from the fire with the taper, lights the candle 
in the lantern and puts this on the table. The fourth takes the 
plate with the grains of incense. The celebrant puts incense 
into the thurible and blesses it again. Then he takes the reed 
with the triple candle. 

The procession enters the church in this order: first the 
thurifer and server with grains of incense, side by side, the 
thurifer to the left; next the cross-bearer, then the celebrant 
with the reed, having the second server carrying the lantern 
at his left. While this procession goes up the church someone ^ 
takes the purple vestments and the biretta to the sacristy or 
sedile. What remains of the holy water is poured into the 
sacrarium. 

As soon as the celebrant is within the church the procession 
pauses. He lights one wick of the triple candle from the candle 
in the lantern ; then holds the reed erect and genuflects. All 
genuflect with him, except the cross-bearer. He says aloud 
Lumen Christi, and rises. All rise while the servers answer 
Deo gratias. The procession goes forward. At the middle of 
the church it pauses again, and the celebrant lights the second 
wick of the triple candle; all is done as before, except that he 
raises his voice to say Ltimeii Christi.' The procession goes 
on till the celebrant arrives before the altar steps, '^ the others 
parting that he may pass. Here the third candle is lit in the 
same way, the celebrant lifting his voice still higher^ to say 
Lumen Christi. When they rise with the celebrant this third 
time, all stand in a straight line, with him in the middle, 
before the altar. The second server puts the lantern on the 
credence table and takes the missal. He hands this to the 
celebrant, who hands him in return the reed. The server 
holds the reed. The celebrant, with the book closed in his 
hands, kneels on the lowest altar step. He does not say 
Munda cor me2im.^ but only the prayer lube Doniirie bene- 
dicere. Dominus sit in corde meo et in labiis meis^ 2it digne et 
competenter annuntiem suum paschale praeconium. Amen. 
He rises and genuflects,^ as do all the others, except the cross- 
bearer and the server who holds the reed. All go to the lectern 

^ " Aliquis " says Martinucci (I, ii, p. 382, § 53). Here we have already 
a fifth server. 

^ Mem. Rit.^ Tit. VI, cap. ii, § i, no. 18: " modulatio vocis quae alta 
esse debet." Does this mean loud or hig-h in pitch? Le Vavasseur (ii, 
p. 228, § 157) says: " sur un ton plus eleve." If on this, and the other 
occasions of the same kind to-day, the celebrant chang^es his voice to 
three different pitches, he comes perilously near singing, and the ug-liest 
kind of singing possible, especially when the servers answer at the same 
pitch, or when he has a long- clause to say (as at the font). He had much 
better really sing", and have done with it. 

^ Mem. Rit.^ Tit. VI, cap. ii, § i, no. 19: "ante gradus altaris." 

* See note 2. 

* Mem. Rit., Tit. VI, cap. ii, § 2, no. 4. While he acts as deacon he 
g^enuflects to the altar. 



338 Ube Xiturgtcal Iffear 

before the Paschal candle and stand there in this order. The 
celebrant is in front of the lectern. At his right are the cross- 
bearer, then the thurifer; at his left the server holding" the 
reed, then the server with the grains of incense (fig. 44). 

All look in the same direction as the celebrant, facing the 
book. The processional cross is turned towards him. He 
places the book on the lectern and incenses it, as the gospel 
book is incensed at High Mass. All in church stand. The 
celebrant reads the Praeconium paschale "in a clear and 
cheerful voice." ^ The servers answer the versicles which 
occur in the Praeconium. When he has said et curvat im- 
perial he pauses and puts the five grains of incense into the 
candle, in this order: 

I 
425 

3 

The server who holds the dish assists. If necessary, the 
celebrant goes up the steps. Then the fourth server, who has 
held the grains of incense, goes to put the empty plate on the 
credence table and takes there a taper; then comes back to 
his place, as before. The celebrant continues to recite the 
Exsultet, When he has said rutilans ignis accendit^ he pauses 
again and lights the Paschal candle from the triple candle, 
assisted by the server who holds it. He continues. After the 
words apis mater eduxity he pauses, while the fourth server, 
lighting the taper from the triple candle, goes to light the 
lamps. He need only wait till the lamp or lamps before the 
High Altar are lit, if there are many in the church. He then 
continues the Exsultet to the end. If the Holy See is vacant, 
he omits the clause for the Pope ; if the local see is vacant, he 
omits that for the bishop. In any case he omits all the clause 
for the Emperor. After guhernare et conservare digneris he 
goes on at once to the end : Per euTndem Dom-inum nostrum^ 
etc. 

When he has finished the Praeconium the celebrant closes 
the book. The second server fixes the reed in the stand pro- 
vided for it near the Paschal candle, the third puts the cross 
aside on the epistle side of the sanctuary. 

The celebrant goes to the sacristy. In front of him walk 
first the thurifer and fourth server, side by side; then the 
second and third. All genuflect to the altar before going. In 
the sacristy the celebrant takes off the white vestments and 
puts on a purple maniple, stole and chasuble. Or he may 
change the vestments at the seat or credence table. In this 
case only the thurifer will leave the sanctuary to put away 
the thurible. The others assist the celebrant to change his 
vestments. 

^ Mem. Rit, Tit. VI, cap. ii, § 2, no. 6: "clara et hilari voce." 



XTri^uum Sacrum 339 

The Prophecies. — The celebrant comes back to the altar 
with the servers as before. He bows, the servers genuflect. 
He goes up, kisses the altar in the middle and stands at the 
epistle corner. Here he reads aloud the twelve prophecies, 
prayers and tracts, observing all the rubrics in the missal; 







* ^ * 




















H ^SceLdbront 

0^' 



FIG. 44. HOLY SATURDAY IN A SMALL CHURCH; 
PRAECONIVM PASCHALE 



that is, he genuflects each time as he says Flectamiis genua ; 
the servers answer Levate. All genuflect, then rise with the 
celebrant. The second and third servers stand at the epistle 
side before the lowest altar step, the other two before the 
credence. The celebrant reads the prophecies and tracts with 
hands on the book, the collects with hands stretched out. 
When the prophecies are finished, he goes to the credence 



340 Ube XtturGtcal Jijear 

table or sedile and takes off the purple chasuble and maniple. 
If the church has no font he comes back at once to the altar 
in alb and purple stole; the litanies begin. If there is a font 
he puts on the purple cope and sits awhile.^ 

The Blessing of the Font and Baptism. — If the church 
has a font, the first server takes the Paschal candle from its 
candlestick and comes to stand with it before the altar. The 
third takes the processional cross and stands before him ; the 
two others go to the celebrant's sides. He rises and begins 
to recite the tract Sicut cervus. All make the usual reverence 
to the altar and go to the font, in this order: First the Paschal 
candle, then the cross, the celebrant covered between the 
other two servers, reciting the tract. 

All stop outside the baptistery. The cross-bearer turns the 
cross towards the celebrant. He faces it. The fourth server 
takes the book from the table there and holds it before him. 
With joined hands he says Doininus vobisciiin and the first 
prayer for the blessing. The servers answer.' 

Then the server with the Paschal candle and cross-bearer go 
into the baptistery. They stand on one side of the font facing- 
the celebrant and other servers, who enter after them and 
stand on the other. The celebrant before the font says the 
prayer appointed and continues the preface, reciting all with 
hands joined. The second and fourth servers stand at his 
sides. While saying the preface he performs all the actions 
appointed in the rubrics of the missal. After sa.y ing ^ra^ta??i 
de Spiritii sancto^ he divides the water, in the form of a cross, 
with the right hand extended ; then wipes his hand on a towel 
offered by the second server. After no7i inficiendo corrumpaty 
he lays the right hand palm downwards touching the water, 
and again dries it as before. At the words per DeuTn + vivii??:^ 
per Deu7n + ve7'imi, per Deu'm-\- sanctum ^ he makes the sign of 
the cross thrice over the water, not touching it. After cuius 
Spiritus super te ferehatur^ he throws a little water to the four 
points of the compass, beginning at the east, in this order: 

I 

3 4 

2 

The servers stand aside, so that no water shall fall on them. 
He continues to read : Haec nobis praecepta.^ After tu henignus 
aspira^ he breathes thrice over the water, in the form of a 

^ Mevi. Rity Tit. VI, cap. ii, § 3, no. 5. 

■^ If there are baptisms, the celebrant should perform the first part of 
the rite, to where the stole is changed, at this point. 

^ Mem. Rit.y Tit. VI, cap. ii, § 4, "Intra Praefationem," no. 5: "he 
changes his voice to the manner of a lesson," whatever that may mean, 
when he is merely reciting- it all. Or does the Mem. Rit. contemplate his 
singing the former part after all ? 



XrriC)uurn Sacrum 341 

cross. After piirificandis tnentihis efficaces^ he takes the candle 
and plunges its lower end a little into the water saying- De- 
scendat hi hanc plenitudineni fontis virtus Spiritiis sancti. He 
draws out the candle, plunges it again deeper, repeating the 
same words in a higher tone; draws it out and plunges it 
deeper still a third time, repeating the words still higher/ 
Then, still holding the candle in the water, he breathes thrice 
over the water in the form of the Greek letter T, continues 
Totariique hidus aquae siibstantiam rcgeiierandifoecundeteffechi^ 
and takes out the candle. He hands it back to the first server, 
who dries it with a towel. He says the conclusion, Per Dom- 
inum nostrum^ etc., in a lower voice.' The servers answer 
Arneti. Each time the celebrant performs any action the 
second server at his right raises the end of the cope. The 
same server now fills the portable holy water stoup with bap- 
tism water from the font. He hands the sprinkler to the cele- 
brant with the usual oscula. The celebrant dips the sprinkler 
into the stoup, makes the sign of the cross with the water on 
his own forehead, then sprinkles the servers and bystanders. 
Between the second and third servers (the second holding the 
stoup) he goes round the church, sprinkling the people. The 
second and fourth servers, having come back to the font, take 
some of the water into a vessel, from which they fill the holy 
water stoups in the church, and keep some for the next day. 
The celebrant at the font takes the stock of oil of catechumens 
and pours a little into the font, in the form of a cross, saying 
Sanctificetur et fectindetur^ etc. He then takes the stock of 
chrism, pours some of that into the water, in the form of a 
cross, saying Infusio chrtsniatis, etc. Then he takes a stock in 
either hand, pours from both together in a cross, saying Com- 
mixtio chrismatis salutis^ etc. He mixes up all the water and 
oils with the right hand. Then he wipes his hands on cotton 
wool offered by the second server. The fourth brings the 
vessel of water, basin and bread; the celebrant washes his 
hands. 

The Memoriale rituum says that baptism is to be adminis- 
tered at this moment.^ It is, however, more conformable 
to the normal rite that the celebrant should have performed 
the first part of the baptism rite after he has said the first 
prayer, at the entrance of the sanctuary,* and continue now 
from the point where the colour of the stole is changed. 

To do so, he changes the purple stole and cope for white 
ones, and carries out the baptism rite, as in the ritual. Then 
he changes again to purple stole and cope. The procession 
goes back to the altar in same order as it came. The server 

' See p. 337, n.2. 

^ "Humiliori voce," Mem. Rit., Tit. VI, cap. ii, §4, "Intra Praef.," 
no. 10. 

' Tit. VI, cap. ii, § 5. * Above, p. 327. 



342 Ubc Xiturgical 13eat 

who has borne the Paschal candle puts it back In its candle- 
stick ; the processional cross is put aside, in its usual place. 
The celebrant before the altar, between the second and fourth 
servers, takes off his biretta and bows ; they genuflect. He 
takes off the purple cope ^ either before the altar or at the 
credence table or sedile. He comes to kneel before the altar; 
the servers kneel at his sides or behind him. 

The Litanies. — So he recites the litanies. He says each 
clause entire ; the servers repeat it. When he says the peti- 
tion Peccatores te rogamus audi nos, the first and third servers 
begin to prepare the altar for Mass. The others remain on 
their knees and continue to answer. The first and third servers 
take away the purple frontal, showing now the white one. 
They light the six candles and put vases of flowers between 
them.^ 

When the celebrant has said the petition Christe exaudi nos^ 
and the servers have answered it, they rise and go to the 
sacristy. Here the celebrant vests in white for Mass. 

The first Easter Mass and Vespers. — The celebrant, 
following the servers, comes out to the altar and begins Mass. 
It is a Low Mass. He says the preparatory prayers, as usual, 
the psalm ludica ine^ with Gloria Patri, etc. He goes up to 
the altar, says Kyrie eleison at the middle, and then Gloria 
in excelsis Deo. The sanctuary bell and church bells are rung, 
all images and statues are unveiled. After the celebrant has 
read the epistle, he says Alleluia three times, raising his 
voice each time. The servers repeat Alleluia after him, each 
time in the same tone of voice. ^ He goes on with the gradual 
and tract. 

The creed is not said. He says Doniinus vobiscuni and 
Oreinus at the offertory, as usual ; but he does not read an 
offertory chant. The chalice is brought up at the offertory. 
If the Sanctissimum is to be consecrated for reservation, a 
ciborium and pyx with the altar- bread for Benediction are 
brought up too. When the celebrant has made his Com- 
munion, there may be Communion of the faithful. Then, in- 
stead of the Communion antiphon, standing at the epistle 
corner, he says the first antiphon of vespers, Alleluia^ Alleluia^ 
Alleluia. He begins the psalm Laudate Donii7iu7n om7ies gentesy 
and continues it alternately with the servers. Then he says 
the antiphon Vespere aute7n sabbati, etc., and the Magnificat ^ 
alternately with the servers.* He goes to the middle, kisses 
the altar, turns and says Do7ninus vobiscuTn, and at the epistle 

^ Mem. Rtt.y Tit. VI, cap. ii, § 6, no. 3. He takes off only the cope; so 
that he says the litanies wearing- the stole. This differs from the normal 
rite with ministers, in which no stole is worn. 

* 75., no. 6: *' vasa florum inter candelabra apponuntur." Clearly Pope 
Benedict XIII did not think it un-Roman to put flowers on the altar. 

3 See p. 337, n. 2. 

* If the servers cannot answer, he says all himself. 



II:rt^uum Sacrum 343 

corner the post-communion. Mass ends as usual, except that 
after Ite missa est and the response, Alleluia is added twice. 

After Mass the Sanctissimum is brought back to the taber- 
nacle. In doing- so the priest observes the usual rule, as at 
pp. 249-250. 

The candles on the altar, the triple candle and Paschal 
candle are put out. 

All is brought back to the sacristy and put away. 

§ 12. THE FUNCTION SUNG 

In this case there will be, if possible, a M.C., cross-bearer, 
thurifer, two acolytes, and four other servers who, in the 
earlier part of the service, attend on the celebrant ^ and serve 
as torch-bearers during the Mass. 

The preparations are made as in the Memoriale rituum, ex- 
cept that the purple vestments used at the fire may then be 
laid out at the sedile. The celebrant may change his vestments 
each time there, except before the Mass. 

At the blessing of the fire the acolytes stand on either side 
of the celebrant. They may bring the grains of incense, thur- 
ible and holy water with them, as in the function with minis- 
ters. 

The litanies may be chanted by two cantors; if so, the 
celebrant will lie prostrate before the altar, rising and going 
to the sacristy to vest at the petition Peccatores te rogamns audi 
nos."^ 

All will be sung by the celebrant, cantors and choir, as at 
the normal service with ministers.^ The prophecies may be 
sung by lectors.* Incense is used throughout, at Mass and 
vespers, as when there are ministers." The organ is played at 
the Gloria.^ 

The Mass that follows will be a sung Mass, according to 
the usual rule, with the exceptions for this day. Vespers will 
be sung, as when there are ministers. 

* Other servers besides the thurifer and acolytes are useful to bring- 
and hold things at the fire and font. The M.C. will direct them and send 
them for what is wanted. 

■^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p, 233, § 175. In this case the litanies should begin 
as soon as the procession leaves the baptistery. 

^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 227, § 156; p. 229, § 159; p. 231, § 168; p. 233, 
§ 175; P-.233, § 178, etc. De Herdt, iii, p. 102, § 6; p. 103, § 7, etc. 

* In this case, after the " Exsultet," the book is taken from the lectern, 
its white cloth removed, and it is placed in the middle of the choir or 
sanctuary. 

' Cfr. Le Vavasseur, i, p. 517. ^ Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 234, § 179. 



CHAPTER XXVI 
EASTER TO ADVENT 

§ I. EASTERTIDE 

EASTERTIDE (Tempus Paschale) begins with Mass 
on Holy Saturday and ends after none and Mass on 
the Saturday before the feast of the Blessed Trinity, 
which feast is kept on the first Sunday after Pente- 
cost. It is altogether a wrong conception that 
Eastertide does not begin till Low Sunday. The right way to 
conceive it is that, although the season begins with the first 
Easter Mass on Holy Saturday, the Easter octave, which has 
its own further peculiarities, falls over the normal Paschal tide, 
and causes further changes in the offices. So any octave, 
occurring in a season of the Church, is liable to modify the 
rules for the season. In this case it so happens that the Easter 
octave occurs at the very beginning of Eastertide. The colour 
of the season is white. 

Eastertide has its own hymns at matins, lauds, vespers. 
In all hymns of the common (iambic dimeter) rhythm the last 
verse is changed to 

Deo Patri sit gloria^ 

Et Filio qui a mortuis 
Surrexit^ ac Paraclito^ 
In sempiterna saecula. 

When the suffrage is said, at lauds or vespers, it is re- 
placed by the commemoration of the Cross, as in the Ordin- 
arium divini officii in the breviary. 

To all versicles in the Divine office and to Panem de caelo 
praestitisti eis at Benediction, and to their responses, Alleluia 
is added. But Alleluia is never added to Adititoriutn nostrum 
in nomine Domini^ Domine exaudi orationem meam, Dominus 
vobiscum, or to their responses. Nor does it occur at the 
*'preces" of prime and compline.^ 

In the responsories after the lessons at matins Alleluia is 
added after the first part (the response) each time it is said, 
not after the versicle. At prime, terce, sext, none and com- 
pline the short responsories are changed, so that the whole 
first part (the response), normally divided by an asterisk, is put 
before that asterisk. The second part now consists oi Alleluia^ 
Alleluia. This second part {Alleluia^ Alleluia) alone is re- 
peated after the versicle. The versicle which follows the short 
responsory obeys the usual rule for this time, having Alleluia 
at the end, as also its response. At prime the versicle of the 
short responsory is Qui surrexisti a Tuortuis.'^ 

^ "Alleluia" should not be added to non-liturgical versicles, with the 
exception of '* Panem de caelo," etc., at Benediction. 

* Except in the octaves of Ascension and Pentecost, which have their 
own forms, as in the breviary. 

344 



jEaster to Hbvent 345 

During Eastertide Allehda is added to all antiphons of the 
office, if they do not already so end,^ also to the invitatorium 
at matins. At the end of matins Te Deum is said on ferias. 

At Mass the Sundays of the season have their own Proper, 
interspersed with Alleluia. In these the introit has Alleluia 
in the middle of the antiphon and again two or three times at 
the end. The offertory has Alleluia at the end once, the Com- 
munion-antiphon twice. 

If a Mass such as may occur either in Eastertide or not 
(such as the Masses of Commons of Saints^) is said in this 
season, at the end of the antiphon of the introit Alleluia is 
added twice, once at the end of the offertory and Communion- 
antiphon. 

During Eastertide in all Masses (except those for the dead), 
instead of the gradual and Alleluia^ the Great Alleluia is said. 
This is formed thus: Alleluia is said twice. When it is sung 
the second time it has the lubilus^ at the end. Then follows 
an Alleluiatic verse. The tone changes. Alleluia is said again 
with a lubilus, a second Alleluiatic verse, then Alleluia with 
its lubilus as before this verse. ^ In Masses which may occur 
in Eastertide a form of the Great Alleluia is provided to take 
the place of the gradual. 

The hymn Gloria i7i excelsis Deo is said throughout Easter- 
tide, even on ferias, except in the Rogation Masses, Requiems, 
and certain votive Masses. Whenever the Gloria is said at 
Mass the dismissal at the end is lie rnissa est. During this 
season the chant for the sprinkling of holy water before Mass 
is Vidi aquani instead of Asperges me. 

During Eastertide the Paschal candle is lit at High or solemn 
Mass and at sung vespers. In the case of other liturgical 
services the custom of the place is to be followed.^ It is not 
lit at Requiems nor at the o^cq for the dead, nor at any 
service held with purple vestments (as Rogation Masses) nor 
at Benediction. 

After Ascension Day (see p. 350) the Paschal candle is not 
again used, except at the blessing of the font on Whitsun 
eve (ib.). 

§ 2. THE EASTER OCTAVE 

The first week of Paschaltide is the Easter octave, which has 
its own further rules. This octave begins at the Mass on 
Holy Saturday and ends after none and Mass on the Satur- 
day after Easter Day (sabbatum in albis). Low Sunday, 

^ Except antiphons which consist of the first verse of the psalm. 
These never have "Alleluia" (Ruhr, of Pius X's psalter; Dom. ad 
Matut. in i Noct. ). 

* Apostles and martyrs have a special common for Eastertide. 

^ The long- neum on the syllable " a " at the end of "alleluia. 

*' But see p. 346 for the Easter octave. 

» S.R.C., no. 235, ad XI. 



346 Ubc XitutGical l^ear 

although it is the octave day of Easter, conforms to the 
normal rules of Eastertide. 

Easter Day is the greatest feast of the year. No feast may 
be kept on it or during its octave. The Monday and Tuesday 
of this octave are also doubles of the first class, but are kept 
with less solemnity. 

On Easter Day no Mass for the dead may be said, not 
even if the body is present. On the Monday and Tuesday a 
Mass for the dead may be said only at the funeral. On these 
days no votive Mass may be said. A votive Mass for a grave 
cause may be said on the other days of the octave. 

During the Easter octave there is only one nocturn at 
matins. There are no versicles except at matins. There are 
no chapters nor short responsories, nor hymns in any part ot 
the office. There are no antiphons to the psalms at prime, 
terce, sext, none. At compline there is no antiphon at the 
beginning of the psalms; at the end Alleluia^ Alleluia^ Alle- 
luia is sung. After the psalms of each office the antiphon 
Haec dies guam fecit Dorninus^ etc. , is sung, all standing. At 
lauds and vespers this is intoned by the celebrant. The first 
assistant, in cope, pre-intones it to him. 

At the end of lauds and vespers Alleluiuy Alleluia is added 
to the verse Benedicamus Doniino, 

At Mass (till Friday) there is a gradual, formed in the 
usual way, the first verse being Haec dies. After the AUeluiatic 
verse the sequence Victirnae paschali follows. 

At the end of Mass Alleluia^ Alleluia is added to lie missa 
est and to its response. 

On Easter Day, if the church has a font, the sprinkling of 
holy water before Mass is made with baptism water kept 
from the day before (p. 320). 



§ 3. ST. MARK AND THE ROGATION DAYS 

On four days a procession should be made, while the Litany 
of the Saints is sung, to beg the blessing of God on the fruits 
of the earth. These days are the feast of St. Mark (25 April ^) 

^ There is no inherent connection between St. Mark and the proces- 
sion. April 25 (vii kal. maias) was the date of a pre-Christian procession 
of the same kind at Rome (the so-called Robigalia). That day occurs at 
just the time when the harvest (in Italy) should ripen. The pagan pro- 
cession was replaced by a Christian one before the feast of St. Mark 
began to be kept on that day. Cfr. St. Gregory I, Ep. append, fragni. 3 
(Migne, P.L. Ixxvii, col. 1329). The Rogation days are later and origin- 
ally Gallican. They are said to have been introduced by St. Mamertus, 
Bishop of Vienne, about the year 470 (Avitus of Vienne, Homilia de 
RogationihuSy M., P.L. lix, 289-294; Gregory of Tours, Historia francorum^ 
ii, 34; M., P.L. Ixxi, 231-232). They were not kept at Rome till the time 
of Leo III (795-816; Lib. Ponty ed. Duchesne, vol. ii, p. 4, § xi ; cfr. n. 17, 

P- 35)- 



faster to U^vcnt 347 

and the three Rogation days, namely, the Monday, Tuesday 
and Wednesday before Ascension Day. On St. Mark's feast 
the litanies are called ''greater" (litaniae maiores), being 
sung with more solemnity ; ^ on the Rogation days they are 
'* minores." 

If 25 April is Easter Day the procession and litanies are 
transferred to the Tuesday in the octave. If St. Mark occurs 
in the Easter octave the procession is made, although the 
feast is transferred. 

Rogation Monday is a greater feria, Tuesday an ordinary 
feria, Wednesday the eve of the Ascension. On all three days 
the Rogation Mass may be displaced by that of a feast, ac- 
cording to the usual rules. In cathedrals and collegiate 
churches, where several conventual Masses are said, that of 
the feast is said after terce, that of Rogation after none, 
neither commemorating the other. On Wednesday the Mass 
of Ascension eve is said after sext. Where only one parish 
Mass is said the Rogation is commemorated if a feast is 
kept. The Mass of Wednesday is that of Ascension eve with 
commemoration of Rogation. If a feast occurs on Wednesday 
both the eve and Rogation are commemorated. 

Normally on these four days the procession should be made 
after none, if possible to another church, where the Rogation 
Mass is sung. But on St. Mark's feast, if the procession ends 
at a church dedicated to him, the Mass of his feast is said 
there. If it is not possible to end the procession at another 
church it may come back to the one from which it set out. 

There should be only one procession in each place, at which 
all the clergy, secular and regular, take part. It sets out 
from the principal church of the place. If a general pro- 
cession through the town is not possible, each church may 
make its own procession inside the building. 

The same priest should, if possible, preside at the proces- 
sion and sing the Mass which follows it. However, in case of 
real difficulty, this rule is not urged. 

The rules for the procession are these: " 

At the church from which it sets out all is provided for a 
procession, with purple vestments, that is, the processional 
cross, acolytes' candles, surplices as required, vestments for 
the celebrant and ministers, namely, amice, alb, girdle, stole, 
purple dalmatic and tunicle for the ministers, purple stole and 
cope for the celebrant. If there are no ministers, the cele- 
brant may wear a surplice under the cope. A book containing 

^ Also because the litanies on 25 April are a much older tradition 
than the Rogation days. 

^ Cfr. Caer. £p.. Lib. II, cap. xxxii ; Gavanti-Merati, Pars IV, tit. x, 
§§ 8-14 (torn, i, pp. 320-323); Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 255-262; Le 
Vavasseur, ii, pp. 130-138; De Herdt, iii, pp. 106-117; Van der Stappen, 
V, pp. 359-360. 



348 Ubc %it\xvQical Iffear 

all that the celebrant will chant must be provided. The High 
Altar is vested in purple. 

At the church at which the procession will arrive all is pre- 
pared, as usual, for High Mass with purple vestments. If the 
priest of the procession will sing the Mass, and if he wears 
the alb in the procession, he and the ministers should vest for 
Mass at the sedilia. In this case the maniples and his chasuble 
will be laid out there. On St. Mark's feast, if the church is 
dedicated to St. Mark, the frontal and vestments will be red. 

The procession takes place after none. If none is said pub- 
licly, the celebrant and ministers go meanwhile to the sacristy 
to vest for the procession. Otherwise they and the choir come 
out at the appointed time, following the cross-bearer and 
acolytes. The cross-bearer and acolytes do not genuflect be- 
fore the altar ; ^ they go to stand at the gospel side of the 
sanctuary facing the epistle side. All the members of the choir 
genuflect as usual, and go to their places. They stand till the 
celebrant is before the altar. The celebrant and ministers wear 
the biretta, but uncover as they enter the choir. They bow to 
the choir on either side, genuflect (the celebrant bows if the 
Sanctissimum is not at the altar). They kneel on the lowest 
step ; all kneel with them. 

A short prayer is said in silence. Then all stand and two 
cantors '^ begin the antiphon Exsiwge Doinine ; it is continued 
by the choir. The psalm verse is sung with Gloria Patri and 
Sicut erat\ the antiphon is repeated. Meanwhile the cross- 
bearer and acolytes go to stand at the entrance of the choir, 
facing the altar. All the others kneel again as soon as the 
antiphon and psalm-verses have been sung. 

The two cantors begin the Litany of the Saints. They sing 
Kyrie eleison\ the choir repeats the same words. In the same 
way each petition is sung entire by the cantors, repeated 
entire by the choir. 

When Sancta Maria ora pro nobis has been sung and re- 
peated, all rise ; the procession sets out. The cross-bearer 
goes in front between the acolytes. The cantors follow, then 
come all the members of the choir, then the M.C. and the 
celebrant between the ministers, who hold the ends of his 
cope. The celebrant and ministers wear the biretta during 
the procession. The M.C, or another server, carries the book 
from which the celebrant will chant the prayers. Before start- 
ing all make the usual reverence to the altar. The church bells 
are rung as the procession starts. 

If the Litany of the Saints is finished before the procession 
arrives at its final place, it may be repeated, beginning again 
at Sancta Maria ora pro nobis. Or penitential and gradual 

^ See p. 22. 

^ No special place is determined for the cantors. According to the 
general rule, they should stand and kneel in the centre of the choir. 



JEaster to Bbpent 349 

psalms may be sung^. It is not allowed to singf joyful chants. 
The prayers which follow the litany must not be sung^ till the 
procession arrives at the church where it ends. 

The procession may visit other churches on the way. In 
this case, it is received by the clergy of each church. The 
rector may offer holy water to the celebrant and ministers 
at the door. The procession will g-o up the church, till it 
arrives in the choir and the celebrant is before the altar. All 
then kneel awhile in silent prayer. The cantors sing- the anti- 
phon for a commemoration of the patron of the church ; the 
corresponding- versicle and response are sung. The celebrant . 
sings the collect of that saint, in the short form, ending Per 
Christum Dmnimim nostrum. Since it is Eastertide, Alleluia 
is added to the antiphon, versicle and response. Meanwhile 
the singing- of the litany is interrupted. The litany is then 
resumed, and the procession proceeds. 

At the church at which the procession is to end it is re- 
ceived by the clergy, and holy water is offered at the door to 
the celebrant and ministers, as above. All come to the choir, 
the celebrant and ministers before the altar. The usual rever- 
ence is made. The cross-bearer puts aside the cross near the 
credence table; the acolytes put their candles on it. All kneel. 
If the litanies are not finished they are sung- to the end. Then, 
all kneeling-, the celebrant sings Pater noster, etc. The cantors 
intone the psalm, which is sung alternately by the choir. The 
celebrant sings the versicles, as in the text, the ministers 
holding the book before him. He alone rises, sings Dominus 
vobiscum and the collects. Then he sings again Dominus 
vobiscum and kneels. The cantors sing the verses Exaudiat 
nos oinnipoteyis et misericors Deus and Et fidelium animae per 
misericordiam Dei requiescaiit in pace. The choir answers 
Amen each time. 

The celebrant and ministers go to vest for Mass at the seats 
or sacristy. Mass of Rogation follows. It has no Gloria in 
excelsis nor creed, even on Sunday or in the Easter octave. 
The Alleluia has a special form. Alleluia once only, with 
iubilus, and one verse. Alleluia not repeated. The preface is 
of Eastertide, according to the usual rule. At the end the 
deacon sings Benedicarnus Domino^ not adding Alleluia^ even 
in the Easter octave. 

Where it is not possible to go out the procession goes 
around the church. 

Everyone who is bound to say the Divine office is bound 
to say the Litany of the Saints, with the following psalm and 
prayers, on these days, if he does not take part in the procession. 
It should be said after lauds ; but it may not be anticipated the 
day before. It should follow Benedicamus Domino at the end 
of lauds. The verse Fidelium animae and the anthem of the 
Blessed Virgin are not said. 



350 "C^be Xiturgtcal Iffcar 

In churches where the procession cannot be held, it is re- 
commended that the litany be said or sung before the chief 
Mass, all kneeling-. 

§ 4. ASCENSION DAY 

On Ascension Day the Paschal candle is lit before the prin- 
cipal Mass. 

It is extinguished after the gospel and taken away after 
Mass. It is not used again, except at the blessing of the font 
on Whitsun eve. 

§ 5. WHITSUN EVE 

This day no other office or Mass may be said but those of the 
eve. In all churches which have a font it must be blessed to- 
day. This is a strict obligation. 

Preparation. — The morning function^ begins with six 
prophecies. For these purple vestments are used, as on Holy 
Saturday. The celebrant uses maniple, stole and chasuble, 
the minister maniples and folded chasubles, till the blessing 
of the font, or till the Mass, if there is no font. The altar is 
vested in red, and over this a purple frontal. All is prepared 
for Mass with red vestments at the credence table, then covered 
with a purple veil. Near the credence table are three purple 
cushions for the celebrant and ministers at the litanies. Red 
Mass vestments must be laid out in the sacristy, as well as 
the purple ones. 

If there is a font, a purple cope is laid at the seats or cred- 
ence table. The acolytes' candles stand on the table, not lit ; 
near it are the Paschal candle (without its candlestick) and the 
processional cross. 

A lectern stands in the middle of the choir for the pro- 
phecies. 

The altar candles are not lit till the beginning of Mass. 

At the font everything is prepared as on Holy Saturday 
(p. 320). 

The celebrant and ministers come to the altar following the 
acolytes (without candles). The celebrant kisses the altar, 
then goes to the epistle corner and stands there. The minis- 
ters stand around as at the introit of Mass. The first pro- 
phecy is begun. The prophecies are not announced by titles. 
Six members of the choir or clergy ^ should read them in turn, 
each coming to the lectern when summoned by the M.C. or 
another server. They read them as on Holy Saturday, the 
server standing at the reader's left, behind him, holding his 

^ Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, pp. 263-266; Le Vavasseur, ii, pp. 141- 
143; De Herdt, iii, pp. 1 18-1 19; Van der Stappen, v, pp. 354-355. 
^ The same lector may read more than one prophecy. 



iSaster to Hb\>ent 351 

biretta. Meanwhile the celebrant reads the prophecy at the 
altar in a low voice, with hands on the book. When he has 
finished each, he and the ministers may go to sit at the 
sedilia. Then he sing-s the prayer (ferial tone) at the altar, 
with uplifted hands. He begins with the word OremuSy but 
the deacon does not sing Flectamus genua, nor does anyone 
genuflect, because it is Paschal time. During the prayer the 
ministers stand in line, as at the collects of Mass. The pro- 
phecies are six of the twelve read on Holy Saturday;^ the 
second, third and fourth are followed by a tract sung by the 
choir. Meanwhile the celebrant and ministers may sit. The 
prayers are not those of Holy Saturday, but are special ones 
suitable to this vigil. 

The clergy and others in choir and church sit during the 
prophecies and tracts, stand during the collects. 

If there is a font, the Paschal and acolytes' candles are lit 
during the last (sixth) prophecy. The server who will carry 
the Paschal candle must now hold it,^ near the credence table. 
After the last collect the celebrant and ministers go to the 
sedilia and take off their maniples ; the celebrant changes the 
chasuble for a purple cope. They come back to the altar, and 
the procession goes to the font as on Holy Saturday, that is 
to say, the Paschal candle is borne in front, then the pro- 
cessional cross between the acolytes, the choir, M.C., cele- 
brant between the ministers. 

At the baptistery everything is done exactly as on Holy 
Saturday. It will be sufficient here to refer to the directions 
for that day (pp. 327-331). Baptism should follow, if possible, 
as then. 

The procession comes back to the altar singing the litanies 
(see p. 331, n. j). 

When it arrives at the sanctuary, the server holding the 
Paschal candle takes this to the sacristy, and there extin- 
guishes it. The celebrant and ministers take off" cope, cha- 
subles and stoles ; then lie prostrate before the altar ; all 
others kneel during the rest of the litanies (p. 331). At the 
petition Peccatores te rogamus audi nos the celebrant and 
ministers go to the sacristy, with the M.C. and acolytes, to 
vest for Mass. They put on red Mass vestments. Meanwhile 
servers take away the purple frontal from the altar, leaving it 
vested in red ; the six candles are lit, the altar is adorned as 
for feasts. All other purple coverings are taken away from 
the sanctuary. 

Mass begins as on Holy Saturday. The preparatory prayers 
are said. The celebrant goes up to the altar and incenses it. 
He says the Kyrie eleison, then intones Gloria in excelsis Deo. 

^ The Whitsun collects, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, are nos. 3, 4, 11, 8, 6, 7, of 
Easter Eve. 

^ It has no candlestick. 



352 XTbe Xtturoical l^ear 

The organ should not be played this morning- till this point. 
It is now played, as on Holy Saturday, the sanctuary bell and 
church bells are rung. The acolytes do not carry candles at 
the gospel, but stand on either side of the subdeacon or lectern 
with folded hands. 

§ 6. WHITSUN EVE IN SMALL CHURCHES 

The Memoriale rituum makes no provision for this occasion ; 
but it is easy to see what should be done, from the directions 
for Holy Saturday. 

The celebrant will read the prophecies, in a clear voice, at 
the epistle corner of the altar, vested in purple Mass vest- 
ments. He changes to purple stole and cope, and goes to 
bless the font. Before him a server bears the Paschal candle, 
another the processional cross ; he walks between two others, 
who hold the ends of the cope. At the font he does all exactly 
as on Holy Saturday (see pp. 340-342). He comes back to the 
altar. The Paschal candle is put away in the sacristy. Kneel- 
ing before the altar, in alb and stole, ^ the celebrant recites the 
litanies. Then the purple frontal is taken away, the altar is 
decked for a feast in red. He goes to the sacristy to put on 
red Mass vestments, comes to the altar and begins Mass, as 
on Holy Saturday. At the Gloria the bells are rung. 

If it is desired to make a ceremony of this, on the lines of a 
Missa cantata, this can be done in the same way as on Holy 
Saturday (p. 343). But in most small churches with one 
priest the function of Whitsun Eve will be performed in the 
simplest manner. 

§ 7. LOW MASS ON WHITSUN EVE 

A PRIEST who says private Low Mass on this day, that is to 
say, every priest except the one who celebrates the principal 
Mass of the day, leaves out the prophecies, blessing of the 
font, and litanies. He begins Mass exactly as usual. For 
this purpose an introit is provided in the missal at the end of 
the Mass. Gloria in excelsis is said (the bells are not rung), 
not the creed. There are no special ceremonies. 

§ 8. WHITSUNDAY 

This is a double of the first class with closed octave. No 
other feast may displace it, nor occur during the octave. 
Feasts may be commemorated during the octave, except on 
Monday and Tuesday. 

The colour of the feast and octave is red. 

^ See p. 342, n. i. 



faster to Bbvent 353 

At the verse of the Great Alleluia, Vejti sancte Spiritus^ reple 
ttwrum corda Jidelmni, etc., all genuflect. At Low Mass the 
celebrant genuflects as he says these words. At High or sung 
Mass he does not genuflect then, but goes to kneel (between 
the ministers) on the edge of the foot-pace while they are sung 
by the choir. The sequence Vent sancte Spiritus follows. 

Matins has only one nocturn. At terce the hymn Vent 
creator Spiritus is said, instead of Nunc sajicte nobis Spiritus.^ 
The hymn Veni creator Spiritus is also the vesper hymn. When- 
ever this is sung, all kneel during the first verse. The hymn 
should be intoned by the celebrant."^ In churches which have a 
font baptism water is used, instead of holy water, on Whit 
Sunday, as at Easter (p. 346). 



§ 9. THE SEASON AFTER PENTECOST 

This season begins at the first vespers of the Blessed Trinity 
on the Saturday after Whit Sunday and lasts till Advent. It 
contains at least twenty-three Sundays, and may have as 
many as twenty-eight.^ The offices for twenty-four are pro- 
vided in the breviary and missal. If Easter falls early, so that 
there are more, the offices for these are taken from those which 
were omitted after Epiphany. But, in every case, the Mass 
and office of the twenty-fourth Sunday (containing the gospel 
about the Day of Judgement) is said on the last Sunday after 
Pentecost. 

The colour of this season is green. It has no liturgical 
peculiarities ; but many great feasts occur during it. 



§ 10. CORPUS CHRIST! 



354 ^be Xituratcal Iffear 

de caelo praestitisti eis and to its response, whenever they are 
sung-. 

This external solemnity consists of the Mass of the feast 
and a procession of the Blessed Sacrament. In some countries 
exposition of the Blessed Sacrament is held on the feast and 
every day of the octave.^ The permission of the Ordinary 
would be required for this. 

Wherever possible, the procession of the Blessed Sacrament 
should be held, according to the present law, on the Sunday 
in the octave. Indeed this procession is the original object of 
the feast. 

It should be a general procession for the whole town. That 
is to say, there should be only one in each town, setting out 
from the principal church and returning to it, in which the 
clergy of all the other churches, secular and regular, take 
part."^ It should ^q out from the church into the streets. 

In England it is generally not possible to carry the Blessed 
Sacrament through public streets ; nor may this be done with- 
out special leave of the Ordinary. There is, then, generally no 
general procession in this country. Each church will have its 
own procession inside the church. Where a large garden or 
private grounds belonging to a religious house or to a 
Catholic can be used, the procession may be made through 
these grounds. 

The procession normally should be held in the morning, 
immediately after the Mass.^ It is, however, allowed, and it 
is not unusual, to put it off till the afternoon, for reasons of 
convenience. 

It should be held with ev^ery possible solemnity. The Corpus 
Christi procession is the chief public joyful solemnity of the 
kind in the year. If the procession passes over much ground, 
there may be one or two places of repose, arranged like altars, 
at which it stops. According to the Caerimoniale episcoporum 
the Sanctissimum should be placed on these "altars" and 
incensed, the Tantum ergo sung, with the usual versicle and 
response, but, strictly. Benediction should not be given.* 

^ Cod.^ c. 1291. Merati, Pars IV, tit. xii, §§ 4-7 (torn, i, pp. 335-338); 
Martinucci-Menghini, I, ii, p. 269, § 5. 

^ The Caer. Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. xxxiii, §§ 1-5, has most elaborate direc- 
tions to prevent quarrelling" among the clergy as to precedence in the 
procession. The bishop is to settle it, and if anyone is not satisfied he 
shall be excommunicated. Merati writes columns on the same subject 
(tom. i, pp. 330-332). Martinucci also is very much concerned about this 
matter (I, ii, p. 269^ § 9). Fortunately, such foolishness is unlikely to 
occur in England. 

^ The Caer Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. xxxiii, §§ 15-16, and all liturgical authorities 
suppose this. 

* Caer Ep.^ Lib. II, cap. xxxiii, § 22. Cfr. Martinucci, I, ii, p. 270, 
§15; Le Vavasseur, ii, p. 157, n. i. There should not be more than two 
such places of repose : " semel tantum vel iterum " {Caer. Ep., I.e.). 
Indeed it seems from the text that the primary object of stopping at 



jEaster to Ht)\?ent 355 

However, the Congregation of Rites allows Benediction to be 
g^iven at altars of repose, not more than twice, if such is the 
ancient custom/ 

The path over which the procession passes should be strewn 
with flowers and green leaves ; banners and pictures may be 
hung beside it.' In the procession itself there may be no 
scenic representations or people dressed in fancy costumes to 
represent saints or angels, nor anything- theatrical or profane.' 
Nor may relics and statues be carried.^ Not more than two 
thurifers are allowed.' The Congregation of Rites toler- 
ates the custom that children scatter flowers on the way ; but 
they may not walk among the clergy nor between the clergy 
and the celebrant carrying the Sanctissimum." 

The secular clergy should wear the surplice only, regulars 
wear the habit of their order, canons (if the chapter is present) 
and prelates their robes. If the chapter assists, the canons 
may wear vestments of their three orders, that is subdeacons 
in tunicles, deacon